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Married Love

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  • Married Love
    • The Delights of Wisdom relating to Married Love and the
      Pleasures of Insanity relating to Licentious Love
      by Emanuel Swedenborg

      Translated by N. Bruce Rogers
      from the Latin Delitiae
      Sapientiae de Amore Conjugiali; post quas sequuntur Voluptates
      Insaniae de Amore Scortatorio

      [Click on headings to hide or reveal contents.]

  • Part I: The Delights of Wisdom relating to Married Love
    • 1. THE JOYS OF HEAVEN AND MARRIAGES THERE
        • 1. [It Really Happened]
          1. I anticipate that many who read the following descriptions
          and the accounts at the ends of the succeeding chapters will
          believe they are figments of my imagination. I swear in truth,
          however, that they are not inventions, but actual occurrences to
          which I was witness. Nor were they witnessed in any condition of
          unconsciousness but in a state of full wakefulness. For it has
          pleased the Lord to manifest Himself to me and send me to teach the
          doctrines that will be doctrines of the New Church, the church
          meant by the New Jerusalem in the book of Revelation. To this end
          He has opened the inner faculties of my mind and spirit. As a
          result, it has been made possible for me to be in the spiritual
          world with angels and at the same time in the natural world with
          men, and this now for twenty-five years.[*1]

          [*1] This work was originally published in the year 1768.

        • 2. [An Angel Calls]
          2. I once saw an angel flying beneath the eastern sky holding a
          trumpet to his mouth, who sounded towards the north, towards the
          west, and towards the south. He was wearing a cape which swept
          backwards as he flew; and he was girded with a sash of garnets and
          sapphires that seemed ablaze with fire and light.

          Flying in horizontal position, facing forward and down, he
          slowly descended to the tract of ground surrounding me. Landing
          upright upon his feet, he began to pace back and forth, and then
          seeing me he headed in my direction. I was in the spirit, and in
          this state was standing on a hill in the southern zone.

          When he drew near, I spoke to him and asked, “What is
          happening? I heard the sound of your trumpet and saw you descending
          through the air.”

          The angel answered, “I have been sent to call together
          people most renowned for their learning, most discerning in their
          brilliance, and foremost in their reputation for wisdom, who have
          come from the kingdoms of the Christian world and are living in
          this surrounding land. I have been sent to assemble them on this
          hill where you are standing, to express their honest opinions as to
          what they had thought, understood and perceived in the world
          regarding heavenly joy and eternal happiness.

          [2] “The reason for my mission is that some newcomers from
          the world, admitted into our heavenly society in the east, have
          told us that not even one person in the whole Christian world knows
          what heavenly joy and eternal happiness are, thus what heaven is.
          My brothers and companions were very surprised at this, and they
          said to me, “Go down, call together and assemble the wisest in
          the world of spirits (the world into which all mortals are first
          gathered after they leave the natural world) in order that we may
          learn from the testimony of many whether it is true that Christians
          are in such darkness and unenlightened ignorance concerning the
          life to come.””

          He also added, “Wait here a little, and you will see
          companies of the wise streaming here. The Lord is going to prepare
          a hall of assembly for them.”

          [3] I waited, and behold, after half an hour I saw two bands of
          people coming from the north, two from the west, and two from the
          south. As they arrived, they were led by the angel with the trumpet
          into the hall prepared for them, where they took places assigned to
          them according to the zones they came from.

          They formed six groups or companies. A seventh came from the
          east, but it was not visible to the others owing to the light.

          After they were assembled, the angel explained the reason they
          had been called together, and he asked the companies to present in
          turn their wisdom regarding heavenly joy and eternal happiness.
          Each company then gathered into a circle, its members facing each
          other, in order to recall the ideas they had acquired on the
          subject in the previous world, to consider them now, and after
          conferring to present their conclusion.

        • 3. [The Six Companies]
          3. After conferring, the first company, which came from the
          north, said that heavenly joy and eternal happiness are the same as
          the life of heaven. “Consequently,” they said, “everyone
          who enters heaven enters with his life into its festivities, just
          as one who enters into a wedding celebration enters into its
          festivities. Is not heaven something we can see above us, thus
          something that has location?[*1] There and nowhere else exists
          bliss upon bliss and pleasure upon pleasure. On account of the
          fullness of joys in that place, a person is introduced into this
          bliss and pleasure with every perception of his mind and every
          sensation of his body when he is introduced into heaven. Therefore
          heavenly happiness, which is also eternal happiness, is simply
          admission into heaven, and admission by Divine grace.”

          [2] Following that statement, the second company from the north
          presented in accordance with its wisdom this conjecture: “Heavenly
          joy and eternal happiness consist simply in delightful associations
          with angels and enjoyable conversations with them, which keep the
          countenance in continual expressions of gladness and the mouths of
          all in pleasant laughter as a result of charming and witty
          exchanges. What are heavenly joys but varying interchanges of this
          sort to eternity?”

          [3] The third company, which was the first of the wise from the
          western zone, expressed in accordance with the thoughts of its
          members’ affections this opinion: “What else is heavenly joy
          and eternal happiness but dining with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob,[*2]
          at tables that will be set with rich delicacies and fine vintage
          wines, followed by exhibitions and dances by young men and women
          performed to the rhythms of stringed and wind instruments, and from
          time to time the sweet singing of songs? And finally in the evening
          there will be theatrical performances, and after that more dining.
          And so on every day to eternity.”

          [4] After that pronouncement, the fourth company, the second
          from the western zone, reported its verdict, saying, “We have
          entertained many ideas with respect to heavenly joy and eternal
          happiness, but having considered various kinds of joy and compared
          them with each other, we have come to the conclusion that heavenly
          joys are like those of a paradise. What else is heaven but a
          paradise,[*3] stretching from east to west and from the south to
          the north, containing fruit trees and delightful flowers, and in
          their midst the magnificent tree of life, around which the blessed
          will sit, feeding on fruits of exquisite flavor[*4] and adorned
          with garlands of sweet-smelling flowers?

          “We conclude, too, that owing to a climate of endless
          spring, these fruits and flowers are produced again and again
          daily, with unlimited variety; and that because of their continual
          production and growth, and at the same time the constantly
          springlike temperature, minds and hearts cannot help but breathe in
          and out new joys every day, being forever rejuvenated so as to
          return to the flower of their youth and through this to the
          pristine state into which Adam and his wife were created. Thus they
          are restored to the paradise of old, transferred from earth to
          heaven.”

          [5] The fifth company, which was the first of the brilliant from
          the southern zone, declared the following: “Heavenly joys and
          eternal happiness are nothing else but positions of great power,
          possessions of great riches, and so superregal magnificence and
          superglorious splendor. We have discerned that the joys of heaven
          and the continual enjoyment of them (which is eternal happiness)
          consist in such things from observing people in the previous world
          who there possessed them. Furthermore, we know that the happy in
          heaven will reign with the Lord and will be kings and princes,
          because they are the sons of Him who is King of kings and Lord of
          lords.[*5] Also that they will sit upon thrones, and that the
          angels will minister to them.[*6]

          “As for the magnificence of heaven, we have discerned this
          from the account of the New Jerusalem, by which the glory of heaven
          is described, that it will have gates, each one of which will be
          one pearl, and streets of pure gold, and a wall founded upon
          precious stones.[*7] From this we conclude that everyone received
          into heaven has his own palace of gold, resplendent with precious
          things, and that the right of dominion will pass from one to
          another in turn. And because we know that joys are intrinsic to
          such things and happiness inherent in them, and that the promises
          of God are unbreakable, we have been unable to trace the origin of
          the most happy state of heavenly life from any other source.”

          [6] After this, the sixth company, the second from the southern
          zone, raised its voice and said, “The joy of heaven and
          eternal happiness there consist solely in a continual glorifying of
          God, a religious celebration lasting to eternity, and blessed
          worship with singing and exultation, resulting in constant
          elevation of the heart to God, with full confidence in His
          acceptance of prayers and praises offered in gratitude for His
          Divine munificence in rendering the worshipers blessed.”

          Some members of the company added that this celebration would be
          accompanied by magnificent lighting and sweet-smelling incense,
          with solemn processions led by a high priest carrying a great
          trumpet, followed by prelates and other clergy, great and small,
          and behind them men with palm branches and women with golden images
          in their hands.

          [*1] Cf. Matthew 22:1-14.

          [*2] Cf. Matthew 8:11.

          [*3] Cf. Luke 23:43, 2 Corinthians 12:2-4.

          [*4] Cf. Revelation 2:7.

          [*5] See John 1:12, Romans 8:14,16,17, Galatians 4:4-7, 2
          Timothy 2:12, 1 John 3:1,2, Revelation 1:6, 5:10, 17:14, 19:16,
          20:4,6, 22:5.

          [*6] See Matthew 19:28, Luke 22:29,30, Revelation 3:21; Hebrews
          1:13,14.

          [*7] Revelation 21:18-21.

        • 4. [The Seventh Company]
          4. The seventh company, invisible to the rest on account of the
          light, was from the east part of heaven. Its members were angels
          from the same society that the angel with the trumpet came from.
          When they heard in their heaven that not even one person in the
          Christian world knows what the joy of heaven and eternal happiness
          are, they said to each other, “This cannot be true! Such great
          darkness and numbness of mind is not possible among Christians. Let
          us go down, too, and hear for ourselves whether it is so. If it is,
          it is without doubt an astonishing event.”

          [2] These angels now said to the angel with the trumpet, “As
          you know, everyone who has longed for heaven and has had some
          particular opinion about the joys there, after death is introduced
          into the joys of his imagination. Then when he has experienced what
          those joys are like and found that they reflect empty theories or
          his own irrational fantasies, he is afterwards taken out of them
          and instructed. This happens with most in the world of spirits who
          in their former life thought about heaven and came to some
          conclusion respecting joys there to the point of longing for them.”

          Hearing this, the angel with the trumpet said to the six
          companies assembled from the wise of the Christian world, “Follow
          me and I will introduce you to your joys and so into heaven.”

        • 5. [Conversations]
          5. So saying, the angel led the way, accompanied first by the
          company of those who had persuaded themselves that heavenly joys
          consisted simply in delightful associations and enjoyable
          conversations. The angel introduced them to gatherings in the
          northern zone, comprised of people who in the former world had had
          the same idea of the joys of heaven. There was a huge house there,
          into which people like this were brought together. The house had
          more than fifty rooms, each devoted to a different topic of
          conversation.

          In some of the rooms they were talking about things they had
          seen or heard in the public square and in the streets. In others
          they were saying various amiable things about the fair sex,
          interspersed with witty exchanges that kept increasing until the
          faces of all in the gathering expanded into merry laughter. In
          other rooms they were discussing news relating to the royal courts,
          their ministries, the political condition, and various matters
          emanating from the privy councils, with arguments and conjectures
          regarding the outcomes. In other rooms the subject was business. In
          others, scholarly matters. In others, concerns having to do with
          citizenship and moral living. In others, affairs having to do with
          the church and religious denominations. And so on.

          It was granted me to look into the house, and I saw people
          running from room to room, looking for gatherings with their same
          affection and so in harmony with their joy. In the gatherings I
          also saw three kinds of people: some practically panting to speak,
          some anxious to ask questions, and some eager to listen.

          [2] The house had four doors, one toward each of the four points
          of the compass, and I noticed that many were leaving their
          gatherings and hurrying to get out. Following several of these to
          the east door, I saw a number of them sitting beside it with
          downcast faces. I went over to them and asked why they were sitting
          there so sadly.

          They answered, “The doors of this house are kept closed to
          anyone trying to leave. It is now the third day since we arrived,
          and having lived the life we longed for in socializing and
          conversation, we have grown tired of the constant talk, to the
          point that we can hardly bear to hear the murmur of sounds coming
          from it. So, out of weariness and boredom we made our way to this
          door and knocked. But we received the reply that the doors of this
          house are not opened for people wishing to leave, only for those
          wanting to enter. “Stay and enjoy the joys of heaven!” we
          were told. From this response we concluded that we are to remain
          here to eternity. Our minds were filled with dejection at this, and
          now we are becoming oppressed at heart and taken with anxiety.”

          [3] The angel then spoke to them and said, “This state is
          the state in which your joys die, joys you believed to be the only
          heavenly joys, when in fact they are merely subsidiary adjuncts to
          heavenly joys.”

          So they asked the angel, “What, then, is heavenly joy?”

          The angel answered, briefly, “It is the pleasure of doing
          something that is of use to oneself and to others, and the pleasure
          in being useful takes its essence from love and its expression from
          wisdom. The pleasure in being useful, springing from love through
          wisdom, is the life and soul of all heavenly joys.

          [4] “Angels in heaven enjoy delightful associations which
          stimulate their minds, gladden their spirits, gratify their hearts,
          and recreate their bodies. But they enjoy these associations after
          they have performed useful services in their occupations and
          employments. The life and soul in all their delights and pleasures
          comes from the useful services they perform. If you take away that
          life or soul, however, the subsidiary joys gradually become no
          longer joys, but first matters of indifference, then stupid, and
          finally dreary and distressing.”

          With these words the door was opened, and the people sitting
          there leapt up and fled away home, each one to his occupation and
          employment, and so they were revitalized.

        • 6. [Feasting and Entertainment]
          6. After this the angel spoke to the ones who had instilled in
          themselves the idea that the joys of heaven and eternal happiness
          would be dinners with Abram, Isaac and Jacob,[*1] followed by
          exhibitions and shows and more dining, and so on to eternity. And
          the angel said to them, “Follow me and I will introduce you to
          the felicities of your joys.” He then led them through a grove
          of trees to a level clearing overlaid with wooden boards on which
          stood tables, fifteen on one side and fifteen on the other.

          And they asked, “Why so many tables?”

          The angel answered that the first table was Abram’s, the second
          Isaac’s, the third Jacob’s, and the tables after these, in order,
          the tables of the twelve apostles. “And on the other side,”
          he said, “are again as many tables belonging to their wives.
          The first three are the tables of Sarah, Abram’s wife, of Rebekah,
          Isaac’s wife, and of Leah and Rachel, the wives of Jacob. The
          remaining twelve are the tables of the wives of the twelve
          apostles.”

          [2] After some delay the tables all appeared filled with plates
          of food, with the spaces between them decorated with little
          pyramidal vessels containing condiments. Dinner guests were
          standing around the tables awaiting the appearance of the hosts of
          the tables. Following a short wait, the hosts appeared, entering in
          order of procession from Abram to the last of the apostles. And
          presently, going over to their tables, they each took a place on
          the couch at the head of the table. Then they said to the people
          standing about, “Recline here with us also.” And the men
          reclined with the patriarchs and the women with the patriarchs’
          wives, and they ate and they drank in gladness and with veneration.

          After the meal the patriarchs departed, and then the exhibitions
          began – the dances of young men and women, and afterwards shows.

          When these came to an end, the guests were again invited to
          dine, but with the stipulation that those who on the first day ate
          with Abram, on the second would dine with Isaac, on the third with
          Jacob, on the fourth with Peter, on the fifth with James, on the
          sixth with John, on the seventh with Paul, and so on with the rest
          in order until the fifteenth day, whereupon they would change seats
          and begin the dinner parties again in the same sequence, and so on
          to eternity.

          [3] At this point the angel called together the men of the
          company and said to them, “All these people that you saw at
          the tables had the same imaginary idea of the joys of heaven and
          consequent eternal happiness that you did. So in order that they
          may see the foolishness of their ideas and be weaned from them,
          dinner scenes like this have been instituted and have been
          permitted by the Lord. The leaders you saw at the heads of the
          tables were actors playing old men, most of them from a backward
          people, who let their beards grow and developed a haughtiness over
          the rest on account of their possessing a certain wealth. A fantasy
          has been produced them that they are those patriarchs.

          “But follow me to the paths leading out of this arena.”

          [4] So they followed, and they saw fifty people here and fifty
          there, people who had stuffed their bellies with food to the point
          of nausea, and who longed to return to the familiar settings of
          their homes, some to their professional duties, some to their
          businesses, and some to their employments. But the guards of the
          grove detained many of them and interrogated them about the days of
          their dining, as to whether they had eaten yet at the tables of
          Peter and Paul, telling them that if they were leaving before doing
          so, it would be to their disgrace, because it was impolite.

          But most of them answered, “We have had enough of our joys.
          The food has become tasteless to us and our ability to taste has
          run dry. Our stomachs are sick of food. We cannot bear to taste it.
          Having dragged out several days and nights in this dissipation, we
          earnestly beg to be released.”

          And being released, with panting breath and hurried step they
          fled away home.

          [5] Afterwards the angel called the men of the company and on
          the way explained to them the following things about heaven:

          “In heaven they have food and drink just as in the world,
          also dinner parties and festive meals. And in the homes of the
          leading citizens there they have tables set with rich, choice and
          exquisite foods, which enliven and refresh their spirits. They also
          have exhibitions and shows, and instrumental and vocal musical
          performances, all in the highest perfection. Such things, too, they
          regard as joys, but not as happiness. Happiness must be in the joys
          in order to come from the joys. Happiness in the joys causes the
          joys to be joys. It enriches them and sustains them so that they do
          not become common and loathsome. This happiness everyone has from
          being useful in his occupation.

          [6] “Latent in the affection of every angel’s will is a
          certain inner tendency which draws the mind to accomplish
          something. By accomplishment the mind finds peace and satisfaction.
          This satisfaction and peace produce a state of mind receptive of a
          love of useful service from the Lord. From the reception of this
          love comes heavenly happiness, which is the life in the joys just
          referred to.

          “Heavenly food in its essence is nothing else than love,
          wisdom and useful service combined, that is, useful service
          accomplished through wisdom out of love. Consequently in heaven
          everyone is given food for the body in accordance with the useful
          service he performs – magnificent food in the case of those engaged
          in outstanding service, modest food but of excellent flavor and
          taste in the case of those in an intermediate degree of useful
          service, and humble food in the case of those in humble service,
          while the lazy receive none.”

          [*1] Cf. Matthew 8:11.

        • 7. [Power and Wealth]
          7. After that the angel called to himself the company of the
          so-called wise who had placed heavenly joys, and because of them
          eternal happiness, in positions of great power, possessions of
          great riches, and so superregal magnificence and superglorious
          splendor, because it says in the Word that they will be kings and
          princes,[*1] that they will reign with Christ to eternity,[*2] and
          that the angels will minister to them,[*3] among other things.

          The angel said to them, “Follow me and I will introduce you
          to your joys.” And he led them to a gallery constructed out of
          columns and pyramidal piers. In front of it was a humble palace,
          through which the entrance to the gallery opened. The angel led
          them through the palace, and behold, they saw people waiting,
          twenty here and twenty there. Then suddenly an actor appeared,
          playing the part of an angel, who said to them, “The way to
          heaven lies through this gallery. Wait here a little while and
          prepare yourselves, because the older ones among you are going to
          become kings and the younger princes.”

          [2] At these words a throne appeared next to each column, with a
          silk robe upon the throne, and upon the robe a scepter and crown.
          And next to each pier appeared a chair of state raised three
          cubits[*4] from the ground, with a chain made of links of gold upon
          the chair and sashes of knighthood fastened at the ends with
          circlets of diamonds. Then the proclamation rang out, “Go now,
          dress yourselves, take your seats, and wait!”

          And instantly the older ones ran to the thrones and the younger
          ones to the chairs of state, and they dressed themselves and took
          their seats.

          But then a kind of mist appeared rising from below, which the
          people sitting upon the thrones and chairs of state breathed in,
          and because of it their faces began to swell and their chests to
          rise, and they became filled with confidence that they were now
          kings and princes. The mist was an aura of fantasy, with which they
          were infused.

          And suddenly young men flew to their sides, as though from
          heaven, and they stood two behind each throne and one behind each
          chair of state, to serve in attendance on them. Then from time to
          time some herald would cry out, “You kings and princes, wait a
          little while longer. Your courts are now being prepared in heaven.
          Your courtiers will arrive presently with attendants to conduct
          you.”

          They waited and waited, until their spirits were panting and
          they grew weary with longing.

          [3] After three hours heaven opened above their heads and angels
          looked down, and taking pity on them the angels said, “Why are
          you sitting there so foolishly and behaving like play-actors? They
          are playing games with you and have turned you from men into idols,
          because you have instilled in your hearts that you will reign with
          Christ as kings and princes and that angels will then minister to
          you. Have you forgotten the Lord’s words, that in heaven whoever
          desires to be great becomes a servant?[*5]

          “Learn therefore what is meant by kings and princes and by
          reigning with Christ. It means to be wise and perform useful
          services. For the kingdom of Christ, namely, heaven, is a kingdom
          of useful services. The reason is that the Lord loves all people
          and so wills good to all, and good means useful service. Now
          because the Lord performs good or useful services indirectly
          through angels, and in the world through people, therefore to those
          who faithfully perform useful services He gives a love of being
          useful and its reward. The reward is internal blessedness, and this
          blessedness is eternal happiness.

          [4] “Positions of great power and possessions of great
          riches exist in heaven as well as on earth, for they have
          governments and forms of government in heaven and so also greater
          and lesser positions of power and rank. Moreover, people who are in
          the highest positions have palaces and courts which surpass in
          magnificence and splendor the palaces and courts of emperors and
          kings on earth. And because of the number of their courtiers,
          ministers and attendants and the magnificent vestments in which
          these are appareled, they are surrounded with honor and glory.

          “Yet the people in the highest positions are chosen from
          those whose heart is in the public welfare, and only their bodily
          senses in the grandeur of magnificence for the sake of being
          obeyed. And because it contributes to the public welfare for
          everyone to be of some useful service in society, as in a common
          body, and because all useful service comes from the Lord and is
          rendered through angels and men as though from them, it is evident
          that this is what it is to reign with the Lord.”

          When they heard these words from heaven, the people playing at
          being kings and princes descended from their thrones and chairs of
          state and threw away their scepters, crowns and robes. And the mist
          which contained the aura of fantasy receded from them, and a bright
          cloud enveloped them, which contained an aura of wisdom. So sanity
          returned to their minds.

          [*1] See Revelation 1:6, 5:10.

          [*2] 2 Timothy 2:12, Revelation 5:10, 20:4,6, 22:5.

          [*3] See Hebrews 1:13,14.

          [*4] About four and a half feet.

          [*5] Matthew 20:26,27, 23:11, Mark 9:35, 10:43.

        • 8. [A Garden Paradise]
          8. After this the angel returned to the house where the wise
          from the Christian world were assembled, and he called to him those
          who had instilled in themselves the belief that the joys of heaven
          and eternal happiness were the delights of a paradise.

          He said to them, “Follow me and I will introduce you to
          paradise, your heaven, so that you may start on the blessings of
          your eternal happiness.” And he led them through a high
          gateway constructed out of the interwoven branches and boughs of
          stately trees. Beyond the entrance he led them around through
          winding paths from place to place.

          It was, in fact, an actual paradise at the first entrance to
          heaven, to which people are admitted who in the world had believed
          that the whole of heaven is a single paradise, because it is called
          Paradise,[*1] and who had fixed in themselves the idea that after
          death they would find complete rest from their labors, rest that
          would consist solely in breathing in delightful essences, walking
          on rose petals, enjoying the delicate juices of grapes, and
          partaking of liquid refreshments at festive parties, a way of life
          they believed possible only in a heavenly paradise.

          [2] Led by the angel they saw an immense number of people – of
          men, old and young, and boys, and also women and girls. Some of
          them were sitting by beds of roses, in groups of three and groups
          of ten, weaving garlands with which to adorn the heads of the older
          men, the arms of the youths, and – as though with sashes – the
          breasts of the boys. Other groups were picking fruits from the
          trees and carrying them in baskets to their companions. Others were
          pressing the juice from grapes, cherries and berries into cups and
          good-naturedly drinking. Others were breathing in and smelling the
          wafting aromas given off by the flowers, fruits and fragrant
          leaves. Others were singing sweet songs with which they delighted
          the ears of those present. Others were sitting at fountains and
          spraying the jets of water into various patterns. Others were
          walking, talking and exchanging pleasantries. Others were running,
          playing, and dancing, sometimes in sets, and sometimes in circles.
          Others were going into garden houses to lie down on the couches.
          And so on with other pleasures suitable to a paradise.

          [3] After they had viewed these scenes, the angel led his
          companions along by-paths here and there, and finally to some
          people sitting in a beautiful rose garden surrounded by olive
          trees, orange trees, and citrons. Rocking back and forth, they sat
          with their cheeks in their hands, grieving and weeping. The
          companions of the angel spoke to them and said, “Why are you
          sitting here like this?”

          And they replied, “It is now the seventh day since we came
          into this paradise. When we arrived it seemed as though our minds
          had been raised into heaven and admitted into the inmost blessings
          of its joys. But after three days these blessings began to grow
          dull and vanish in our minds, becoming no longer perceptible and so
          no longer blessings. And when our imagined joys thus died, we
          became afraid of losing all delight in our lives, and we started to
          doubt whether there is any eternal happiness.

          “Moreover, we then wandered about through the paths and
          areas to look for the gate through which we entered. But we went
          around and around in circles. When we asked the people we met, some
          of them said the gate is never found, because this garden paradise
          is an immense maze, of the sort that if anyone tries to leave, he
          goes in deeper. “Consequently you have no choice but to remain
          here to eternity,” we were told. “You are at the center
          of the paradise, where all its delights are at their focus.””

          And they said further to the companions of the angel, “We
          have been sitting here now for a day and a half. And because we
          have lost hope of finding the way out, we have set ourselves down
          by this rose garden, and we look about us at the abundance of olive
          trees, grapes, oranges, and citrons. But the more we look at them,
          the wearier our eyes grow of seeing them, our noses of smelling
          them, and our mouths of tasting them. This is the reason for the
          sorrow, grief and tears in which you see us.”

          [4] On hearing this, the angel with the company said to them,
          “This maze or paradise actually is an entrance into heaven. I
          know the way out and will take you.”

          At that, the people sitting there got up and embraced the angel,
          and went with him along with his company. And on the way the angel
          explained to them what heavenly joy and so eternal happiness are,
          saying that they are not the outward delights of a paradise unless
          they include at the same time the inward delights of a paradise.

          “The outward delights of a paradise,” he said, “are
          only delights of the physical senses, while the inward delights of
          a paradise are delights of the affections of the soul. Unless the
          inward delights are in the outward, there is no heavenly life,
          because the soul is not in them, and every delight without its
          corresponding soul at once grows weak and dull, wearying the mind
          more than labor. Garden paradises exist everywhere in the heavens,
          and they are also sources of joy to the angels, but the joys are
          joys to the angels to the degree that a delight of the soul is in
          them.”

          [5] When they heard this, they all asked, “What is a
          delight of the soul, and where does it come from?”

          The angel answered, “Delight of the soul comes from love
          and wisdom from the Lord. And because love is creative of effects,
          and is effective through wisdom, therefore the abode of both love
          and wisdom is in the effect, and the effect is useful service. This
          delight flows from the Lord into the soul, and it descends through
          the higher and lower regions of the mind into all the senses of the
          body and fulfills itself in them. Joy becomes joy from this, and it
          becomes eternal from Him who is its eternal source.

          “You have seen what paradise holds, but I assure you that
          there is not one thing there, not even a tiny leaf, that does not
          originate from a marriage of love and wisdom in useful service.
          Consequently if a person is in this marriage, he is in a heavenly
          paradise, thus in heaven.”

          [*1] Luke 23:43, 2 Corinthians 12:2-4.

        • 9. [Glorifying God]
          9. After that the angel guide returned to the hall, to the ones
          who had firmly persuaded themselves that heavenly joy and eternal
          happiness are a continual glorifying of God and a religious
          celebration lasting to eternity, because in the world they had
          believed that then they would see God, and because the life of
          heaven is called a perpetual Sabbath on account of its worship of
          God.

          To them the angel said, “Follow me and I will introduce you
          to your joy.” And he led them to a small city, in the middle
          of which was a temple, and all the houses were called sacred halls.

          In that city they saw a flood of people from every corner of the
          surrounding land, and among them a number of priests. The priests
          met and greeted the people as they arrived and, taking them by the
          hand, led them to the doors of the temple and from there to some of
          the buildings around the temple. Then they introduced them into a
          never-ending worship of God, saying that this city was a forecourt
          to heaven, and that the temple of the city was an introduction to
          the magnificent and grand temple existing in heaven, where God is
          glorified by the angels with prayers and praises to eternity.

          “The rules,” they said, “both here and there, are
          that people must first enter the temple and stay there three days
          and three nights. Then after that initiation they must go into the
          houses of the city (all of them sacred halls that we have
          sanctified), and passing from building to building, in communion
          with the congregations there they must pray, cry out, and deliver
          sermons.

          “Above all,” they said, “be careful that you do
          not think to yourselves or say to your companions anything that is
          not reverent, pious and religious.”

          [2] Afterwards the angel led his company into the temple. It was
          packed full of people, many of whom had been in high position in
          the world, and also many who had been of the common people.
          Moreover, guards had been stationed at the doors to prevent anyone
          from leaving before his three days were up.

          Then the angel said, “Today is the second day since these
          people came in. Look at them and you will see their glorifying of
          God.”

          So they looked, and they saw most of the people sleeping, and
          the ones who were awake kept yawning and yawning. Furthermore,
          because of the continual elevation of their thoughts to God without
          returning again back down into the body, some of them appeared to
          have faces separated from their bodies, for that is how they seemed
          to themselves, and so that is how they appeared to others as well.
          Some looked wild-eyed from constantly averting their gaze.

          In short, they all looked oppressed at heart and weary in spirit
          with boredom, and turning away from the pulpit they began crying,
          “Our ears are growing numb! Put an end to your sermons! No one
          is listening to a word any more, and the very sound is becoming
          detestable.”

          And then they got up and rushed en masse to the doors, broke
          them open, and pressing upon the guards drove them away.

          [3] Seeing this, the priests followed them and attached
          themselves to their sides, preaching and teaching, praying,
          sighing, and saying, “Join in the religious celebration!
          Glorify God! Sanctify yourselves! In this forecourt of heaven we
          will prepare you for the eternal glorifying of God in the
          magnificent and grand temple which is in heaven, that you may enter
          the enjoyment of eternal happiness.”

          But the people did not understand and scarcely even heard what
          the priests were saying, owing to their numbness from having their
          minds suspended for two days and from being withheld from their
          domestic and occupational concerns.

          When they tried to pull away from the priests, however, the
          priests took hold of their arms and also their garments, urging
          them to the halls where the sermons were to be delivered. But in
          vain. And the people began crying out, “Leave us alone. Our
          bodies feel as though we are about to faint!”

          [4] At these words, behold, four men appeared in bright white
          clothing and wearing miters. One of them had been an archbishop in
          the world, and the other three, bishops. Now they had become
          angels.

          They called together the priests and addressing them said, “From
          heaven we have seen you with your flock and how you feed them. You
          feed them to insanity! You do not know what is meant by glorifying
          God. It means to bring forth the fruits of love, that is, to
          perform the work of one’s occupation faithfully, honestly, and
          diligently. For this is the effect of love of God and love of the
          neighbor, and it is what binds society together and makes its
          goodness. It is by this that God is glorified, and afterwards by
          worship at prescribed times. Have you not read these words of the
          Lord:

          By this My Father is glorified, that you bear much fruit and
          become My disciples. (John 15:8)

          [5] “You priests can go on glorifying in worship because it
          is your profession, and from it you have honor, glory and
          remuneration. But even you could not go on glorifying like that any
          more than they if honor, glory and remuneration did not come with
          your office.”

          So saying, the bishops ordered the keepers of the doors to let
          everyone pass in and out. “For,” they said, “there
          is a host of people who have been unable to imagine any other
          heavenly joy than everlasting worship of God, because they have
          known nothing about the state of heaven.”

        • 10. [Just Getting In]
          10. After this the angel returned with his companions to the
          place of assembly, which the companies of the wise had not yet
          left, and there he called to him the ones who believed that
          heavenly joy and eternal happiness are simply admission into
          heaven, and admission by Divine grace, thinking that then they
          would have joy, as people do in the world who are admitted into the
          courts of kings on days of celebration or who are admitted by
          invitation to the celebration of a wedding.

          To them the angel said, “Wait here a while, and I will
          sound my trumpet, and some distinguished people will come to this
          hall who are renowned for their wisdom in spiritual matters
          connected with the church.”

          Several hours later nine men appeared, each wreathed with laurel
          as a mark of his reputation. The angel led them into the hall of
          assembly, where all those previously called together were waiting.

          Addressing the nine laureates in their presence, the angel said,
          “I know that in answer to your prayer in accordance with your
          belief, it was granted you to ascend into heaven, and that you have
          returned to this lower or subcelestial land with full knowledge
          regarding the state of heaven. Tell us, therefore, what heaven
          seemed like to you.”

          [2] Then they replied in turn, and the first of them said, “From
          earliest childhood to the end of my life in the world my idea of
          heaven had been that it was a place of all blessings, felicities,
          delights, gratifications, and pleasures. And I thought that if I
          should be allowed in, I would be surrounded with an atmosphere of
          enjoyments of this sort and would drink them in with full breast,
          like a bridegroom when he celebrates his wedding and enters the
          marriage chamber with his bride.

          “With this idea I ascended into heaven, and I passed the
          first sentries and also the second, but when I came to the third,
          the captain of the guard spoke to me and said, “Who are you,
          friend?”

          “So I replied, “Is this heaven? I have longed and
          prayed for it and therefore I have come up here. Please let me in.”
          And he let me in.

          “And I saw angels in white garments. And surrounding me and
          looking me over, and they began to murmur, “Look, a new
          visitor not dressed in a garment of heaven.”

          “Hearing this, I thought to myself, “It appears I am
          in a similar situation as the one who the Lord says went to a
          wedding without a wedding garment.”[*1] So I said, “Give
          me such garments.”

          “But they laughed. And then one of them came running from
          the court with the order, “Strip him naked, throw him out, and
          throw his clothes out after him.”[*2] And so I was thrown
          out.”

          [3] The second of the laureates in turn said, “I believed
          as he did, that if I should only be let into heaven (heaven being
          above my head), I would be surrounded with joys and breathe them in
          to eternity. I, too, got my wish. But when the angels saw me, they
          fled away, and they said to each other, “What monstrosity is
          this? How did this bird of the night get here?”

          “And I actually felt a change in myself from being human,
          even though I was not changed. It was an effect I experienced from
          breathing in the heavenly atmosphere.

          “But presently one of them came running from the court with
          an order for two servants to lead me away and take me back by the
          way I had ascended till I reached my home. And once I was home I
          appeared to myself and others as a human being.”

          [4] The third laureate said, “I constantly thought of
          heaven in terms of a place and not in terms of love. Therefore when
          I arrived in this world, I longed for heaven with a great longing.
          And seeing others ascending, I followed them and was let in, though
          no more than a few paces.

          “But when I went to enjoy myself in accordance with my idea
          of the joys and blessings there, the light of heaven (which was as
          white as snow and whose essence is said to be wisdom) caused a
          numbness to seize my mind and then darkness my eyes, and I began to
          lose my reason. And shortly the heat of heaven (which matched in
          intensity the brightness of its light and whose essence is said to
          be love) caused my heart to pound, and I was seized with anxiety,
          and being tormented by an inward pain, I threw myself flat on my
          back on the ground.

          “Then as I lay there, an attendant came from the court with
          an order for them to carry me down slowly into my own light and
          heat, on reaching which, my spirit and my heart were restored to
          me.”

          [5] The fourth laureate said that he, too, had thought of heaven
          in terms of a place and not in terms of love. “And as soon as
          I arrived in the spiritual world,” he said, “I asked the
          wise whether I might be allowed to ascend into heaven. They told me
          that everyone is allowed to, but people should beware of being cast
          down.

          “I laughed at this and ascended, believing as others do
          that all in the entire world are capable of receiving the joys
          there in their fullness.

          “But in fact, once I was in, I almost died, and from pain
          and then torment in head and body, I flung myself to the ground,
          and writhing like a snake held next to a fire, I wriggled along to
          a precipice and threw myself over the edge.

          “Afterwards I was taken up by some bystanders below and
          carried to an inn, where I was restored to health.”

          [6] The five remaining laureates also told surprising tales
          about their attempts to ascend into heaven. And they likened the
          changes they experienced in the state of their lives to the state
          of fish lifted out of the water into the air, and to the state of
          birds in outer space.

          They said further that after those harsh experiences they no
          longer yearned for heaven, but only for a life shared in common
          with people like themselves, wherever they may be. Moreover, they
          know that in the world of spirits, “where we are now,”
          they said, all are first prepared, the good for heaven and the evil
          for hell, and that when they have been prepared, they see paths
          opened to them leading to societies of people like themselves, with
          whom they will remain to eternity; and that they then enter upon
          these paths with delight, because they lead in the direction of
          their love.

          Hearing these accounts, the people who had been called together
          originally all confessed as well that the only idea they, too, had
          had of heaven was an idea of some place, where with open mouth they
          would drink their fill of the surrounding joys to eternity.

          [7] Afterwards the angel with the trumpet said to them, “You
          see now that the joys of heaven and eternal happiness do not have
          to do with location, but with the state of a person’s life. The
          state of heavenly life comes from love and wisdom. And because
          useful service is the containing vessel of both love and wisdom,
          the state of heavenly life comes from a combination of these two in
          useful service.

          “It is the same if we use the terms charity, faith, and
          good work, since charity is love, faith is truth that results in
          wisdom, and good work is useful service.

          “Furthermore, in our spiritual world we have locations just
          as in the natural world. Otherwise we would not have dwellings and
          separate places to stay. Still a location there is not a place, but
          it is an appearance of place according to some state of love and
          wisdom or of charity and faith.

          [8] “Everyone who becomes an angel carries his own heaven
          within him, because he carries the love that belongs to his heaven.
          For man from creation is a little effigy, image and replica of the
          larger heaven. The human form is nothing else. Therefore everyone
          comes into a society of heaven of which he is a form in individual
          effigy. Consequently when he comes into that society, he enters
          into a form corresponding to himself, thus passing as if out of
          himself into that larger self, and entering as if from that larger
          self into the same self within him, so that he draws its life as
          his own, and his own life as life belonging to it.

          “Every society is like a whole unit, and the angels in it
          like similar parts out of which the whole is formed.

          “From this it now follows that people who are caught up in
          evils and their resulting falsities have formed in themselves an
          effigy of hell, and this effigy suffers torment in heaven as a
          result of the activity flowing in and the violent action of
          opposite upon opposite. For hellish love is opposed to heavenly
          love, and consequently the delights of the two loves clash with
          each other like enemies and destroy each other when they meet.”

          [*1] Matthew 22:11,12.

          [*2] Cf. Matthew 22:13.

        • 11. [Up the Mountain]
          11. Following these events, a voice was heard out of heaven
          saying to the angel with the trumpet, “Choose ten of all the
          people assembled and bring them to us. We have heard from the Lord
          that He will prepare them so that the heat and light, or love and
          wisdom, of our heaven will not do them any harm for three days.”

          So the angel chose ten, and they followed him. And they ascended
          by a steep path to a certain hilltop, and from there to a
          mountaintop, on which those angels had their heaven, which before
          had appeared to them in the distance like an expanse in the clouds.
          The gates were also opened for them, and after they passed the
          third of these, the angel guide hurried to the prince of that
          society or heaven and reported their arrival.

          And the prince replied, “Take some of my attendants and
          report to the visitors that I welcome their arrival, and bring them
          to my outer hall and assign each of them his apartment with his
          bedroom. Take some of my courtiers and servants, too, to wait on
          them and serve them at their bidding.”

          And so it was done.

          However, when the angel brought them to the outer hall, they
          asked whether they might go and see the prince, and the angel
          answered, “It is now morning and visits are not allowed before
          noon. Till then they are all engaged in their official duties and
          employments. But you are invited to the midday luncheon, and then
          you will sit down to dine with our prince. Meanwhile, I will take
          you into the palace, where you will see magnificent and splendid
          things.”

        • 12. [A Magnificent Palace]
          12. As they were being taken to the palace, they first viewed it
          from the outside. It was large, built out of porphyry, with a
          foundation of jasper, and in front of the entrance there were six
          tall columns of lapis lazuli. Its roof was covered with sheets of
          gold. Its high windows were made of the clearest crystal, and their
          frames were also of gold.

          After this they were ushered into the palace and taken around
          from room to room, and they saw ornaments of indescribable beauty,
          with carvings beyond imitation decorating the ceilings. Positioned
          along the walls they saw tables of silver mixed with gold, and on
          them various utensils made of precious stones and of whole gems in
          heavenly forms. They also saw many other things which no eye on
          earth had ever seen, and consequently no one could ever have
          persuaded himself to believe that such things exist in heaven.

          [2] As they stood in amazement at these magnificent sights, the
          angel said, “Do not marvel. The wonders you see were not made
          or crafted by the hand of any angel, but were fashioned by the
          Maker of the Universe and given as a gift to our prince. Therefore
          architectural art exists here in its quintessential form, and from
          it come all the rules of the same art in the world.”

          The angel said further, “You may suppose that wonders like
          these enchant our eyes and captivate them to the point that we
          believe them to be the joys of our heaven. But since our hearts do
          not lie in them, they are only subsidiary adjuncts to the joys of
          our hearts. As a result, to the extent that we view them as
          subsidiary adjuncts, and as works of God, to that extent we view in
          them the Divine omnipotence and benevolence.”

        • 13. [A Garden Paradise]
          13. After that the angel said to them, “It is not yet noon.
          Come with me to our prince’s garden, adjacent to this palace.”

          So they went, and at the entrance he said, “Look, the most
          magnificent garden in this heavenly society!”

          But they replied, “What do you mean? This is not a garden.
          We see only one tree, with what appear to be fruits of gold on its
          branches and at the top, and what seem to be leaves of silver,
          whose edges are adorned with emeralds. And under the tree we see
          children with their nursemaids.”

          At this the angel said with inspired voice, “This tree is
          in the middle of the garden. We call it the tree of our heaven, and
          some call it the tree of life. But go, get closer, and your eyes
          will be opened and you will see the garden.”

          So they did so. And their eyes were opened, and they saw trees
          loaded with flavorful fruits and covered with leafy vines, the tops
          of which swayed with their fruits towards the tree of life in the
          center.

          [2] These trees had been planted in a continuous series which
          went out and around in perpetual circles or rings, in a seemingly
          endless spiral. It was a perfect spiral of trees, with one species
          following another in unbroken succession in the order of the
          excellence of their fruits. The beginning of the spiral started at
          a considerable distance from the tree in the middle, and the
          intervening space was lit up by a sparkling stream of light, which
          caused the trees in the spiral to shine with a successive and
          continued radiance from the first to the last of them.

          The first trees were the most excellent of them all, abounding
          with rich fruits, and called trees of paradise, which the visitors
          had never seen because these trees do not and cannot exist in the
          lands of the natural world. After them came trees whose fruits are
          used in the production of oil. Next, trees whose fruits are used in
          making wine. Then trees marked by their fragrance. And finally
          timber trees whose wood is used in construction.

          Here and there in this spiral or circular course of trees were
          places to sit, formed by the trained and interwoven branches of the
          trees behind them, and loaded and adorned with their fruits. This
          unending circle of trees had openings which led out into flower
          gardens, and from these to lawns, divided into areas and beds.

          [3] Seeing all this, the companions of the angel exclaimed,
          “Look, a model of heaven! Wherever we turn the gaze of our
          eyes, some sight of a heavenly paradise comes flooding in that is
          beyond description!”

          On hearing this the angel rejoiced and said, “All the
          gardens of our heaven are, in their origin, representative forms or
          images of heavenly blessings. And because your minds were elevated
          by the flowing in of these blessings, you cried out, “Look, a
          model of heaven!” But people who do not receive that influx
          see these sights of paradise simply as woodsy scenes. Moreover, all
          people receive the influx who are motivated by a love of being
          useful. But people who are motivated by a love of glory, and this
          not for the sake of any useful purpose, do not receive it.”

          Afterwards the angel explained to them and taught them what each
          thing in the garden represented and symbolized.

        • 14. [Dining with the Prince]
          14. While they were thus engaged, a messenger arrived from the
          prince, who invited them to break bread with him. And at the same
          time two attendants of the court brought linen garments and said,
          “Put these on, because no one is allowed at the table of the
          prince without being dressed in the garments of heaven.”

          So they girded themselves and accompanied their angel, and they
          were led into a cloister, the enclosed courtyard of the palace,
          where they waited for the prince. And the angel introduced them
          there into gatherings that included dignitaries and officials who
          were also awaiting the prince.

          Then behold, a short while later the doors were opened, and
          through one broader doorway on the west side they saw the prince
          entering in the line of a grand procession. Preceding him were the
          privy councillors. After these came the cabinet councillors, and
          behind them the principal officials of the court. In the middle of
          them was the prince, followed by courtiers of various distinction
          and finally attendants. All told, they numbered up to one hundred
          and twenty persons.

          [2] Standing before the ten newcomers (who by their dress then
          looked like residents), the angel went with them to the prince and
          respectfully presented them. And the prince without pausing in the
          procession said to them, “Come take bread with me.”

          So they followed into the dining hall, where they saw a table
          magnificently set. In the center of the table they saw a high
          pyramid of gold with a hundred saucers in three rows upon its
          tiers, containing cakes and wine jellies, along with other
          delicacies made from cake and wine. And up through the middle of
          the pyramid gushed what appeared to be a spurting fountain of
          nectarlike wine, whose stream sprayed out from the top of the
          pyramid and filled the goblets.

          Around the sides of this high pyramid were various heavenly
          forms of gold, holding plates and dishes filled with all sorts of
          foods. The heavenly forms holding the plates and dishes were forms
          of art arising from wisdom, forms which in the world cannot be
          depicted in any field of art or described in words. The plates and
          dishes were made of silver, engraved all around their surface with
          forms like the forms on which they rested. The goblets were made of
          translucent gems.

          That was how the table was set.

        • 15. [The Garments of Heaven]
          15. The dress of the prince and his ministers, moreover, was as
          follows. The prince wore a full-length purple robe decorated with
          embroidered silver-colored stars. Under the robe he had on a blue
          tunic of shiny silk. It was open around the chest, revealing the
          front part of a kind of cummerbund bearing the emblem of his
          society. The emblem was an eagle brooding over her young at the top
          of a tree. It was made of gleaming gold bordered with diamonds.

          The privy councillors were dressed in almost the same manner,
          but without the emblem. Instead of the emblem they had carved
          sapphires hanging from the neck by a golden chain. The courtiers
          were in gowns of a light brown color, inwoven with flowers
          surrounding young eaglets. Their tunics underneath were of silk
          having an opalescent color. So, too, were their breeches and
          stockings.

          That was what their dress was like.

        • 16. [The Prince Speaks]
          16. The privy councillors, cabinet councillors and officials
          were standing around the table, and at the bidding of the prince
          they folded their hands and murmured together a prayer of praise to
          the Lord. After this at a sign from the prince they took their
          places on the couches at the table. Then the prince said to the ten
          visitors, “Recline here with me also. See, there are your
          seats.”

          So they reclined, and the courtiers previously sent by the
          prince to wait on them stood in attendance behind them.

          Then the prince said to them, “Take a plate, each of you,
          from its serving ring and afterwards a saucer from the pyramid.”

          So they did so, and behold, immediately new plates and saucers
          appeared, taking the place of the ones they removed. And their
          goblets were kept filled with wine by the fountain spurting from
          the great pyramid. So they ate and they drank.

          [2] Halfway through the meal, the prince spoke to the ten guests
          and said, “I have heard that you were called together in the
          land which is below this heaven, to reveal your thoughts about the
          joys of heaven and so eternal happiness, and that you presented
          divergent views, each according to the delights of his physical
          senses.

          “But what are delights of the physical senses apart from
          delights of the soul? It is the soul that makes them delightful.

          “Delights of the soul in themselves are imperceptible
          states of bliss, but they become more and more perceptible as they
          descend into the thoughts of the mind and from these into the
          sensations of the body. In the thoughts of the mind they are
          perceived as states of happiness, in the sensations of the body as
          delights, and in the body itself as pleasures.

          “Eternal happiness results from all these combined. But
          happiness resulting from the latter delights and pleasures alone is
          not eternal but temporary. It comes to an end and passes away, and
          sometimes turns into unhappiness.

          “You have now seen that all your joys are also joys of
          heaven, joys more excellent than you ever could have imagined. But
          even so, they still do not affect our minds inwardly.

          [3] “There are three things which flow as one from the Lord
          into our souls. These three things together, or this trinity, are
          love, wisdom, and usefulness. Love and wisdom, however, do not
          occur by themselves except in imagination, because by themselves
          they exist only in the affection and thought of the mind. In useful
          service, on the other hand, they exist in actuality, because they
          exist at the same time in the action and activity of the body. And
          where they exist actually, there they also remain.

          “Now because love and wisdom exist and endure in useful
          service, it is useful service that affects us, and useful service
          is to carry out the duties of one’s occupation faithfully, honestly
          and diligently.

          “The love of being useful, and its consequent application
          in useful service, keeps the mind from being dissipated and
          wandering, and from taking in all sorts of seductions which pour in
          alluringly through the senses from the body and from the world. As
          a result of these seductions, the truths of religion and the truths
          of morality are scattered with their goodness to the four winds. In
          contrast, application of the mind in useful service holds these
          truths and anchors them, and orders the mind into a form receptive
          of wisdom as a consequence of them. Moreover, the mind then thrusts
          aside the shams and pretenses of both falsities and illusions.

          “But you will hear more about this from some of the wise of
          our society, whom I will send to you this afternoon.”

          So saying, the prince arose, followed by his companions, and he
          bade them farewell, having told their angel guide to take them back
          to their apartments and to show them all the considerations of
          courtesy. He also told the angel to call urbane and affable men as
          well, to entertain them with conversation about the various joys of
          that society.

        • 17. [A Day in the Life of Heaven]
          17. When they got back to their apartments, it happened as
          arranged, and men summoned from the city arrived to entertain them
          with conversation about the various joys of the society. After an
          exchange of greetings, they went walking, and the men made polite
          conversation with them. But their angel guide said that the ten
          visitors had been invited into that heaven to see its joys and so
          gain a new idea of eternal happiness.

          “Tell them, therefore, something about its joys,” he
          said, “the joys that affect the physical senses. Later some
          men of wisdom will come to explain some of the things that make
          those joys pleasing and delightful.”

          Heeding the angel, the men summoned from the city told them the
          following:

          (1) “We have days of celebration here, proclaimed by the
          prince, to relax people’s spirits from the fatigue that the drive
          to excel may have produced in some of them. These days are
          accompanied by instrumental and choral musical performances in the
          public squares, and by athletic and theatrical performances outside
          the city.

          “Bandstands are erected in the public squares on such
          occasions, surrounded by latticework woven out of vines, with
          clusters of grapes hanging from them. The musicians sit inside in
          three tiers, with stringed and wind instruments, both high-voiced
          and low, shrill-voiced and mellow. On either side of them are
          singers, male and female, and they entertain the citizens with
          delightful exultation and singing, in concert and solo, varying the
          type of music periodically. On these days of celebration, such
          performances last from morning to noon, and after noon till
          evening.”

          [2] (2) “In addition, every morning we hear the most
          charming singing of young women and girls coming from the houses
          around the public squares, filling the whole city with its sound.
          Each morning they express some particular affection of spiritual
          love in song, which is to say that they express it in sound by the
          variations or modulations of the singing voice, and the affection
          is perceived in the singing as though the singing were the
          affection itself. The sound infuses itself into the souls of its
          hearers and stirs them to a corresponding state. Such is the nature
          of heavenly song.

          “The singers say that the sound of their singing seems to
          be inspired and to take life on its own from within, and by itself
          to rise delightfully in quality, according to the reception of it
          by its hearers.

          “When the singing comes to an end, the windows are closed
          in the houses on the square and at the same time in the houses
          along the streets, and the doors are shut, too, and then the whole
          city falls silent. Not a sound is heard anywhere, nor is anyone
          seen wandering about. All are then ready to carry on the duties of
          their appointed tasks.”

          [3] (3) “Around noon, however, the doors are opened, and
          here and there in the afternoon the windows, too, and boys and
          girls are seen playing games in the streets, under the supervision
          of their nursemaids and teachers sitting on the porches of the
          houses.”

          [4] (4) “On the edges of the city, in its outskirts,
          various activities go on for boys and adolescent youths. There are
          running games, ball games, and games with rebounding balls, called
          rackets. Competitive exercises are held among the boys to show who
          is quicker and who is slower in speaking, acting and comprehending.
          And the quicker ones receive several laurel leaves as a prize.
          There are also many other activities which serve to encourage the
          latent abilities in boys.”

          [5] (5) “Moreover, outside the city theatrical performances
          are put on by comic actors on stages, who portray the various
          honorable qualities and virtues of moral life, with dramatic actors
          among them also to provide points of comparison.”

          At that, one of the ten visitors asked, “What do you mean,
          “to provide points of comparison”?”

          And the men answered, “No virtue with its honorable and
          becoming qualities can be presented convincingly except through
          relative comparisons of those qualities, from the greatest of them
          to the least of them. The dramatic actors portray the least of
          those qualities even to the point that they become non-existent.
          But it has been prescribed by law that they may not exhibit
          anything of the opposite that is called dishonorable and
          unbecoming, except symbolically and, so to speak, from a distance.

          “The reason it has been so prescribed by law is that no
          honorable or good quality of any virtue ever passes through
          diminishing stages to the point of becoming dishonorable and bad,
          but only to the point of becoming so very little that it dies, and
          when it dies, then the opposite begins. That is why heaven, where
          all things are honorable and good, has nothing in common with hell,
          where all things are dishonorable and bad.”

        • 18. [Eight Wise Men]
          18. While they were speaking, a servant ran up and announced
          that eight men of wisdom were there by order of the prince and were
          waiting to enter. Hearing this, the angel went out and welcomed
          them and brought them in. Then after a brief exchange of the
          customary courtesies of greeting, the men of wisdom first spoke
          with them about the initial and developmental stages of wisdom,
          including various remarks on the way it progresses, saying that
          wisdom in the case of angels never comes to an end and stops, but
          grows and increases to eternity.

          Listening to the discussion, the angel with the company said to
          the men, “At luncheon our prince talked to them about the
          abode of wisdom, saying that it lies in useful service. Speak to
          them, if you please, about this as well.”

          So they said, “When human beings were first created, they
          were imbued with wisdom and a love of wisdom, not for their own
          sake, but for the sake of their having it to share with others.
          Therefore it was engraved on the wisdom of the wise that no one
          should be wise and live for himself alone, unless he was wise and
          lived at the same time for others. This was the origin of society,
          which otherwise would not exist. To live for others is to perform
          useful services. Useful services are the bonds of society, there
          being as many bonds as there are good and useful services, and
          useful services are unlimited in number.

          “Useful services are spiritual when they have to do with
          love toward God and love for the neighbor. They are moral and civic
          services when they have to do with love for the society or civil
          state in which a person resides, and with love of the companions
          and fellow citizens with whom he is associated. Useful services are
          natural when they have to do with love of the world and its
          necessities. And they are corporeal when they have to do with the
          love of self-preservation for the sake of higher uses.

          [2] “All these capacities for being useful are engraved on
          the human spirit, and they follow in sequence, one after another,
          and when they are combined, one exists within another.

          “People who concern themselves with the first useful
          services, which are spiritual, also concern themselves with the
          ones that follow, and these people are wise. People who do not
          concern themselves with the first useful services, however, and yet
          concern themselves with the second kind and those that follow
          after, are not so wise, but only appear as if they were on account
          of their outward morality and civic-mindedness.

          “People who are not concerned with the first and second
          types of useful service, but with the third and fourth kinds, are
          hardly wise at all, for they are followers of Satan, in that they
          love only the world, and themselves for worldly ends; while people
          who concern themselves only with useful services of the fourth kind
          are the least wise of all, being devils, because they live for
          themselves alone, and if they do anything for others, it is merely
          for the sake of themselves.

          [3] “Furthermore, every love has its own delight, for love
          lives through delight, and the delight of the love of performing
          useful services is heavenly delight, which descends into the
          succeeding delights in turn and in the order of its descent
          ennobles them and makes them eternal.”

          Afterwards the men recounted some of the heavenly delights
          resulting from the love of being useful, saying that there are
          millions of them and that people enter into those delights who
          enter into heaven. And speaking further about the love of being
          useful, they drew out the day with them with wise discussions until
          evening.

        • 19. [Wedding Garments]
          19. Around evening, however, a runner dressed in linen came
          looking for the ten visitors accompanying the angel and invited
          them to a wedding to be celebrated the following day. And the
          visitors greatly rejoiced that they would also see a wedding in
          heaven.

          After this they were taken to one of the privy councillors and
          they dined with him. Then after dinner they came back, and taking
          their departure from each other, they separated, each to his own
          bedroom, where they slept till morning.

          On waking in the morning, they then heard the singing of young
          women and girls coming from the houses around the public square, as
          previously described.[*2] The affection expressed in the singing
          that morning was one of married love. Being deeply affected and
          moved by the sweetness of it, they began to perceive a pleasant
          sense of bliss being implanted in their feelings of joy, which
          elevated those feelings and gave them a new quality.

          When it was time, the angel said, “Get yourselves ready and
          put on the garments of heaven which our prince sent to you before.”

          So they dressed, and suddenly their garments began to shine as
          if with a flaming light. And they asked the angel, “Why is
          this happening?”

          The angel replied, “It is because you are going to a
          wedding. It happens with us that on such occasions our garments
          shine and they become wedding garments.”

          [*1] See above, no. 17:2.

        • 20. [A Wedding in Heaven]
          20. Afterwards the angel took them to the house where the
          wedding was to take place, and a doorman opened the doors for them.
          Then shortly, inside the doorway, they were welcomed and greeted by
          an angel sent by the bridegroom, and they were taken in and
          escorted to seats reserved for them. Presently, then, they were
          invited into an anteroom outside the marriage chamber, where they
          saw a table in the center. On the table stood a magnificent
          candelabrum with seven branches and cups of gold. Over on the walls
          hung lampholders of silver, which, once lit, caused the
          surroundings to appear as though golden. And to the sides of the
          candelabrum they saw two tables holding cakes placed in three rows,
          and in the four corners of the room, tables set with crystal
          goblets.

          [2] While they were looking at these things, suddenly a door
          opened from a room next to the bridal chamber, and they saw six
          young women coming out, and behind them the bridegroom and bride,
          holding each other by the hand and escorting each other to a seat
          of honor. The seat was placed facing the candelabrum, and they took
          their places on it, the bridegroom on the left side of the bride,
          and the bride on his right. And the six young women stood to the
          side of the seat, next to the bride.

          The bridegroom was dressed in a glistening purple robe and a
          tunic of shining linen, with an ephod bearing a gold plaque studded
          around the edges with diamonds. Engraved on the plaque was a young
          eaglet, the wedding emblem of that society of heaven. And on his
          head the bridegroom wore a turban.

          The bride, moreover, was dressed in a scarlet mantle, and under
          it an embroidered gown, extending from her neck to her feet, and
          about the waist she wore a golden cummerbund, and on her head a
          crown of gold studded with rubies.

          [3] When they were thus seated together, the bridegroom turned
          to the bride and placed a gold ring on her finger, and taking out
          bracelets and a necklace of pearls, he fastened the bracelets on
          her wrists and the necklace around her neck. Then he said, “Accept
          these tokens.” And when she accepted them, he kissed her and
          said, “Now you are mine,” and he called her his wife.

          This done, the guests cried out, “May there be a blessing!”
          They each called this out individually, and then all together. One
          sent by the prince in the prince’s stead also called out. And at
          that moment the room was filled with an aromatic smoke, which was
          the sign of a blessing from heaven.

          Then servants in attendance took cakes from the two tables next
          to the candelabrum, and goblets, now filled with wine, from the
          tables in the four corners of the room, and they gave each guest a
          piece of cake and a goblet, and they ate and they drank.

          Later the husband and his wife arose, followed to the doorway by
          the six young women carrying silver lamps, which were now lit. And
          the married couple entered the marriage chamber, and the door was
          closed.

        • 21. [What the Wedding Means]
          21. Afterwards the angel guide spoke with the guests regarding
          his ten companions, saying that he had brought them in by command
          and had shown them the magnificence of the prince’s palace with the
          wonders it contained, and that they had dined at luncheon with the
          prince. He said, too, that they had subsequently spoken with some
          of the wise men of the society, and he asked the guests if they
          would permit the visitors to engage in some conversation with them
          as well.

          So they came and spoke with them. And one of the wise among the
          men at the wedding said, “Do you understand the meanings of
          the things you have seen?”

          They said, a little. And then they asked him why the bridegroom
          – now the husband – was dressed as he was.

          The wise man replied that the bridegroom – now the husband –
          represented the Lord, and the bride – now the wife – represented
          the church, because weddings in heaven represent a marriage of the
          Lord with the church.

          “That is why the groom had a turban on his head,” the
          wise man said, “and why he was dressed in a robe, tunic and
          ephod like Aaron. And that is why the bride – now the wife – wore a
          crown on her head and was dressed in a mantle like a queen.
          Tomorrow, however, they will be dressed differently, because this
          representation lasts only this one day.”

          [2] Again the visitors asked, “If the groom represented the
          Lord and the bride the church, why did she sit on his right side?”

          The wise man answered, “It is because a marriage of the
          Lord and the church is formed by two things, namely, love and
          wisdom, the Lord being the love and the church being the wisdom,
          and wisdom sits on the right hand of love. For a person of the
          church becomes wise as though on his own, and as he becomes wise,
          he receives love from the Lord. The right hand also symbolizes
          power, and love has power through wisdom.

          “But as I said, after the wedding the representation
          changes, for then the husband represents wisdom and the wife
          represents love of that wisdom. This love, however, is not the
          first love referred to before, but a secondary love which the wife
          has from the Lord through the wisdom of her husband. The Lord’s
          love, which is the first love, is the love in the husband of
          becoming wise. Consequently, after the wedding the two together,
          the husband and his wife, represent the church.”

          [3] The visitors further asked, “Why did you men not stand
          beside the bridegroom – now the husband – as the six bridesmaids
          stood beside the bride – now the wife?”

          The wise man answered, “The reason is that on this day we
          are counted among the maidens, and the number six symbolizes all
          people and completeness.”

          But they said, “What do you mean?”

          He replied, “Maidens symbolize the church, and the church
          is made up of both sexes. Therefore we, too, are maidens in terms
          of the church. That this is so appears from these words in the book
          of Revelation:

          These are the ones who were not defiled with women, for they are
          virgins and follow the Lamb wherever He goes. (Revelation 14:4)

          “Moreover, because maidens symbolize the church, therefore
          the Lord likened the church to ten virgins invited to a wedding
          (Matthew 25:1ff.). And because the church is symbolized by Israel,
          Zion and Jerusalem, therefore the Word so often refers to the
          “virgin” and “daughter” of Israel, of Zion and
          of Jerusalem. The Lord also describes His marriage with the church
          by these words in the Psalms of David:

          At your right hand, the queen in the fine gold of Ophir…, her
          clothing of inweavings of gold, she shall be brought to the King in
          garments of needlework, the virgins after her, her companions…,
          they shall come into the palace of the King. (Psalms 45:9-15)”

          [4] Afterwards the visitors asked, “Is it not proper for a
          priest to be present and officiate in these ceremonies?”

          The wise man answered, “It is proper on earth, but not in
          heaven because of the couple’s representing the Lord and the
          church. People on earth do not know this. But among us a priest
          still performs betrothals and hears, receives, confirms and
          consecrates the consent. The consent is the essential element in
          marriage, and the rest of the things that follow are its
          formalities.”

        • 22. [The Modest Bridesmaids]
          22. After this the angel guide went over to the six bridesmaids
          and told them as well about his companions, and he asked them to
          grace the visitors with their company. So they started to approach,
          but when they drew near, they suddenly turned back and went into
          the women’s quarters where their friends, young women like them,
          were.

          Seeing this, the angel guide followed them and asked them why
          they had turned away so suddenly without speaking to the visitors.
          They replied, “We could not go near.” And the angel said,
          “Why not?” And they answered, “We do not know, but
          we felt something that repelled us and drew us back. We hope they
          forgive us.”

          So the angel returned to his companions and told them the young
          women’s response, and he added, “I divine that you do not have
          a chaste love for the opposite sex. In heaven we love young women
          for their beauty and elegance of manners, and we love them very
          much, but chastely.”

          At this his companions laughed and said, “You divine
          correctly. Who can see such beauties near and not feel some
          desire?”

        • 23. [Going to Church]
          23. At the end of this festive reception, the wedding guests all
          departed, including the ten men with their angel. It was late
          evening and they went to bed.

          At dawn they heard a cry proclaiming, “Today is the
          Sabbath.” So they arose and asked the angel, “What does
          this mean?”

          The angel replied that it was a call to worship of God, which
          recurs at prescribed times and is proclaimed by the priests. “The
          worship takes place in our temples,” he said, “and lasts
          about two hours. Come with me, therefore, if you like, and I will
          take you in.”

          So they readied themselves, and accompanying the angel, they
          went in. And lo, the temple was huge, capable of holding about
          three thousand people. It was semicircular, with benches or pews
          arranged around in circular fashion following the contour of the
          temple, and the seats in back were higher than those in front. The
          pulpit was in front of the seats, placed a little way back from the
          center. There was a door behind the pulpit on the left.

          The ten newcomers entered with their angel guide, and the angel
          gave them places to sit, saying to them, “Everyone who comes
          into the temple knows his own place. He knows this by instinct, nor
          can he sit anywhere else. If he sits elsewhere, he hears nothing
          and understands nothing, and he also disturbs the order of things;
          and when the order is disturbed, the priest is not inspired.”

        • 24. [A Heavenly Sermon]
          24. When the congregation was assembled, a priest went up into
          the pulpit, and he preached a sermon full of the spirit of wisdom.
          He preached on the sacredness of the Holy Scripture and on the
          conjunction of the Lord with each world, the spiritual and the
          natural, by means of it. In the enlightenment in which he was, he
          established fully that that Holy Book was dictated by Jehovah the
          Lord, and that the Lord is therefore present in it, even so that He
          is the wisdom in it. But that wisdom, he said, which is the Lord in
          it, lies hidden beneath the literal meaning and is not disclosed
          except to people who are concerned with truths of doctrine and at
          the same time with goodness in life, thus who are in the Lord and
          the Lord in them.

          He concluded the sermon with a reverent prayer and descended.

          As the members of the congregation were leaving, the angel asked
          the priest to say a few words of farewell to his ten companions. So
          he came over to them, and they talked for half an hour. The priest
          spoke about the Divine Trinity, saying that it exists in Jesus
          Christ, in whom dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily,
          according to the statement of the apostle Paul.[*1] Then he spoke
          of the union of charity and faith, though he said the union of
          charity and truth, because faith is truth.

          [*1] Colossians 2:9.

        • 25. [Departure]
          25. After expressing their thanks, the visitors went home, and
          there the angel said to them, “Today is the third day since
          your ascent into the society of this heaven, and you were prepared
          by the Lord to stay here for three days. Consequently it is time
          for us to part. Take off the garments sent by the prince,
          therefore, and put on your own.”

          Then, when they were in their own clothing, they were filled
          with a desire to leave, and they left and descended, with the angel
          accompanying them till they reached the place of assembly. And
          there they gave thanks to the Lord, that He had deigned to bless
          them with knowledge and so with understanding regarding heavenly
          joys and eternal happiness.

      • 26. [Heaven Opened]
        26. Again I swear in truth that these events and words occurred
        as I have related them, the first ones in the world of spirits,
        which is midway between heaven and hell, and the subsequent ones in
        a society of heaven, the society from which came the angel with the
        trumpet, who acted as guide.

        Who in the Christian world would know anything about heaven and
        the joys and happiness there – knowledge of which is also knowledge
        of salvation – unless it pleased the Lord to open to someone the
        sight of his spirit and to show him and teach him?

        Corroboration that things like these occur in the spiritual
        world appears plainly from the things seen and heard by the apostle
        John, as described in the book of Revelation. For example, he
        describes having seen the following:

        The Son of Man in the midst of the seven lampstands.[*1]

        A tabernacle, temple, ark, and altar in heaven.[*2]

        A book sealed with seven seals. The book opened, and horses
        going out of it.[*3]

        Four living creatures around a throne.[*4]

        Twelve thousand taken from each tribe.[*5]

        Locusts arising out of the abyss.[*6]

        A dragon and its fight with Michael.[*7]

        A woman giving birth to a male child and fleeing into the
        wilderness because of the dragon.[*8]

        Two beasts, one rising up out of the sea, the other out of the
        earth.[*9]

        A woman sitting on a scarlet beast.[*10]

        The dragon cast into a lake of fire and brimstone.[*11]

        A white horse, and a great supper.[*12]

        A new heaven and a new earth, and the holy Jerusalem coming
        down, described as to its gates, wall, and foundations.[*13]

        Also a river of water of life, and trees of life yielding fruits
        every month.[*14]

        Besides many other things, all of which were seen by John, and
        seen when he was in the spirit[*15] in the spiritual world and in
        heaven. In addition, those things which were seen by the apostles
        after the Lord’s resurrection.[*16] And which were later seen by
        Peter (Acts of the Apostles, chapter 11).[*17] Also which were then
        seen and heard by Paul.[*18]

        Moreover, there were the things seen by the prophets. For
        example, Ezekiel saw the following:

        Four living creatures, which were cherubs. (Ezekiel 1 and 10)

        A new temple and a new earth, and an angel measuring them.
        (Ezekiel 40-48)

        Being carried off to Jerusalem, he saw the abominations there.
        (Ezekiel 8) And he was also carried off into Chaldea, to those in
        captivity. (Ezekiel 11)[*19]

        Something similar happened with Zechariah:

        He saw a man riding among myrtle trees. (Zechariah 1:8ff.)

        He saw four horns, and then a man with a measuring line in his
        hand. (Zechariah 1:18ff., 2:1ff.)

        He saw a lampstand and two olive trees. (Zechariah 4:1ff.)

        He saw a flying scroll, and an ephah. (Zechariah 5:1,6)

        He saw four chariots coming from between two mountains, with
        horses. (Zechariah 6:1ff.)

        Likewise with Daniel:

        He saw four beasts come up from the sea. (Daniel 7:1ff.)

        Also the combats of a ram and a goat. (Daniel 8:1ff.)

        He saw the angel Gabriel, who spoke at length with him. (Daniel
        9)[*20]

        Moreover, Elisha’s young man saw fiery chariots and horses
        around Elisha, and he saw them when his eyes were opened.[*21]

        From these and many other passages in the Word, it is evident
        that the things which exist in the spiritual world have appeared to
        many, before and after the Lord’s Advent. Why should it be
        surprising for them to appear also now, when the Church is
        beginning and the New Jerusalem is coming down from the Lord out of
        heaven?

        [*1] Revelation 1:12,13.

        [*2] E.g., Revelation 6:9, 8:3, 9:13, 11:19, 14:17,18, 15:5,6,8.

        [*3] Revelation 5:1, 6:1-8.

        [*4] Revelation 4:6, et al.

        [*5] Revelation 7:4-8.

        [*6] Revelation 9:2,3.

        [*7] Revelation 12:3,4,7.

        [*8] Revelation 12:1-6.

        [*9] Revelation 13:1ff.,11ff.

        [*10] Revelation 17:3ff.

        [*11] Revelation 20:10.

        [*12] Revelation 19:11,17,18.

        [*13] Revelation 21:1,2,12-21.

        [*14] Revelation 22:1,2.

        [*15] Revelation 1:10, 4:2, 17:3, 21:10.

        [*16] See Matthew 28, Mark 16, Luke 24, John 20, 21, Acts
        1:4-11.

        [*17] Acts 10:9-16, 11:5-10.

        [*18] See Acts 9:1-19, 22:6-21, 26:12-18.

        [*19] Ezekiel 11:24.

        [*20] Daniel 9:20-27.

        [*21] 2 Kings 6:17.

    • 27. MARRIAGES IN HEAVEN
        • 27. [Disbelief comes from lack of knowledge.]
          People cannot accept as a matter of faith that marriages exist
          in heaven if they believe that a person is a soul or spirit after
          death, and hold to an idea of the soul or spirit as being like thin
          air or a puff of breath. Nor can they accept it if they believe
          that a person does not live again as a person until after the day
          of the Last Judgment.

          In general, people cannot accept the existence of marriages in
          heaven if they know nothing about the spiritual world, the world in
          which angels and spirits live, consequently where the heavens and
          hells are. Moreover, because that world has till now remained
          unknown, and because it has not been known at all that the angels
          in heaven are people in perfect form, likewise that the spirits in
          hell are people in imperfect form, therefore nothing could be
          revealed respecting marriages in that world. Indeed, people would
          have said, “How can a soul be united with a soul, or a bit of
          breath with a bit of breath, as husbands and wives are united on
          earth?”

          There would have been many other objections, too, which, the
          moment they were voiced, would have taken away and dispelled belief
          in the existence of marriages in the other world.

          Now, however, many things have been revealed about that world,
          and what that world is like has been described. This I did in the
          book, Heaven and Hell, and also in The Apocalypse Revealed. Because
          of this, the existence of marriages there can be defended, even to
          the sight of reason, by the following arguments:

          (1) A person lives as a person after death.

          (2) A male is then still a male, and a female still a female.

          (3) Everyone’s own love remains in him after death.

          (4) Especially does a love for the opposite sex remain, and in
          the case of people coming into heaven, namely, people who become
          spiritual on earth, married love.

          (5) All of this has been fully attested by personal observation.

          (6) Consequently, marriages exist in heaven.

          (7) Spiritual marriage is meant by the Lord’s words, that after
          the resurrection they are not given in marriage.

          Development of these arguments now follows, taking them one by
          one:

      • (1) A person lives as a person after death.
          • 28. [What people think of heaven.]
            28. (1) A person lives as a person after death. It has not been
            known in the world till now that a person lives as a person after
            death, for the reasons just mentioned above. And what is
            remarkable, it has not been known even in the Christian world,
            where people have the Word and therefore enlightenment regarding
            eternal life on account of the Word, in which the Lord Himself
            teaches that the dead all rise again, and that God is not God of
            the dead, but of the living (Matthew 22:31,32, Luke 20:37,38).

            Moreover, in respect to the affections and thoughts of his mind
            a person is in the midst of angels and spirits and is so
            associated with them that he could not be severed from them
            without dying. It is still more remarkable that this, too, is not
            known, even though every person who has died from the beginning of
            creation, after death has gone and continues to go to his own, or,
            as the Word says, has been gathered and is gathered to his
            people.[*1]

            In addition, people also have a general perception (which is
            the same thing as saying an influx of heaven into the inner
            faculties of their minds), which causes them to perceive truths
            inwardly in themselves and, in a way, to see them, and especially
            this truth, that one lives as a person after death, happily if he
            has lived well, and unhappily if he has lived ill. For who does
            not have this thought when he elevates his mind a little from the
            body and from the thinking nearest his senses, as happens when he
            is inwardly in a state of Divine worship, or when he lies dying in
            his bed and is awaiting the end. Likewise when he is told about
            the deceased and their lot.

            I have reported thousands of things about the dead, as for
            example, what the lot of certain people’s brothers, married
            partners, and friends was like. I have written as well about the
            lot of Englishmen, Dutchmen, Roman Catholics, Jews, and gentiles,
            and also about the lot of Luther, Calvin and Melanchthon. And I
            have never yet heard anyone say, “How can that be their lot
            when they have not yet risen from their graves, seeing that the
            Last Judgment has not yet taken place! Are they not in the
            meantime souls that are bits of breath, existing in some limbo or
            other?”

            I have heard no one say anything like that yet. And from this I
            have been able to conclude that everyone has an inner perception
            that one lives as a person after death.

            What man who has loved his married partner and his infants and
            children, does not say to himself when they are dying or dead, if
            he is in a state of thought raised above the sensory things of the
            body, that they are in the hand of God, and that following his own
            death he will see them again and join with them once more in a
            life of love and joy?

            [*1] See Genesis 25:8,17, 35:29, 49:29,33; Numbers 20:24,26,
            27:13, 31:2; Deuteronomy 32:50; also Genesis 15:15; Judges 2:10; 2
            Kings 22:20; 2 Chronicles 34:28; Acts 13:36.

          • 29. [Afterlife is not ethereal.]
            29. Who cannot see in accord with reason, if he is willing to
            see, that a person after death is not a bit of breath, of which he
            has no other idea than that it is like a puff of wind, or like air
            or ether, which is or in which is the person’s soul, longing and
            waiting for union with its body so that it may enjoy sensations
            and the pleasures of the senses as it did before in the world? Who
            cannot see that if this were the case with a person after death,
            his condition would be worse than the condition of fishes, birds
            and animals of the earth, whose souls do not live on and so do not
            exist in a state of such anxious suspense from longing and
            waiting?

            If a person after death were such a bit of breath and thus a
            puff of wind, either he would then be flitting around the
            universe, or, according to the traditions of some, he would be
            kept in some sort of nether world, or as the church fathers call
            it, in limbo, until the Last Judgment.

            Who using his reason cannot conclude accordingly that people
            who have lived from the beginning of creation – a period reckoned
            at six thousand years – would still be in the same state of
            suspense, and in a progressively more anxious state of suspense,
            since all waiting with desire produces anxious suspense and with
            the passage of time increases it. And would not one conclude
            accordingly that they either must still be flitting around the
            universe or are being kept shut up in limbo, and so are in extreme
            misery? This would include Adam and his wife, likewise Abraham,
            Isaac and Jacob, and likewise all the rest from that time.

            According to this line of thinking, nothing would be more
            lamentable than to be born a human being.

            But the opposite has been provided by the Lord, who is Jehovah
            from eternity and the Creator of the universe. He has provided
            that the condition of a person who conjoins himself with Him by
            living according to His commandments be more blessed and happy
            after death than his condition before it in the world, and that it
            be more blessed and happy for the reason that the person is then
            spiritual, and a spiritual person feels and experiences spiritual
            delight, which is superior to natural delight, because it exceeds
            it a thousand times.

          • 30. [People in the Bible saw angels as human.]
            30. Angels and spirits are people, and this can be seen from
            the ones who appeared to Abraham, Gideon, Daniel and the prophets,
            especially to John when he wrote the book of Revelation, and also
            to the women at the Lord’s tomb. Indeed, the Lord Himself appeared
            to the disciples after His resurrection. These appearances
            occurred because the eyes of the spirit of the people who saw them
            were opened, and when the eyes of the spirit are opened, angels
            appear in their true form, which is human. But when the eyes of
            the spirit are closed, that is, when they are covered over by the
            sight of eyes which draw all their sensations from the material
            world, then angels and spirits do not appear.

        • 31. [The difference between spiritual and
          natural.]

          31. It must be known, however, that after death a person is not
          a natural person, but a spiritual person, and yet he appears just
          the same to himself, and so much the same that he is not aware of
          being anywhere else than still in the natural world. For he is the
          same in body, in facial appearance, in speech and in the
          sensations he feels, because he is the same in affection and
          thought, having the same will and intellect.

          He is, in fact, not actually the same, because he is spiritual
          and therefore an interior man. But the difference is not apparent
          to him, because he cannot compare his present state with his
          earlier, natural state, having put off the natural state and being
          in a spiritual state.

          I have quite often heard such persons say, therefore, that they
          are not aware of being anywhere else than in the previous world,
          with the sole difference that they no longer see people whom they
          left behind in that earlier world, while they do see those who had
          departed or passed on from that world.

          Nevertheless, the reason they now see people who had passed on
          and not those whom they left behind is because they are not
          natural people but spiritual or essential people, and a spiritual
          or essential person sees another spiritual or essential person in
          the same way as a natural or material person sees another natural
          or material person.

          Natural people and spiritual people do not see each other,
          however, on account of the difference between the essential and
          the material, which is like the difference between something prior
          and something subsequent. And because the prior is in itself
          purer, it cannot be seen by the subsequent, which, in itself, is
          cruder; nor can the subsequent, owing to its being cruder, be seen
          by the prior, which in itself is purer. Consequently, an angel
          cannot be seen by a person of this world, neither can a person of
          this world be seen by an angel.

          A person after death is a spiritual or essential person because
          the spiritual or essential person lay hidden within the natural or
          material person. The latter served him as clothing, or like a
          shell to be put off, and when it is laid aside, the spiritual or
          essential person emerges, being thus purer, more interior and more
          perfect.

          A spiritual person is still a complete person, even though not
          visible to a natural person, and this was clearly shown by the
          Lord’s appearances to the apostles after His resurrection, in that
          He appeared and then disappeared, and yet remained the same person
          He was whether He was seen or unseen. They also said that when
          they saw Him, their eyes were opened.[*1]

          [*1] See Luke 24:31.

      • (2) A male is then still a male, and a female
        still a female.

          • 32. [Essential masculinity and femininity.]
            32. (2) A male is then still a male, and a female still a
            female. Since a person lives as a person after death, and people
            are male and female, and since it is one thing to be masculine and
            another to be feminine, with the two qualities being so different
            that one cannot be converted into the other, it follows that after
            death a male still lives as a male and a female still lives as a
            female, each of them being a spiritual person.

            We say that masculinity cannot be converted into femininity,
            nor femininity into masculinity, and that after death a male is
            consequently still a male, and a female still a female. But
            because people do not know what masculinity consists in
            essentially, and what femininity consists in essentially,
            therefore we must say a few words about it here.

            The difference essentially consists in this, that the inmost
            quality in masculinity is love, and its veil wisdom, or in other
            words, it is love veiled over with wisdom, while the inmost
            quality in femininity is that same wisdom, the wisdom of
            masculinity, and its veil the love resulting from it. This second
            love, however, is a feminine love, and it is given by the Lord to
            a wife through the wisdom of her husband, whereas that first love
            is a masculine love, which is a love of becoming wise, and it is
            given by the Lord to a husband according to his reception of
            wisdom. Consequently, the male is a form of the wisdom of love,
            and the female is a form of the love of that wisdom. Therefore
            from creation there was implanted in both male and female a love
            of uniting into one. But more on this subject will be said later.

            Testimony that femininity is derived from masculinity, or that
            woman was taken out of man, appears from these verses in Genesis:

            Jehovah God…took one of the ribs of the man, and closed up
            the flesh in its place. And the rib which He had taken from man He
            fashioned into a woman, and He brought her to the man. And the man
            said: “She is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh.
            Therefore she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of
            Man.” (Genesis 2:21-23)

            Elsewhere it will be said what a rib symbolizes, and what flesh
            symbolizes.[*1]

            [*1] See no. 193.

        • 33. [Different and complementary]
          33. It is owing to this original formation that a male is born
          intellect-oriented and that a female is born will-oriented, or in
          other words, that a male is born with an affection for knowing,
          understanding and becoming wise, while a female is born with a
          love for joining herself to that affection in the male.

          Furthermore, because interior qualities form the exterior ones
          to their likeness, and the masculine form is a form of the
          intellect while the feminine form is a form of the love of the
          intellect, therefore the male has a different look, a different
          sound, and a different physique from the female. Namely, he has a
          tougher look, a rougher sound, and a stronger physique, and
          moreover his lower face is bearded. In general, he has a less
          beautiful form than the female. The two sexes also differ in
          behavior and manners. In short, nothing in the two sexes is the
          same, although there is nevertheless a capacity for conjunction in
          every detail.

          Indeed, masculinity in the male is masculine in every part,
          even in the least part of his body, and also in every idea of his
          thought, and in every bit of his affection. So, too, with
          femininity in the female. And because one cannot as a consequence
          be converted into the other, it follows that after death a male is
          still male, and that a female is still female.

      • (3) Everyone’s own love remains in him after
        death.

          • 34. [What love is]
            34. (3) Everyone’s own love remains in him after death. People
            know that love exists, but they do not know what love is. They
            know that it exists from common conversation. For instance, people
            say that “he loves me,” that a king loves his subjects
            and the subjects love their king, that a husband loves his wife,
            and a mother her children, and vice versa, also that this person
            or that loves his country, his fellow citizens, his neighbor. So,
            too, with matters abstracted from person, as in saying that one
            loves this or that thing.

            But even though love is so frequently mentioned, nevertheless
            scarcely anyone knows what love is. Whenever someone meditates on
            it, he cannot then form for himself any idea in his thought about
            it, thus he cannot bring it into the light of his understanding,
            because it is not a matter of light but of warmth. Therefore he
            says either that love is not anything, or that it is merely some
            stimulus flowing in through his vision, hearing and social
            interaction, which thus affects him. He does not know that love is
            his very life, not only the general life in his whole body and the
            general life in all his thoughts, but also the life in every
            single particle of them.

            The wise person can perceive this from considering the
            following proposition: If you take away the impulse of love, can
            you form any thought? Or can you perform any action? In the
            measure that the affection belonging to love cools, is it not true
            that in the same measure thought, speech and action cool? And the
            warmer the affection grows, the warmer they grow?

            Love, therefore, is the warmth in a person’s life or his vital
            heat. The warmth of the blood, and also its redness, have no other
            origin. The fire of the angelic sun, which is pure love, causes
            it.

          • 35. [Love is the real person]
            35. Everyone has his own love, or a love different from anyone
            else’s love. That is, no one person has the same love as another.
            This can be seen from the endless variety in facial features.
            Faces are the representative images of loves. Everyone knows that
            facial expressions change and vary according to the affections of
            love. Desires also, which have to do with love, as well as
            feelings of joy and pain, shine forth from the face.

            From this it is evident that a person is what he loves, or
            rather, that he is the form of his love. But it should be known
            that it is the inner person – which is the same as his spirit that
            lives after death – that is the form of his love. Not so the outer
            person in the world, because the outer person has learned from
            early childhood to hide the desires of his love, indeed, to
            pretend and feign other desires than his true ones.

        • 36. [Love is what remains]
          36. Everyone’s own love remains in him after death for the
          reason that love is a person’s life (as just said above, no. 34),
          and consequently it is the real person. A person is also what he
          thinks, thus what his intelligence and wisdom are, but these are
          united with his love. For a person thinks because of his love and
          according to it; in fact, if he is free to do so, he speaks and
          acts from it. From this it can be seen that love is the being or
          essence of a person’s life, and that thought is the resulting
          expression or manifestation of his life. Speech and action that
          spring from thought, therefore, do not spring from thought, but
          from love acting through thought.

          I have been granted to know from a good deal of experience that
          a person after death is not what he thinks but what his affection
          is and what he thinks from that, which is to say that he is what
          his love is and subsequently his intelligence. I have also been
          granted to know that after death a person puts away everything
          that is not in harmony with his love; indeed, that he
          progressively takes on the look, sound, speech, behavior and
          manners of his life’s love. It is for this reason that the whole
          of heaven has been set in order according to all the varieties in
          the affections connected with the love of good, and that the whole
          of hell has been arranged according to all the affections
          connected with the love of evil.

      • (4) Especially does a love for the opposite
        sex remain, and in the case of people coming into heaven, namely,
        people who become spiritual on earth, married love.

          • 37. [Sexuality is intrinsic]
            37. (4) Especially does a love for the opposite sex remain, and
            in the case of people coming into heaven, namely, people who
            become spiritual on earth, married love. A love for the opposite
            sex remains in a person after death for the reason that a male is
            then still a male, and a female still a female, and masculinity in
            the male is masculine in the whole and every part of him, likewise
            femininity in the female, and there is a capacity for conjunction
            in every detail – indeed, in every least detail – of the two
            sexes.

            Now, because that capacity for conjunction was introduced from
            creation and is therefore permanently present in the two sexes, it
            follows that each yearns for and aspires to conjunction with the
            other.

            Love regarded in itself is nothing but a desire for and
            consequent effort to conjunction, and married love is a desire for
            and effort to conjunction into one. For the human male and the
            human female were so created that from being two they might become
            as though one person or one flesh.[*1] And when they become one,
            then taken together they are man in his fullest sense.[*2] But
            without that conjunction they are two, and each is like a person
            divided or half a person.

            Now, because that innate capacity for conjunction lies inmostly
            within every single aspect of the male and in every single aspect
            of the female, and an ability and desire for conjunction into one
            is present in every part, it follows that a mutual and reciprocal
            love for the opposite sex remains in people after death.

            [*1] Genesis 2:24, Matthew 19:4-6, Mark 10:6-9.

            [*2] Cf. Genesis 1:27.

        • 38. [Married love is more than sexual love]
          38. We use the terms, love for the opposite sex and married
          love, because a love for the opposite sex is not the same as
          married love. A love for the opposite sex is found in a natural
          person, but married love in a spiritual person.

          A natural person loves and wants only external conjunctions,
          with the physical pleasures arising from them, while a spiritual
          person loves and wants an internal conjunction, with the states of
          spiritual happiness resulting from it. The spiritual person also
          perceives that these states of happiness are possible with only
          one wife, with whom he can be continually joined more and more
          into one. And the more he is so joined with her, in the same
          degree he feels his states of happiness ascending and remaining
          constant to eternity. The natural person, on the other hand, does
          not think in this way.

          That, now, is why we say that married love remains after death
          in the case of people coming into heaven, who are those who become
          spiritual on earth.

      • (5) All of this has been fully attested by
        personal observation.

        • 39. Personal observation
          39. (5) All of this has been fully attested by personal
          observation. That a person lives as a person after death, that a
          male is then still a male, and a female a female, and that
          everyone’s own love remains in him, especially love for the
          opposite sex and married love – these points I have so far
          endeavored to establish by the sort of arguments that appeal to
          the intellect and are called rational.

          But from early childhood people have acquired the belief from
          parents and teachers, and afterward from the learned and the
          clergy, that a person will not live as a person after death until
          after the day of the Last Judgment, which they have been waiting
          for, now, for six thousand years.

          Because of this, and because many people have placed this
          question among matters to be accepted on faith and not with the
          understanding, it has become necessary that these same points be
          attested also by the affidavits of an eyewitness. Otherwise people
          who trust only in their senses will say, in accord with the faith
          instilled in them, “If people lived as people after death, I
          would see them and hear them. Besides, who has come down from
          heaven or ascended from hell and told us?”

          It has not been possible, however, neither is it possible, for
          any angel of heaven to descend or any spirit of hell to ascend so
          as to speak with any person, except with those who have had the
          inner faculties of their mind, the faculties of their spirit,
          opened by the Lord. And this cannot take place fully except in the
          case of those who have been prepared by the Lord to receive such
          things as have to do with spiritual wisdom.

          It has therefore pleased the Lord to do this with me, in order
          to keep the states of heaven and hell and the state of people’s
          life after death from remaining unknown, and from being laid to
          sleep in ignorance, and from being finally buried in denial.

          But my personal observations and testimony regarding the points
          outlined above are too extensive to be presented here. I have
          presented them, however, in the book, Heaven and Hell, and then in
          Continuation Concerning the Spiritual World,[*1] and later in The
          Apocalypse Revealed. Meanwhile, respecting marriages specifically,
          see what is presented here in the narrative accounts that come at
          the end of the sections or chapters of this book.

          [*1] = Continuation Concerning the Last Judgment and the
          Spiritual World.

      • (6) Consequently, marriages exist in heaven.
        • 40. [Marriages in heaven]
          40. (6) Consequently, marriages exist in heaven. Since this has
          now been established by reason and at the same time by my
          experience, it does not need further demonstration.

      • (7) Spiritual marriage is meant by the Lord’s
        words, that after the resurrection they are not given in marriage.

        • 41. [Spiritual marriage]
          41. (7) Spiritual marriage is meant by the Lord’s words, that
          after the resurrection they are not given in marriage. In the
          Gospels we read the following:

          Some of the Sadducees, who deny that there is a
          resurrection…, asked Jesus, saying, “Teacher, Moses
          wrote…that if anyone’s brother dies, having a wife, and he dies
          without children, his brother should take his wife and raise up
          offspring for his brother…. There were seven brothers, (and one
          after another they took her as wife, but they died childless)….
          Lastly…the woman died also. In the resurrection, therefore,
          whose wife of them does she become…?”

          But Jesus, answering, said to them, “The children of this
          age marry and are given in marriage. But those who shall be held
          worthy to attain the second age, and the resurrection from the
          dead, shall neither marry nor be given in marriage; nor can they
          die any more, for they are like the angels, and are children of
          God, being children of the resurrection. Moreover, that the dead
          rise again, even Moses showed in reference to the bush, when he
          calls the Lord “the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the
          God of Jacob.” So, then, He is not God of the dead but of the
          living, for all live to Him.” (Luke 20:27-38; cf. Matthew
          22:23-32, Mark 12:18-27)

          The Lord taught two things by these words. First, that a person
          rises again after death. And secondly, that people are not given
          in marriage in heaven.

          He taught that a person rises again after death by saying that
          God is not God of the dead but of the living, and that Abraham,
          Isaac and Jacob are still alive. So likewise in the parable about
          the rich man in hell and Lazarus in heaven (Luke 16:19-31).

          [2] Secondly, He taught that people are not given in marriage
          in heaven by saying that those who are held worthy to attain the
          second age neither marry nor are given in marriage.

          The only kind of marriage meant here is spiritual marriage, and
          this clearly appears from the words that immediately follow, that
          they cannot die any more because they are like the angels and are
          children of God, being children of the resurrection.

          By spiritual marriage, conjunction with the Lord is meant, and
          this is achieved on earth. And when it has been achieved on earth,
          it has also been achieved in heaven. Therefore in heaven the
          marriage does not take place again, nor are people given in
          marriage. This, too, is meant by the words, “The children of
          this age marry and are given in marriage. But those who are held
          worthy to attain the second age neither marry nor are given in
          marriage.”

          Such persons are also called by the Lord, “children of the
          wedding”[*1] (Matthew 9:15, Mark 2:19), and here, “angels,”
          “children of God,” and “children of the
          resurrection.”

          [3] To marry means to be conjoined with the Lord, and to go to
          a wedding means to be received into heaven by the Lord. This
          appears from the following references:

          The kingdom of heaven is like a man, a king, who arranged a
          wedding for his son, and sent out his servants (with invitations
          to a wedding). (Matthew 22:2,3, to verse 14)

          The kingdom of heaven is like ten virgins, who…went out to
          meet the bridegroom (five of whom were prepared to go to the
          wedding). (Matthew 25:1ff.)

          The Lord meant Himself in this passage, which is apparent from
          the thirteenth verse there, where it says,

          Stay awake…, because you know not the day and the hour in
          which the Son of Man will come. (Matthew 25:13)

          Also from the book of Revelation:

          The time for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife
          has made herself ready…. Blessed are those who are called to the
          marriage supper of the Lamb. (Revelation 19:7,9)

          There is a spiritual meaning in each and every thing the Lord
          said, and this we fully showed in The Doctrine of the New
          Jerusalem Regarding the Sacred Scripture (published in Amsterdam
          in 1763).

          [*1] Actually, “children of the bridechamber.”

      • Married love seen in its embodiment in a
        married couple conveyed down from heaven (nos. 42,
        43).

          • 42. [A married couple from heaven]
            42. To this I will append two narrative accounts from the
            spiritual world. Here is the first:

            One morning I looked up into the sky, and I saw above me
            expanse upon expanse. And as I looked, the first or nearest
            expanse was opened, and shortly the second, which was above it,
            and finally the third, which was the highest of all. By the light
            coming from them I perceived that on the first expanse were angels
            of the first or lowest heaven, on the second expanse were angels
            of the second or middle heaven, and on the third expanse were
            angels of the third or highest heaven.

            I wondered at first what was happening and why. But shortly I
            heard a voice from heaven like the sound of a trumpet, saying, “We
            have perceived, and now see, that you are meditating on married
            love. Moreover, we know that so far no one on earth knows what
            true married love is in its origin or in its essence, and yet it
            is important for them to know. Therefore it has pleased the Lord
            to open the heavens to you, that the inner faculties of your mind
            may receive an influx of illuminating light and thus perception.

            “Among us in heaven, especially in the third heaven, our
            heavenly delights come principally from married love.
            Consequently, by permission granted us, we will send a married
            couple down to you, in order that you may see.”

            [2] And suddenly, then, a carriage appeared, coming down from
            the highest or third heaven, in which I saw a single angel. But as
            it drew near, I saw that it held two.

            The carriage shone before my eyes in the distance like a
            diamond, and harnessed to it were young horses as white as snow.
            And the couple sitting in the carriage held in their hands a pair
            of turtledoves.

            And the couple called out to me, “You want us to come
            closer. But beware, then, of the flashing light coming from our
            heaven, the heaven we descended from. It is a blazing light, and
            you must take care that it does not penetrate interiorly. By its
            influx, indeed, the higher ideas of your understanding are
            enlightened, ideas that, in themselves, are heavenly. But these
            same ideas are inexpressible in the world in which you live.
            Receive the things you are about to hear, therefore, in rational
            terms and so explain them to the understanding.”

            I replied, “I will take care. Come closer.”

            So they came, and behold, it was a husband and his wife. And
            they said, “We are married. We have lived a blessed life in
            heaven from the earliest time, which you call the golden age,
            remaining forever in the same flower of youth that you see us in
            today.”

            [3] I looked at the two of them closely, because I perceived
            that they represented married love in their life and in their
            adornment – in their life as shown in their faces, and in their
            adornment as shown in the garments they wore. For all angels are
            affections of love in human form. The essential, dominant
            affection shines out from their faces, and they are given clothing
            on the basis of their affection and in accordance with it.
            Consequently, in heaven they say that everyone is clothed in his
            own affection.

            The husband appeared to be between adolescence and early
            manhood in age. From his eyes flashed a light sparkling with the
            wisdom of love. His face seemed to be inmostly radiant with this
            light, and because of the radiance from within, outwardly his skin
            virtually shone. As a result, his whole facial appearance was
            singularly one of dazzling good looks.

            He was dressed in a full-length robe, and under the robe he
            wore a blue-colored garment, which was tied about the waist with a
            golden girdle bearing three precious stones, two of them
            sapphires, one on each side, and a garnet in the middle. His
            stockings were of shining linen, into which had been woven threads
            of silver; and his shoes were made entirely of silk.

            This was the representational form that married love took in
            the case of the husband.

            [4] In the case of the wife, however, it took the following
            form. I saw her face, and did not see it. I saw it as the very
            essence of beauty, and did not see it because the beauty was
            beyond expression. For there was in her face the bright glow of a
            blazing light, like the light possessed by angels in the third
            heaven, and this light dimmed my vision, so that I was simply
            stupefied by it.

            Noticing this, the wife spoke to me, saying, “What do you
            see?”

            I answered, “I see only married love and a picture of it.
            But I see and do not see.”

            At this she turned at an angle away from her husband, and then
            I could look more intently. Her eyes flashed with the light of her
            heaven, which is blazing, as I said, and so takes its quality from
            the love of wisdom. For wives in the third heaven love their
            husbands on account of their husbands’ wisdom and in response to
            it, and the husbands love their wives on account of and in
            response to that love directed towards them, and so they are
            united.

            The wife had her beauty as a result of this, such beauty that
            no artist could reproduce it or portray it in its true form, for a
            flashing of light like that is not possible in the painter’s
            colors, nor is such loveliness expressible in his art.

            Her hair was attractively arranged in a style to match her
            beauty, with jewels in the form of flowers inserted into it. She
            had a necklace of garnets, from which hung a rosette of peridots.
            And she had bracelets of pearls. She was dressed in a scarlet
            gown, and under it a purple bodice fastened in front with rubies.
            But what surprised me, the colors kept changing depending on which
            way she was facing in relation to her husband, and their sparkle
            also kept changing accordingly, being now more, now less – more
            when they faced each other, and less when she faced away at an
            angle.

            [5] When I had seen these things, they spoke with me again. And
            when the husband spoke, he spoke as though he spoke at the same
            time on behalf of his wife, and when the wife spoke, she spoke as
            though she spoke at the same time on behalf of her husband. For
            such was the union of their minds, from which comes their speech.
            It was then that I heard as well the way married love sounds, how
            it was inwardly together with, and also the result of, the
            delights of a state of peace and innocence.

            Finally they said, “They are calling us back. We have to
            go.”

            They then appeared to be again riding in a carriage, as before,
            and they were borne off along a road stretching out between flower
            gardens, from whose beds rose olive trees and trees full of
            oranges. And as they drew near their heaven, young women came to
            meet them and welcome them and take them in.

        • 43. [A message from Heaven]
          43. After this, an angel from that heaven appeared to me,
          holding in his hand a sheet of paper, which he unrolled, saying,
          “I saw that you were meditating on married love. This sheet
          of paper contains secrets of wisdom hitherto undiscovered in the
          world. They are disclosed now, because it is important. In our
          heaven there are more of these secrets than in the rest of the
          heavens, because we live in a marriage of love and wisdom. But I
          predict that none will make that love their own except those who
          are received by the Lord into the New Church, which is the New
          Jerusalem.”

          Saying this, the angel sent the unrolled sheet of paper down,
          and one angelic spirit took it and placed it on a table in a
          particular room, which he immediately locked. And handing me the
          key he said, “Write.”

      • Three newcomers from the world instructed
        about marriages in heaven (no. 44).

        • 44. [Three newcomers]
          44. The second account:

          I once saw three spirits newly arrived from the world, who were
          wandering about, exploring and asking questions. They were in a
          state of astonishment that they were living as people just as
          before and that they were seeing the same things as before. For
          they knew they had departed from the former or natural world, and
          they had believed there that they would not live as people until
          after the day of the Last Judgment, when they would be clothed
          with the flesh and bones laid in their graves.

          To remove all doubt that they were still truly people,
          therefore, they alternately inspected and touched themselves and
          others, and handled the things they found, and in a thousand ways
          kept convincing themselves that they were now people as they had
          been in the former world, except that they were seeing each other
          in a brighter light and the things they found in a greater
          splendor, thus seeing them more perfectly.

          [2] Then by chance two angelic spirits met them and stopped
          them, saying, “Where are you from?”

          And they answered, “We have departed from the world and
          are again living in a world, so we have traveled from one world to
          another. At this we are now marveling!”

          Then the three newcomers began asking the two angelic spirits
          about heaven. And because two of the three newcomers were
          adolescents, and from their eyes darted what seemed to be a spark
          of lust for the opposite sex, the angelic spirits said, “You
          have, perhaps, seen some of the women.”

          And they replied, “We have.”

          So, because the newcomers had asked about heaven, the angelic
          spirits told them the following:

          “In heaven all things are magnificent and splendid, and
          are such as eye has never seen. There are also young men and women
          there, young women of such beauty that they may be called the very
          pictures of beauty, and young men of such morality that they may
          be called the very pictures of morality. And the beauty of the
          young women and the morality of the young men correspond to each
          other, as reciprocal and mutually adaptable forms.”

          The two newcomers then asked whether human forms in heaven are
          entirely similar to human forms in the natural world. And the
          angelic spirits answered that they are completely alike, with
          nothing taken from either man or woman.

          “In a word,” the angelic spirits said, “a man is
          still a man, and a woman is still a woman, in all the perfection
          of the form in which they were created. Step aside, if you like,
          and investigate in your own case whether anything is missing to
          keep you from being the man you were before.”

          [3] Again the newcomers said, “We heard in the world from
          which we departed that in heaven they are not given in marriage,
          because they are angels.[*1] Is love between the sexes possible,
          then?”

          The angelic spirits replied, “The love you mean between
          the sexes is not possible there, but an angelic love for the
          opposite sex is, which is chaste, free of any temptation arising
          from lust.”

          To this the newcomers said, “If love for the opposite sex
          is without temptation, then what is love between the sexes?”

          And when they began to think about that love, they groaned and
          said, “How dry the joy of heaven is! What young man can then
          wish for heaven? Is not a love like that sterile and devoid of
          life?”

          To this the angelic spirits laughingly replied, “Angelic
          love for the opposite sex, or the kind of love that exists in
          heaven, is still full of the deepest delights. It is a most
          pleasant swelling of everything in the mind and consequently of
          everything in the breast, and within the breast it is as if the
          heart were sporting with the lungs. From this sport comes a
          breathing, tone and speech which cause the companionships between
          the sexes, or between young men and women, to be heavenly
          sweetness itself, which is at the same time pure.

          [4] “All newcomers on ascending to heaven are examined in
          respect to what their chastity is like, for they are introduced
          into companionships with young women – the beauties of heaven –
          and these perceive what the newcomers are like in regard to their
          love for the opposite sex. They perceive it from their tone of
          voice, their speech, their facial expression, their eyes, their
          bearing, and the atmosphere emanating from them. If the love is
          unchaste, the young women then run away and report to their
          friends that they have seen satyrs or lechers. And what is more,
          the newcomers undergo a change, and to the eyes of the angels they
          appear hairy, with feet like those of calves or leopards. They are
          also soon cast down, to keep them from polluting the atmosphere
          there with their lust.”

          Listening to this, the two newcomers again said, “Then
          there is no love between the sexes in heaven. What is chaste love
          between the sexes but love emptied of the essence of its life? Are
          the companionships of young men and women there not then dry joys?
          We are not made of stone and wood, but of living perceptions and
          affections!”

          [5] When the two angelic spirits heard this, they indignantly
          retorted, “You do not know at all what a chaste love between
          the sexes is, because you are not yet chaste! That love is a true
          delight of the mind and so of the heart, and not at the same time
          of the flesh below the heart. Angelic chastity, which is found
          equally in both sexes, prevents that love from passing beyond the
          confines of the heart. But within those confines, and above them,
          the morality of the young man and the beauty of the young woman
          find delight in the delights of a chaste love for the opposite sex
          – delights which are deeper and richer for their pleasantness than
          can be described in words.

          “But this is the love that angels have for the opposite
          sex, because they have only married love, and married love is not
          possible at the same time as an unchaste love for the opposite
          sex. True married love is a chaste love, and has nothing in common
          with unchaste love. It is with one and only one of the opposite
          sex, with all others set aside, for it is a love of the spirit and
          consequently of the body, and not a love of the body and
          consequently of the spirit, that is, it is not a love that infests
          the spirit.”

          [6] On hearing this, the two adolescent newcomers rejoiced and
          said, “Then there is still love between the sexes in heaven!
          What else is married love?”

          But to this the angelic spirits replied, “Think more
          deeply, weigh the matter, and you will see that the love you mean
          between the sexes is a love outside of marriage, and that married
          love is altogether different, being as different from the love you
          mean as the wheat is from the chaff, or better, as different as
          human life is from animal life.

          “If you were to ask women in heaven what love outside of
          marriage is, I assure you they would respond, “What is this?
          What are you saying? How can such a thing that so offends the ears
          come out of your mouth? How can a love not created in the first
          place be engendered in a person?”

          “If you then asked them what true married love is, I know
          they would answer that it is not a love for the opposite sex, but
          love for one of the sex, which arises only when a young man sees a
          young woman provided by the Lord, and the young woman the young
          man, both feeling an inclination to marry kindled in their hearts,
          and perceiving, the young man that she is for him, and the young
          woman that he is for her. For love then presents itself to love
          and causes them to recognize each other, at once joining their
          souls, and afterwards their minds. From there it enters their
          hearts, and after the wedding goes on beyond. And so it becomes a
          full love, which daily grows into union, even to the point that
          they no longer are two, but virtually one person.

          [7] “I know, too, that these same women would swear that
          they are not acquainted with any other love between the sexes. For
          they say, “How can there be love between the sexes unless it
          is so honest and reciprocal that it aspires to eternal union,
          which is that the two may be one flesh?””

          To this the angelic spirits added, “In heaven they do not
          know at all what licentiousness is, not even that it exists or is
          possible. The angels grow cold with their whole body at unchaste
          love or love outside of marriage, and on the other hand, they grow
          warm with their whole body as a result of chaste or married love.
          In the case of men there, all their sinews sink at the sight of a
          licentious woman, and grow taut at the sight of their wife.”

          [8] The three newcomers, hearing this, asked whether there is
          the same love-making between married partners in heaven as on
          earth.

          The two angelic spirits answered that it is entirely the same.
          And because they perceived that the newcomers were wanting to know
          whether they had the same end delights in heaven, they also said
          that these are entirely the same, but much more blissful, since
          the perception and sensation of angels is much more exquisite than
          the perception and sensation of people.

          “Moreover, what is the life accompanying that love,”
          the angelic spirits asked, “if it does not stem from an
          underlying condition of ability? If this ability fails, does that
          love not fail and cool? Is this power not a real measure, a real
          progression and real foundation of that love? Is it not its
          beginning, support and fulfillment?

          “It is a universal law that the primary elements in a
          series exist, subsist and persist on the basis of the final
          elements. So also with that love. Consequently, without the end
          delights, there would not be any delights in married love.”

          [9] The newcomers then asked whether as a result of the end
          delights of that love, children are born in heaven. And if
          children were not born, of what use those delights were.

          The angelic spirits replied that they do not have any natural
          offspring, but spiritual offspring.

          “And what are spiritual offspring?” the newcomers
          asked.

          The angelic spirits answered, “By the end delights the two
          partners become more united in a marriage of goodness and truth,
          and a marriage of goodness and truth is a marriage of love and
          wisdom, and love and wisdom are the offspring that are born of
          such a marriage. Because the husband in heaven is a form of
          wisdom, and his wife is a form of the love of it, and both
          moreover are spiritual, therefore no other than spiritual
          offspring can be conceived and begotten there.

          “That is why, after experiencing these delights, angels do
          not become depressed as some do on earth, but joyful, and they
          have this characteristic as a result of a continual influx of
          fresh vigor to follow the first – fresh vigor that rejuvenates and
          at the same time enlightens them. For, all who come into heaven
          return into the springtime of their youth and into the powers of
          that age, and so they remain to eternity.”

          [10] When the three newcomers heard this, they said, “Does
          it not say in the Word that there are no marriages in heaven,
          because they are angels?”[*2]

          To this the angelic spirits replied, “Look up into heaven,
          and you will receive an answer.”

          They then asked why they should look up into heaven.

          “Because,” the angelic spirits said, “we have
          all our interpretations of the Word from heaven. The Word is
          inwardly spiritual, and the angels, being spiritual, must explain
          its spiritual meaning.”

          Then, after some time, heaven opened over their heads and they
          caught sight of two angels. And the two angels said, “There
          are marriages in heaven, as on earth, but only in the case of
          people there who already possess a marriage of goodness and truth.
          They are the only ones who become angels. Therefore spiritual
          marriages are meant in the Word, which are marriages of goodness
          and truth. These spiritual marriages take place on earth and not
          after death, thus not in heaven. So it is said of the five foolish
          virgins – even though they, too, were invited to the wedding –
          that they could not go in, because they did not have a marriage of
          goodness and truth, since they had no oil, but only lamps.[*3]

          “Goodness is meant by oil, and truth by lamps. And to be
          given in marriage is to enter into heaven where that marriage is.”

          The three newcomers were glad to hear this explanation, and
          were filled with a longing for heaven and the hope of being
          married there. And they said, “We will strive for morality
          and a decent and proper life, that we may obtain the object of our
          prayers.”

          [*1] See Matthew 22:30, Mark 12:25, Luke 20:35,36.

          [*2] See Matthew 22:30, Mark 12:25, Luke 20:35,36.

          [*3] See Matthew 25:1-12.

    • 45. THE STATE OF MARRIED PARTNERS AFTER DEATH
        • 45. [What will happen to my marriage?]
          We have just shown in the preceding chapter that marriages exist
          in heaven. In this chapter we will now show whether or not a
          marriage covenant contracted in the world will continue and remain
          in force after death.

          It is necessary that I make this known, because it is not a
          matter of judgment but of personal experience, and I have had this
          experience through association with angels and spirits.
          Nevertheless, I must make it known in such a way that reason may
          also assent.

          Among the prayers and yearnings of married partners, moreover,
          is a wish to know the state of married partners after death. For
          men who have loved their wives wish to know – if their wives have
          died – whether it is well with them. So, too, wives who have loved
          their husbands. And they want to know whether they will meet again.

          Many married couples also would like to know in advance whether
          partners separate after death or whether they stay together. Those
          who are discordant in spirit wish to know whether partners
          separate. And those who are concordant in spirit wish to know
          whether they stay together.

          Because these are some of the things people would like answers
          to, they will be made known, and this will be done in the following
          order:

          (1) In every person after death, love for the opposite sex
          continues to be what it was like inwardly, that is, what it was
          like in the person’s inner will and thought in the world.

          (2) Likewise married love.

          (3) Most married couples meet after death, recognize each other,
          associate again, and live together for a time, which occurs in
          their first state, thus while they are still maintaining the
          outward aspects of their lives as they did in the world.

          (4) Progressively, however, as married partners put off outward
          appearances and enter into their inward qualities, they gradually
          perceive what sort of love and mutual feeling they had had for each
          other, and consequently whether it is possible for them to live
          together or not.

          (5) If it is possible for married partners to live together,
          they remain partners. But if it is not possible, they separate, the
          husband sometimes separating from the wife, the wife sometimes from
          the husband, and both of them sometimes from each other.

          (6) A man is then given a suitable wife, and a woman, likewise,
          a suitable husband.

          (7) Married couples enjoy the same intimate relations with each
          other as in the world, only more delightful and blessed, but
          without begetting children. Instead of or to take the place of
          begetting children, they experience a spiritual procreation, which
          is one of love and wisdom.

          (8) This is what happens in the case of people who come into
          heaven. It is different, however, with those who go to hell.

          Development of this outline now follows, elucidating and
          supporting the various statements:

      • (1) In every person after death, love for the
        opposite sex continues to be what it was like inwardly, that is,
        what it was like in the person’s inner will and thought in the
        world.

          • 46. [Sexuality continues]
            46. (1) In every person after death, love for the opposite sex
            continues to be what it was like inwardly, that is, what it was
            like in the person’s inner will and thought in the world. All a
            person’s love goes with him after death, because love is the inner
            being of his life. And the dominant love, which heads the rest,
            remains in a person to eternity, along with other loves
            subordinate to it. These loves remain, because love is properly an
            affection of the spirit in a person and is felt in the body from
            the spirit. And since a person becomes a spirit after death, he
            consequently carries his love with him. Moreover, since love is
            the inner being of a person’s life, it is apparent that a person’s
            lot after death becomes such as his life was in the world.

            As regards love for the opposite sex, this is universal in all
            people, for it is implanted from the moment of creation in a
            person’s very soul, from which comes the essential nature of the
            whole person, and it is implanted for the sake of propagating the
            human race. This love remains especially, because after death a
            man is still a man, and a woman is still a woman, and there is
            nothing in the soul, mind, or body which is not masculine in the
            male and feminine in the female; and the two sexes have been so
            created as to strive for conjunction, indeed, for conjunction in
            order that they may become one. This impulse is the love for the
            opposite sex which precedes married love.

            Now because an inclination to conjunction has been engraved on
            each and every element in the male and female, it follows that
            this inclination cannot be wiped out or die with the body.

        • 47. [Only the inner qualities]
          47. Love for the opposite sex continues to be what it was like
          in the world inwardly for the reason that in every person there is
          an inward aspect and an outward aspect. These two are also called
          the inner person and the outer person, and so there is an inner
          and outer will and thought. A person leaves the outward aspect
          behind when he dies, and he keeps his inner self. For outward
          qualities are properly those of his body, while the inner
          qualities are properly those of his spirit.

          Now because a person is what his love is, and love has its seat
          in his spirit, it follows that love for the opposite sex remains
          in a person after death and continues to be what it was like
          inwardly in him. So, for example, if that love inwardly had been
          married or chaste, it continues to be married and chaste after
          death. But if it had been inwardly licentious, it continues to be
          also like that after death.

          It must be known, however, that love for the opposite sex is
          not the same in one person as in another. Its variations are
          limitless. But still, whatever it is like in each person’s spirit,
          so it also remains.

      • (2) Likewise married love.
        • 48. [Married love continues]
          48. (2) Married love likewise continues to be what it was like
          inwardly, that is, what it was like in the inner will and thought
          in the person in the world. Since a love for the opposite sex is
          one kind of love and married love another, therefore we mention
          both and say that married love also remains after death and
          continues to be what it was like in a person, in his inner self,
          when he lived in the world. But because few people know the
          difference between a love for the opposite sex and married love, I
          must therefore say something about it at the outset of this
          discussion.

          A love for the opposite sex is love for several of the opposite
          sex and experienced with several, whereas married love is love
          solely for one of the opposite sex and experienced with one. Love
          for several and experienced with several is moreover a natural
          love, being shared in common with animals and birds, which are
          natural, while married love is a spiritual love, being particular
          and peculiar to human beings, because human beings were created
          and are thus born to become spiritual. The more spiritual a person
          becomes, therefore, the more he divests himself of a love for the
          opposite sex and clothes himself in married love.

          It appears to begin with in marriage as though a love for the
          opposite sex were bound together with married love. But as the
          marriage progresses, the two loves are separated, and then in the
          case of people who are spiritual, a love for the opposite sex is
          banished and married love insinuated. In the case of those who are
          natural, however, the opposite occurs.

          From what we have now said, it is apparent that a love for the
          opposite sex is impure and unchaste, because it is experienced
          with several and is in itself natural, being, in fact, animal, and
          that it is licentious, because it is promiscuous and not
          restricted. It is altogether different, on the other hand, with
          married love.

          In the following chapters it will be clearly seen that married
          love is spiritual and peculiarly human.

      • (3) Most married couples meet after death,
        recognize each other, associate again, and live together for a time,
        which occurs in their first state, thus while they are still
        maintaining the outward aspects of their lives as they did in the
        world.

        • 47r. [Married couples after death]
          47r. [repeated][*1] (3) Most married couples meet after death,
          recognize each other, associate, and live together for a time,
          which occurs in their first state, thus while they are still
          maintaining the outward aspects of their lives as they did in the
          world. There are two states that a person goes through after
          death, an external state and an internal state. A person comes
          first into the external state, and afterwards into the internal
          one. It is during the external state – if both partners have died
          – that they meet, recognize each other, and, if they lived
          together in the world, associate and live together for a time. And
          when they are in this state, one partner does not know the other’s
          feelings toward him, because these feelings keep themselves hidden
          inside.

          Later, however, when they come into their internal state, the
          feelings manifest themselves. And if these feelings are concordant
          and congenial, the partners continue their married life. But if
          these feelings are discordant and uncongenial, they end it.

          If a man has had several wives, he associates with them in
          turn, so long as he is in the external state. But when he comes
          into the internal state, and perceives what their feelings of love
          are like, he then either chooses one or leaves them all. For in
          the spiritual world, just as in the natural world, a Christian is
          never allowed to have several wives, because this attacks religion
          and profanes it.

          A similar thing happens with a wife who has had several
          husbands, although wives in this case do not attach themselves to
          their husbands. They only present themselves, and the husbands
          attach the wives to them.

          Let it be known that husbands rarely recognize their wives, but
          that wives readily recognize their husbands. The reason is that
          women have an interior perception of love, while men have only a
          more superficial perception.

      • (4) Progressively, however, as married
        partners put off outward appearances and enter into their inward
        qualities, they gradually perceive what sort of love and mutual
        feeling they had had for each other, and consequently whether it is
        possible for them to live together or not.

        • 48r. [whether it is possible for them to live
          together or not]

          48r. [repeated] (4) Progressively, however, as married partners
          put off outward appearances and enter into their inward qualities,
          they gradually perceive what sort of love and mutual feeling they
          had had for each other, and consequently whether it is possible
          for them to live together or not. There is no need to explain this
          further, since it follows as a conclusion from what was explained
          under the preceding heading. We will only clarify here how it is
          that a person puts off outward appearances and takes on inward
          qualities.

          Everyone is first introduced after death into a world that is
          called the world of spirits, which is midway between heaven and
          hell; and there he is prepared, for heaven if he is good, and for
          hell if he is evil. [2] The purpose of the preparation in that
          world is to bring the inner reality and the outer appearance into
          harmony, so that the internal and external become one, instead of
          being at variance and divided in two. They are divided in two in
          the natural world, and only in the case of people who have an
          honest heart do they become one. (That they are divided in two is
          apparent from crafty and deceitful people, especially from
          hypocrites, flatterers, fakes and liars.)

          In the spiritual world, however, one is not permitted to have a
          mind divided like that, but a person who had been evil inwardly
          must also be evil outwardly. So, too, with a good person, who must
          be good in both ways. [3] For every person after death becomes
          what he had been like inwardly, and not what he had been like
          outwardly.

          To achieve this end, the person is then brought by turns into
          his external character and alternately into his internal one. And
          everybody is wise so long as he is in his external character; that
          is, he tries to appear wise – even one who is evil. But if he is
          evil, the same person is irrational in his internal character. By
          these alternations he can see his insanities and recover from
          them. However, if he had not come to his senses in the world, he
          cannot do so afterward, because he loves his insanities and wants
          to remain in them. Therefore he forces his external character into
          becoming similarly irrational as well. So his internal and
          external characters become one, and when this happens, he is ready
          for hell.

          [4] It is quite different, on the other hand, if the person is
          good. Because he had looked to God and come to his senses in the
          world, in his internal character he was wiser than in his external
          life. In his external life he sometimes even acted irrationally
          owing to the enticements and vanities of the world. Therefore his
          external character is also reduced to harmony with his internal
          one, which, as we said, is wise. And when this happens, he is
          ready for heaven.

          This makes clear how it is that the outward character is put
          off and the internal character taken on after death.

          [*1] Numbers 47 and 48 were used twice by Swedenborg

      • (5) If it is possible for married partners to
        live together, they remain partners. But if it is not possible, they
        separate, the husband sometimes separating from the wife, the wife
        sometimes from the husband, and both of them sometimes from each
        other.

        • 49. [They sometimes separate]
          49. (5) If it is possible for married partners to live
          together, they remain partners. But if it is not possible, they
          separate, the husband sometimes separating from the wife, the wife
          sometimes from the husband, and both of them sometimes from each
          other. The reason separations occur after death is that unions
          formed on earth are seldom formed on the basis of any internal
          perception of love, but as the result of an external perception
          which conceals the internal one.

          An external perception of love takes its cause and origin from
          such things as have to do with love of the world and love of one’s
          own person. Love of the world is concerned primarily with wealth
          and possessions, and love of one’s own person with positions of
          rank and honor. In addition to these, there are also various other
          attractions that entice into marriage, such as good looks and a
          pretended elegance of manners. Sometimes even a lack of chastity
          attracts.

          Furthermore, marriages are also contracted in the area, city or
          town of one’s birth or residence, where the only choice possible
          is confined and limited to the households one knows, and there
          only with people of a station matching one’s own.

          As a result, marriages entered into in the world are for the
          most part external marriages, and not at the same time internal,
          even though it is the internal union or union of souls that makes
          a real marriage. And that internal union is not discernible until
          a person has put off his external character and taken on his
          internal character, which happens after death.

          That, now, is why separations then occur, followed by new
          unions formed with partners of a similar and compatible nature –
          unless unions like this were provided on earth, which happens in
          the case of people who from their youth had loved, desired and
          sought from the Lord a lawful and lovely partnership with one, and
          who spurn and reject roving lusts as an offense to the nostrils.

      • (6) A man is then given a suitable wife, and
        a woman, likewise, a suitable husband.

        • 50. [They find suitable partners]
          50. (6) A man is then given a suitable wife, and a woman,
          likewise, a suitable husband. This is because the only married
          couples who can be accepted into heaven so as to remain there are
          those who have been inwardly united, or who can be united as
          though into one. For married couples in heaven are not called two
          but one angel. This is meant by the Lord’s words, that they are no
          longer two but one flesh.[*1]

          The reason these are the only married couples who can be
          accepted into heaven is that they are the only ones who can live
          together there, that is, who can be together in the same house and
          in the same bedroom and bed. For all those who are in heaven are
          associated according to the affinities and close similarities of
          their love, and their homes are determined accordingly. This is
          because there are no dimensional spaces in the spiritual world,
          but they have appearances of space, and these appearances are
          determined according to the states of their life, and their states
          of life are determined according to states of love.

          Consequently, no one in the spiritual world can stay anywhere
          but in his own house, which is provided and appointed for him
          according to the nature of his love. If he stays anywhere else,
          his chest labors and he has difficulty breathing. By the same
          token, two people cannot live together in the same house unless
          they are likenesses of each other. And they cannot live together
          at all as married partners unless their feelings for each other
          are mutual. If these feelings of attraction are external and not
          at the same time internal, the very house or place separates them,
          repels them and drives them away.

          So it is that, in the case of people who after preparation are
          introduced into heaven, marriage is provided with a partner whose
          soul inclines to union with the soul of the other, to the point
          that they do not wish to lead two lives but one. That is why,
          after separation, a man is given a suitable wife, and a woman,
          likewise, a suitable husband.

          [*1] Matthew 19:6, Mark 10:8.

      • (7) Married couples enjoy the same intimate
        relations with each other as in the world, only more delightful and
        blessed, but without begetting children. Instead of or to take the
        place of begetting children, they experience a spiritual
        procreation, which is one of love and wisdom.

          • 51. [Intimate relations]
            51. (7) Married couples enjoy the same intimate relations with
            each other as in the world, only more delightful and blessed, but
            without begetting children. Instead of or to take the place of
            begetting children, they experience a spiritual procreation, which
            is one of love and wisdom. Married couples enjoy the same intimate
            relations as in the world for the reason that after death a male
            is still a male and a female is still a female, and an inclination
            to conjunction has been implanted in each of the sexes from
            creation. In the human being, moreover, this inclination is an
            inclination of the person’s spirit, and of the body as a result of
            his spirit.

            After death, therefore, when a person becomes a spirit, the
            same mutual inclination continues, and this would not be possible
            without a continuation of the same relations. For people are
            people as they were before, and nothing is missing from the male,
            and nothing from the female. They are the same as they were before
            in form, likewise in their affections and thoughts.

            What other conclusion follows from this, then, but that they
            have the same intimate relations? And because married love is
            chaste, pure and sacred, that their intimate relations are also
            full and complete? (But for more on this subject, see the
            narrative account in no. 44.)

            The reason these relations are then more delightful and blessed
            is that when a person becomes a spirit, this love then becomes
            more interior and pure and so more capable of being perceived, and
            every delight increases with a person’s perception of it,
            increasing even to the point that the blessedness of the love is
            noticed in its delight.

        • 52. [Spiritual offspring]
          52. The reason marriages in heaven do not result in the
          begetting of children, but that instead they experience a
          spiritual procreation, which is one of love and wisdom – the
          reason is that in the case of people who are in the spiritual
          world, a third element is missing, which is the natural element.
          This element is the containing vessel of spiritual things, and
          spiritual things without their containing vessel do not assume
          fixed form like those that are produced in the natural world.
          Also, regarded in themselves, spiritual things relate to love and
          wisdom. Consequently, it is spiritual things that are born of
          their marriages.

          We say that these are born, because married love perfects an
          angel, since it unites him with his partner so that he becomes
          more and more human. For, as we said above, married couples in
          heaven are not two but one angel. Therefore by the marital union
          they fulfill themselves in respect to their humanity, which is to
          want to be wise and to love what has to do with wisdom.

      • (8) This is what happens in the case of
        people who come into heaven. It is different, however, with those
        who go to hell.

          • 53. [No marriage in hell]
            53. (8) This is what happens in the case of people who come
            into heaven. It is different, however, with those who go to hell.
            When we say that after death a man is given a suitable wife, and a
            woman, likewise, a suitable husband, and that they enjoy
            delightful and blessed relations, but without any procreation
            other than a spiritual procreation, it should be understood that
            we are referring to people who are received into heaven and become
            angels. That is because these people are spiritual, and marriages
            are in themselves spiritual, and therefore sacred.

            In contrast, however, those people who go to hell are all
            natural people, and merely natural marriages are not marriages,
            but pairings that result from unchaste lust. What these pairings
            are like will be told later, in the chapter on chastity and its
            absence,[*1] and further in the chapters on licentious love.[*2]

            [*1] See nos. 138ff.

            [*2] See nos. 423ff.

        • 54. [Who separates after death]
          54. To what we have related so far about the state of married
          partners after death, we should add the following:

          1. All those married partners who are merely natural, separate
          after death. The reason is that the love of being married is cold
          in them, and a love for committing adultery warm. Nevertheless,
          following that separation they still sometimes form associations
          with others as married partners, although after a short time they
          part from each other. Quite often this happens repeatedly, with
          one person after another. And finally the man is handed over to
          some licentious woman, and the woman to some adulterer, which
          takes place in a prison in hell (as described in The Apocalypse
          Revealed, no. 153, paragraph 10). There, promiscuous
          licentiousness is forbidden to both under pain of punishment.

          [2] 2. When one partner is spiritual and the other natural,
          they, too, separate after death, and a suitable husband or wife is
          given to the spiritual partner, while the natural one is consigned
          to his or her like in places of lasciviousness.

          [3] 3. Moreover, in the case of people who lived a celibate
          life in the world and completely turned their minds away from
          marriage, if they are spiritual, they remain celibate. But if they
          are natural, they become licentious.

          It is different, however, if during their unmarried state they
          had wanted to marry, and still more if they had sought marriage
          without success. If these people are spiritual, they are provided
          blessed marriages, though not before they come into heaven.

          [4] 4. In the case of people who in the world were shut away in
          convents and monasteries, both unmarried women and men, their
          cloistered life continues for some period of time after death. At
          the end of this time they are released and let go, and they gain
          the desired freedom they had prayed for, either to live married,
          if they wish, or not. If they wish to marry, they become married.
          If not, they are conveyed to other celibates at the side of
          heaven. Those who burned with forbidden lust, however, are cast
          down.

          [5] 5. The reason celibates live at the side of heaven is
          because the atmosphere of permanent celibacy disturbs the
          atmosphere of married love, which is the essential atmosphere of
          heaven. The atmosphere of married love is the essential atmosphere
          of heaven because it descends from the heavenly marriage of the
          Lord and the church.


      • Concerning a chaste love for the opposite sex
        (no. 55).

        • 55. [Chaste love]
          55. To this I will append two narrative accounts. Here is the
          first:

          I once heard a very sweet melody coming from heaven. The
          singers there were wives, and also young women, who were singing a
          little song together. The sweetness of the singing sounded like
          the harmoniously flowing affection of some love. (Heavenly songs
          are nothing else but voiced affections, or affections expressed
          and varied in musical tones. For as thoughts are expressed in
          spoken words, so affections are expressed in the singing of songs.
          Angels perceive the subject of the affection from the balance and
          flow of the musical variations.)

          I had many spirits around me at the time, and I heard from some
          of them that they were listening to this very sweet melody, and
          that it was the melody of a some lovely affection whose subject
          they did not know. Therefore they began to make various guesses,
          but without success. Some guessed that the singing expressed the
          affection of a bridegroom and bride when they become engaged. Some
          supposed that it expressed the affection of a bridegroom and bride
          when they celebrate their wedding. And some thought that it
          expressed the early love of a husband and wife.

          [2] However, an angel from heaven then appeared in the midst of
          them, and he said that they were singing about a chaste love for
          the opposite sex.

          But the spirits standing around asked what a chaste love for
          the opposite sex was.

          So the angel said that it is the love of a man for a maiden or
          married woman beautiful in form and lovely in manners, which is
          free of any idea of lasciviousness, and vice versa [that is, the
          same sort of love of a woman for a single or married man].”

          Having said that, the angel vanished.

          The singing continued, and now that the spirits knew the
          subject of the affection that the singing expressed, they began to
          hear it with a great deal of variety, each in accordance with the
          state of his own love. Those who looked upon women chastely heard
          the singing as harmonious and sweet. Those, however, who looked
          upon women unchastely heard it as discordant and sorrowful. And
          those who looked upon women with repugnance heard it as harsh and
          grating.

          [3] But then, suddenly, the plain on which they were standing
          was turned into a theater, and they heard a voice say, “Examine
          and discuss this love.”

          Suddenly, too, spirits from various societies were present, and
          in the midst of them some angels in white. And the angels then
          addressed them saying, “We have inquired into all kinds of
          love in this spiritual world, not only the love of a man for a
          man, and of a woman for a woman, and the mutual love of a husband
          and wife, but also the love of a man for women, and the love of a
          woman for men. We have been allowed to pass through society after
          society as well, and to investigate, and we have not yet found the
          prevailing love for the opposite sex to be chaste, except in those
          who, because of their true married love, are in a constant state
          of sexual ability, and these are in the highest heavens.

          “Moreover, we have also been granted to perceive an influx
          of this chaste love for the opposite sex into the affections of
          our hearts, and we felt it exceed every other love in its
          sweetness, except the love of two married partners whose hearts
          are one.

          “But we pray you examine and discuss this love, because to
          you it is new and unknown. Also, because it is so exceedingly
          pleasant, in heaven we call it heavenly sweetness.”

          [4] As they were therefore discussing it, the first to speak
          were spirits who could not think of chastity as applying to
          marriages, and they said, “When one sees a beautiful and
          lovely woman, maiden or married, is there anyone who can so
          chasten the ideas in his thought and so purify them from lust that
          he loves her beauty, yet without at all wishing to taste it if he
          could? Who can turn the instinctive lust that every man feels into
          chasteness like that, thus into something against his own nature,
          and still feel love? When love for the opposite sex enters from
          the eyes into the thoughts, can it stop at a woman’s face? Does it
          not instantly descend to her breast and beyond?

          “The angels have spoken nonsense, saying that a chaste
          love like that exists and yet is the sweetest of all loves, and
          that it is only possible in husbands who are in a state of true
          married love and who consequently possess an extraordinary sexual
          ability with their wives. When these husbands see beautiful women,
          can they hold the ideas of their thought on high any more than
          others, and keep them suspended, so to speak, to prevent those
          ideas from descending and extending to that which prompts such a
          love?”

          [5] After them, spirits spoke who were in both a state of
          coldness and a state of heat, in a state of coldness towards their
          wives and in a state of heat towards the opposite sex. And they
          said, “What is a chaste love for the opposite sex? Is it not
          a contradiction in terms when the word chastity is added to love
          and sex? What is left when a contradictory adjective is added but
          something robbed of its proper attribute, which is meaningless?
          How can a chaste love for the opposite sex be the sweetest of all
          loves when it is chastity that deprives it of its sweetness? You
          all know in what the sweetness of that love lies. Consequently,
          when the idea naturally accompanying this love is banished, where
          is the sweetness then, and what does it come from?”

          Some others then interrupted and said, “We have been in
          the company of some very beautiful women, and we have not lusted.
          Therefore we know what a chaste love for the opposite sex is.”

          But their companions, who knew their lascivious natures,
          replied, “You were then in a state of antipathy toward the
          opposite sex owing to impotence, and that is not a chaste love for
          the opposite sex but the final result of an unchaste love.”

          [6] Having heard these things, the angels crossly asked the
          spirits who were standing to the right, towards the south, to
          speak, and these spirits said, “There is a love between men,
          also a love between women, and there is the love of a man for a
          woman and the love of a woman for a man. And these three pairs of
          loves are completely different from each other.

          “Love between two men is like the love between one
          intellect and another, for men were created and so are born to
          become forms of understanding.

          “Love between two women is like the love between one
          affection and another for the understanding of men, for women were
          created and are born to become forms of love for the understanding
          of men.

          “These loves, namely, the love between two men and the
          love between two women, do not enter deeply into their hearts, but
          remain outside and only touch. Thus these loves do not unite the
          two of them interiorly.

          “That is why two men together also spar with each other
          with endless arguments, like two athletes boxing, and two women
          sometimes as well, with endless insistence on their own wishes,
          like two marionettes battling with their fists.

          [7] “On the other hand, the love between a man and a woman
          is a love between intellect and its affection, and this enters
          deeply and unites them. The union also is the love. But a union of
          the minds and not at the same time of the bodies, or an effort to
          a union of minds only, is a spiritual love and therefore a chaste
          love. This love is possible only in those who are in a state of
          true married love and who consequently possess an elevated
          sexuality, because men like this, out of chastity, do not permit
          themselves to feel an influx of love on account of the body of any
          other woman than their wife. And because they possess a highly
          elevated sexuality, they cannot help but love the opposite sex and
          at the same time turn their backs on anything unchaste.

          “Thus they have a chaste love for the opposite sex, which
          regarded in itself is interior spiritual friendship. This
          friendship takes its sweetness from an elevated sexuality, but one
          that is chaste. These men have an elevated sexuality owing to
          their total renunciation of licentiousness. And it is chaste,
          because they are only in love with their wives.

          “Now, then, because that love in them does not partake of
          the flesh but only of the spirit, it is chaste. And because the
          beauty of a woman, owing to the inherent attraction, enters at the
          same time into their mind, it is sweet.”

          [8] On hearing this, many of those standing around put their
          hands to their ears, saying, “Your words hurt our ears! The
          things you have said are meaningless to us.”

          These spirits were unchaste.

          Then again, the singing was heard from heaven, and now sweeter
          than before. But to those unchaste spirits, it grated so
          discordantly that because of the harshness of the discord, they
          threw themselves out of the theater and ran away, the few spirits
          remaining being those who in their wisdom loved marital chastity.

      • The Temple of Wisdom, where wise men
        discussed the reasons for the beauty in the female sex (no. 56).

        • 56.[Beauty in women]
          56. The second account:

          One time, while speaking with angels in the spiritual world, I
          was filled with a pleasant wish to see the Temple of Wisdom, which
          I had seen once before.[*1] So I asked the angels about the way to
          it.

          They said, “Follow the light, and you will find it.”

          And I said, “What do you mean, follow the light?”

          They said, “Our light grows brighter the closer we get to
          that temple. Follow the light, therefore, in the direction it
          grows brighter. For our light emanates from the Lord as the sun of
          this world, and so, regarded in itself, that light is wisdom.”

          In the company of two angels I then went in the direction that
          the light grew brighter, and I ascended by a steep path to the top
          of a certain hill which was in the southern zone, where I found a
          magnificent gate. When the guard saw the angels with me, he opened
          it, and behold, I saw an avenue of palm trees and laurels, which
          we followed. The avenue curved around and ended up at a garden, in
          the middle of which stood the Temple of Wisdom.

          As I looked around in the garden, I saw some smaller buildings,
          replicas of the temple, with wise men in them. We went over to one
          of the buildings, and we spoke at the entrance with the
          receptionist there, telling him the reason for our coming and the
          way we had arrived. And the receptionist said, “Welcome! Come
          in, have a seat, and let us spend some time together in
          conversations of wisdom.”

          [2] I saw inside that the building was divided into two
          sections, and yet the two were still one. It was divided into two
          sections by a transparent partition, but it looked like one room
          because of the partition’s transparency, which was like the
          transparency of the purest crystal. I asked why it was arranged
          like that.

          The receptionist said, “I am not alone. My wife is with
          me, and though we are two, yet we are not two but one flesh.”

          To which I replied, “I know you are wise, but what does a
          wise man or wisdom have to do with a woman?”

          At this, with some feeling of annoyance, the receptionist’s
          expression changed, and he stretched out his hand, and suddenly,
          then, other wise men were present from the neighboring buildings.
          To them he said with amusement, “Our visitor here says he
          wants to know what a wise man or wisdom has to do with a woman!”

          They all laughed at this and said, “What is a wise man or
          wisdom apart from a woman or apart from love? A wife is the love
          of a wise man’s wisdom.”

          [3] But the receptionist said, “Let us join together now
          in some conversation of wisdom. Let the conversation be about
          causes, today the reason for the beauty in the female sex.”

          So they then spoke in turn. And the first speaker gave this
          reason, that women were created by the Lord to be forms of
          affection for the wisdom in men, and affection for wisdom is
          beauty itself.

          The second speaker gave this reason, that woman was created by
          the Lord through the wisdom in man, because she was created from
          man, and that she is therefore a form of wisdom inspired by the
          affection of love. And because the affection of love is life
          itself, a woman is a form of the life in wisdom, while the male is
          a form of wisdom, and the life in wisdom is beauty itself.

          The third speaker presented this reason, that women have been
          given a perception of the delights in married love. And because
          their whole body is an instrument of that perception, the abode
          where the delights of married love dwell with their perception
          cannot help but be a form of beauty.

          [4] The fourth speaker gave this reason, that the Lord took
          beauty and grace of life from man and transferred them into woman,
          and that is why a man not reunited with his beauty and grace in
          woman is stern, severe, dry and unattractive, and also not wise
          except for his own sake alone, in which case he is a dunce. On the
          other hand, when a man is united with his beauty and grace of life
          in a wife, he becomes agreeable, pleasant, full of life and
          lovable, and therefore wise.

          The fifth speaker gave this reason, that women were created to
          be beauties, not for their own sake, but for the sake of men, so
          that men’s natural hardness might become softer, the natural
          solemnness of their dispositions more amiable, and the natural
          coldness of their hearts warmer. And this is what happens to them
          when they become one flesh with their wives.

          [5] The sixth speaker offered this reason, that the universe
          created by the Lord is a most perfect work, but nothing is created
          in it more perfect than a woman attractive in appearance and
          becoming in behavior, in order that a man may thank the Lord for
          such a gift and repay it by receiving wisdom from Him.

          After these and several other similar views were expressed, one
          of the wives appeared through the crystal-like partition, and she
          said to her husband, “Speak, if you wish.”

          And when he spoke, the life in his wisdom from his wife was
          perceived in his speech, for her love was in the tone of his
          voice. Thus did experience bear witness to the truth expressed.

          After this we looked at the Temple of Wisdom, and also at the
          things in the paradise surrounding it. And being filled with
          feelings of joy on account of them, we departed and went along the
          avenue to the gate, and so descended by the way we had come.

          [*1] See The Apocalypse Revealed, no. 875:4-8 (first published
          in Amsterdam, 1766).

    • 57. TRUE MARRIED LOVE
        • 57. [True Married Love]
          Married love is unlimited in its variety. It is not the same in
          one person as it is in another. It appears, indeed, as if it were
          the same in many cases, but that is how it appears to a judgment of
          the body, and a person scarcely sees the diversities in such things
          on the basis of a judgment like that, because it is dense and
          obtuse. By a judgment of the body we mean a judgment of the mind on
          the basis of its external senses.

          People who see as a result of a judgment of the spirit, however,
          to them the differences appear, and they appear even more clearly
          to those who can raise the sight of this judgment still higher, by
          withdrawing this sight from the senses and elevating it into a
          higher light. These people are finally able to convince themselves
          with the understanding and thus see that married love is not the
          same in one person as it is in another.

          But even so, no one can see the endless varieties of this love
          in any light of the understanding, even if elevated, unless he
          first knows what that love is like in its true essence and perfect
          state, thus what it was like when, together with life, it was
          bestowed on mankind by God. Unless this state of it is known, which
          was most perfect, its diversities can by no means be discovered by
          any method of inquiry. For there is in that case no fixed point
          from which, as a point of origin, the diversities may be traced and
          to which, as a point of reference, they may be related so as to
          appear accurately and not deceptively.

          For this reason, we proceed in this chapter to describe that
          love in its true essence. And since that love existed in its true
          essence when, together with life, it was infused into mankind by
          God, we proceed to describe it as it was in its original state.
          Moreover, because in that state married love was truly married, we
          title this chapter, “True married love.”

          Description of this love, however, will be developed according
          to the following outline:

          (1) There is a true married love, which today is so rare that
          people do not know what it is like, and scarcely that it exists.

          (2) This love originates from the marriage between good and
          truth.

          (3) There is a correspondence between this love and the marriage
          of the Lord and the church.

          (4) Regarded from its origin and correspondence, this love is
          celestial, spiritual, holy, pure and clean, more so than any other
          love which exists from the Lord in angels of heaven or people of
          the church.

          (5) It is also the fundamental love of all celestial and
          spiritual loves, and consequently of natural loves.

          (6) Moreover, into this love have been gathered all joys and all
          delights, from the first to the last of them.

          (7) But no others come into this love and no others can be in it
          but those who go to the Lord and love the truths of the church and
          do the good things it teaches.

          (8) This love was the greatest of loves among the ancients who
          lived in the golden, silver and copper ages, but after that it
          gradually disappeared.

          Development of these points now follows.

      • (1) There is a true married love, which today
        is so rare that people do not know what it is like, and scarcely
        that it exists.

          • 58. [The honeymoon is a taste of it]
            58. (1) There is a true married love, which today is so rare
            that people do not know what it is like, and scarcely that it
            exists. The possibility of the kind of married love described in
            the following pages may indeed be recognized from the first state
            of that love, when it is first stealing into and entering the
            heart of a young man and woman, as it does in the case of those
            who are beginning to love only one of the opposite sex and to want
            him or her as their betrothed. And still more during the time of
            engagement, as this stretches on and draws nearer the wedding. And
            finally at the time of the wedding, and in the first days after
            it.

            Who does not then acknowledge and give assent to the following
            thoughts, that this love is the fundamental love of all loves?
            Moreover, that all joys and all delights have been gathered into
            it, from the first to the last of them?

            But who does not also know that after this happy time, these
            glad feelings gradually wane and disappear, until at last they are
            hardly felt. If at that time one says to these same people the
            same thing as before, that this love is the fundamental love of
            all loves, and that all joys and delights have been gathered into
            it, they neither assent nor acknowledge this. Perhaps they will
            even say these are foolish notions, or that they are mysteries
            beyond comprehension.

            It is clear from this that the early love in marriage emulates
            true married love and presents a kind of visible image of it. This
            is the case because a love for the opposite sex in general, which
            is unchaste, is then renounced, and in its place love for one of
            the sex sits implanted, which is a true married love and chaste.
            What man at that time does not look upon other women with a
            loveless nod, and on his one and only with a loving one?

        • 59. [When love is lost]
          59. Nevertheless, true married love is so rare that people do
          not know what it is like, and scarcely that it exists. This is
          because the state of happy feelings before the wedding afterwards
          turns into a state of indifference as these feelings become no
          longer felt. The reasons for this change in state are too many to
          be presented here, but they will be presented in a later chapter,
          where the reasons for states of coldness, separations and divorces
          are disclosed in turn.[*1] It will be seen from these that in most
          people today, the image of married love referred to above is so
          extinguished – and with it, knowledge of this love – that people
          do not even know what it is like, and scarcely that it exists.

          People know that every person is merely physical at birth, and
          that from being physical he becomes more and more deeply natural,
          and thus rational, and finally spiritual. The reason for such a
          progressive development is that the physical element is the soil,
          so to speak, in which natural, rational and spiritual qualities
          are planted in turn. A person thus becomes more and more human.

          [2] Almost the same sort of thing happens when one enters
          marriage. A person then becomes a more complete human being,
          because he is united with a partner with whom he may act as one
          person. In the first state, however, this is reflected in a kind
          of image, as mentioned before. In similar fashion he then starts
          from the physical element and progresses into the natural, only
          this time in respect to married life and so union into one.

          People who in this state love the physical, natural aspects,
          and the rational aspects only on account of these, cannot be
          united with their partner as though into one, except in respect to
          these external aspects. When the external aspects then fade, the
          inward ones are invaded by coldness, which takes away the delights
          of this love, driving them first from the mind and so from the
          body, and afterwards from the body and so from the mind. And this
          finally reaches the point that nothing remains of their memory of
          the early state of their marriage, nor do they consequently retain
          any concept of it.

          Now because this is what happens in the case of most people
          today, it is plain that people do not know what true married love
          is like, and scarcely that it exists.

          It is different in the case of people who are spiritual. In
          their case, the first state of marriage is an introduction to
          continuing states of happiness, which advance as the spiritual
          rationality of the mind and consequently the natural sensuality of
          the body in one partner join and unite with these same qualities
          in the other. But people like this are rare.

          [*1] See nos. 234ff.

      • (2) This love originates from the marriage
        between good and truth.

          • 60.[The marriage between good and truth]
            60. (2) This love originates from the marriage between good and
            truth. Everything in the universe has some relation to good and
            truth, as every intelligent person recognizes because it is a
            universal truth. One cannot help but recognize also that in each
            and every thing in the universe, good is united with truth and
            truth with good, because this, too, is a universal truth, which
            goes along with the other.

            The reason everything in the universe has some relation to good
            and truth, with good being united with truth and vice versa, is
            that both emanate from the Lord, and they emanate from Him as a
            unity.

            The two things that emanate from the Lord are love and wisdom,
            because these are what He is and so are what come from Him. And
            everything that has to do with love is called good, and everything
            that has to do with wisdom is called truth. Now because these two
            emanate from the Lord as the Creator, it follows that these two
            are present in the things He created.

            This can be illustrated by the example of heat and light which
            emanate from the sun. Everything produced by the earth depends on
            these two, for things germinate according to their presence and
            according to their presence together. Natural warmth corresponds
            to spiritual warmth, which is love; and natural light corresponds
            to spiritual light, which is wisdom.

        • 61. [Truth from good and good from truth]
          61. In the next chapter we will demonstrate that married love
          comes from the marriage between good and truth. We only introduce
          the concept here to show that this love is celestial, spiritual
          and holy, because it comes from a celestial, spiritual and holy
          origin.

          In order to show that married love originates from the marriage
          between good and truth, it is useful that something be said about
          it in brief summary here.

          We said just above that there is a union of good and truth in
          each and every created thing. And union does not come about
          without reciprocation, for union on one side and not on the other
          in return, of itself comes undone.

          Now because there is a union of good and truth, and this a
          reciprocal one, it follows that there is a truth of good, or truth
          from good, and also a good of truth, or good from truth. In the
          next chapter we will show that the truth of good or truth from
          good exists in the male and is the essence of masculinity, and
          that the good of truth or good from truth exists in the female and
          is the essence of femininity. We will also show that there is a
          conjugal union between the two.

          This much is mentioned here to give a preliminary idea of the
          concept.

      • (3) There is a correspondence between this
        love and the marriage of the Lord and the church.

          • 62. [The marriage of the Lord and the church]
            62. (3) There is a correspondence between this love and the
            marriage of the Lord and the church. In other words, as the Lord
            loves the church and wants the church to love Him, so a husband
            and wife love each other.

            In the Christian world, people know there is a correspondence
            between these two relationships, but they do not yet know the
            nature of it. Therefore this correspondence will be explained in a
            separate chapter as well, in the chapter after next.[*1] It is
            mentioned here in order to show that married love is celestial,
            spiritual and holy, because it corresponds to the celestial,
            spiritual and holy marriage of the Lord and the church.

            This correspondence also follows from the origin of married
            love from the marriage between good and truth, referred to under
            the preceding heading, because the church in a person is a
            marriage of good and truth. For a marriage of good and truth is
            the same thing as a marriage of charity and faith, since good is a
            matter of charity and truth is a matter of faith. One cannot help
            but recognize that this marriage forms the church, because it is a
            universal truth, and every universal truth is acknowledged as soon
            as it is heard, which occurs as a result of the Lord’s influx and,
            at the same time, the affirmation of heaven.

            Now, since the church is the Lord’s, being from the Lord, and
            since married love corresponds to the marriage of the Lord and the
            church, it follows that this love comes from the Lord.

            [*1] See “The Marriage of the Lord and the Church and
            Correspondence to It,” nos. 116ff.

        • 63. [The Church is complete with both
          together.]

          63. However, the way in which the church is formed by the Lord
          in two married partners, and through it married love – this will
          be clarified in the chapter indicated above. Here we will say only
          that the church is formed by the Lord in the man, and through the
          man in his wife. And after it has been formed in the two together,
          the church is complete, for then a full conjunction of good and
          truth takes place, and the conjunction of good and truth is the
          church. It will be progressively established with demonstrative
          proofs in the following chapters that the inclination to
          conjunction, which married love is, exists in the same degree as
          the conjunction of good and truth, which is the church.

      • (4) Regarded from its origin and
        correspondence, this love is celestial, spiritual, holy, pure and
        clean, more so than any other love which exists from the Lord in
        angels of heaven or people of the church.

        • 64. [Celestial, spiritual, holy, pure and
          clean]

          64. (4) Regarded from its origin and correspondence, this love
          is celestial, spiritual, holy, pure and clean, more so than any
          other love which exists from the Lord in angels of heaven or
          people of the church. With respect to married love’s being of such
          a character from its origin, which is the marriage between good
          and truth, this was briefly established just above, though it was
          only touched on there. So also with respect to that love’s being
          of such a character from its correspondence with the marriage of
          the Lord and the church.

          These two marriages, from which married love descends as an
          offshoot, are the essence of holiness. Consequently, if married
          love is received from its Author, who is the Lord, it is
          accompanied by holiness from Him, which continually purges and
          purifies the love. If, then, a person has a desire and striving
          for it in his will, that love daily becomes more clean and pure to
          eternity.

          [2] Married love is called celestial and spiritual because it
          exists among angels in heaven. It is celestial in the case of
          angels in the highest heaven, because these angels are called
          celestial. And it is spiritual in the case of angels below that
          heaven, because these angels are called spiritual. The angels are
          called by these names, because forms of love resulting in wisdom
          are celestial, while forms of wisdom resulting in love are
          spiritual. It is the same in their approach to marriage.

          [3] Now, because married love exists among angels in heaven, in
          both the higher and lower heavens, as we also showed in the
          earlier chapter on marriages in heaven,[*1] it follows that this
          love is holy and pure.

          As for the statement that regarded from its derivation, in its
          essence this love is holy and pure, more so than any other love in
          angels and men, this is because that love is, so to speak, the
          head of all the other loves. Something about its exalted character
          will now be said under the following heading.

          [*1] See nos. 27ff.

      • (5) It is also the fundamental love of all
        celestial and spiritual loves, and consequently of natural loves.

          • 65. [The source of other loves]
            65. (5) It is also the fundamental love of all celestial,
            spiritual, and consequently natural loves. Regarded in its
            essence, married love is the fundamental love of all loves in
            heaven and the church, because it originates from the marriage
            between good and truth, and from this marriage spring all the
            loves which form heaven and the church in a person. The good in
            this marriage produces love, and the truth in it produces wisdom.
            And when love is added to wisdom or united with it, then love
            becomes loving. And when wisdom conversely is added to love and
            united with it, then wisdom becomes wise.

            True married love is nothing but a union of love and wisdom.
            Two married partners who have this love between them and in them
            at the same time are a reflection and image of it. In the heavens,
            too, where the looks of their faces are genuine representations of
            the affections of their love, they are all likenesses of it, for
            it is in them in general and in every part, as we showed
            previously.

            Now because two partners are a form of this love in image and
            effigy, it follows that every other love that springs from the
            form this love takes is a reflection of it. Consequently, if
            married love is celestial and spiritual, the loves springing from
            it are also celestial and spiritual.

            Married love, therefore, is like a parent, and the rest of the
            loves are like offspring. That is why the offspring born of the
            marriages of angels in heaven are spiritual offspring, which are
            procreations of love and wisdom, or of goodness and truth.
            (Regarding this procreation, see above, no. 51.)

          • 66. [Married partners are forms of love and
            wisdom.]

            66. The same idea clearly follows from the creation of human
            beings into this love, and from their formation as a result of it
            afterwards. The male was created to become a form of wisdom from a
            love of growing wise, and the female was created to become a form
            of love for the male on account of his wisdom, thus in accordance
            with that wisdom. It is evident from this that two partners are
            real forms and reflections of the marriage between love and wisdom
            or between good and truth.

            It should properly be known that no good or truth exists which
            is not the attribute of some concrete thing in which it inheres as
            a quality in its subject. Abstract goods and truths have no real
            existence, because they are not grounded in anything, having no
            underlying foundation. Indeed, neither can they be seen as
            flitting about in the air. Consequently, as abstractions they are
            merely figments, which reason supposes it can think about
            abstractly, but which it really cannot except as attributes of
            concrete subjects. For every idea a person has, however
            extrapolated, is concrete, that is to say, it is attached to
            concrete things.

            It should further be known that no concrete thing exists
            without having form. A thing unformed is not anything, because
            nothing can be predicated of it, and a subject without predicates
            is also the figment of a fanciful imagination.

            I have added these philosophical considerations in order to be
            able to show in this way as well that two married partners who are
            in a state of true married love actually are forms of the marriage
            between goodness and truth, or between love and wisdom.

        • 67. [Natural loves are the foundation]
          67. Since natural loves spring from spiritual loves, and
          spiritual loves from celestial ones, therefore we say that married
          love is the fundamental love of all celestial and spiritual loves,
          and so then of natural loves.

          Natural loves are connected with loves of self and the world.
          Spiritual loves, on the other hand, are connected with love for
          the neighbor, and celestial loves are connected with love toward
          the Lord. And because loves have these connections, it is apparent
          what sequence they follow and in what order they are present in a
          person. When they are present in this order, then natural loves
          draw their life from spiritual loves, and spiritual loves from
          celestial ones, and all of them, in this order, from the Lord,
          from whom they come.

      • (6) Moreover, into this love have been
        gathered all joys and all delights, from the first to the last of
        them.

          • 68. [All joys and delights]
            68. (6) Moreover, into this love have been gathered all joys
            and all delights, from the first to the last of them. All the
            delights a person feels, of whatever kind, have to do with his
            love. Love reveals itself through delights; indeed, it exists and
            lives through them.

            People know that delights rise and deepen in the degree that
            love rises and deepens, and also as incidental affections touch
            more closely the dominant love.

            Now because married love is the fundamental love of all good
            loves, and because, as we showed above, it is engraved on even the
            smallest aspects of a person, it follows that its delights surpass
            the delights of all other loves, and also that it gives delight to
            these other loves according as it is present and at the same time
            united with them. For it swells the inmost feelings of the mind
            and at the same time the inmost feelings of the body, as the
            pleasurable stream of its fountain flows through and opens them.

            [2] All delights have been gathered into this love, from the
            first to the last of them, because of the excellence of the use it
            serves, surpassing that of all other loves. The use it serves is
            the propagation of the human race and so of the angelic heaven.
            And because this use or purpose was the ultimate goal in creation,
            it follows that all blessings, felicities, delights,
            gratifications and pleasures, which could ever have been conferred
            on mankind by the Lord the Creator, have been gathered into this,
            its accompanying love.

            It is apparent from the delights of the five senses – sight,
            hearing, smell, taste and touch – that delights accompany the use
            they serve and are delightful to a person in accordance with the
            love he has for it. Each of these senses experiences delights,
            with variations, according to the particular uses these senses
            serve. Why not the sensation of married love, whose use or purpose
            embraces those of all the other senses?

        • 69. [Few know the joy]
          69. I know that few will accept that all joys and all delights,
          from the first to the last of them, have been gathered into
          married love, and this for the reason that true married love – the
          love into which these joys and delights have been gathered – today
          is so rare that people do not know what it is like, and scarcely
          that it exists (to repeat what was explained and established
          above, nos. 58, 59). For these
          joys and delights do not occur in any other married love than
          genuine married love. And because genuine married love on earth is
          so rare, it is impossible to describe its supreme states of bliss
          on the basis of anything other than the testimony of angels,
          because angels experience it.

          Regarding its inmost delights – which are delights of the soul,
          where the conjugal union between love and wisdom, or goodness and
          truth, first flows in from the Lord – angels have said these
          delights are imperceptible and therefore indescribable, because
          they are at the same time delights of peace and innocence. But
          they said, too, that these same delights, in their descent, become
          more and more perceptible – as states of bliss in the higher
          regions of their mind, as states of happiness in the lower regions
          of their mind, and as consequent states of delight in their heart,
          at which point they spread from the heart into each and every part
          of the body, finally coming together in the last of these as the
          delight of delights.

          In addition, angels have reported wonderful things about these
          delights, saying also in regard to the varieties of these delights
          in the souls of married partners and as they descend from their
          souls into their minds and from their minds into their hearts,
          that these varieties are infinite, and also eternal. They have
          said, too, that these delights rise and deepen according to the
          wisdom in the husbands, and this because angels live to eternity
          in the flower of their life, and nothing is more blessed to them
          than to grow ever more wise.

          But more about these delights as reported from the testimony of
          angels may be found in the narrative accounts, especially in some
          of those which come at the end of some chapters later on.[*1]

          [*1] See, for example, nos. 155[r], 183,
          208, 293, 294.

      • (7) But no others come into this love and no
        others can be in it but those who go to the Lord and love the truths
        of the church and do the good things it teaches.

          • 70. [No others come into this love]
            70. (7) But no others come into that love and no others can be
            in it but those who go to the Lord and love the truths of the
            church and do the good things it teaches. No others come into this
            love but those who go to the Lord, because monogamous marriages,
            which are marriages of one man with one wife, correspond to the
            marriage of the Lord and the church, and they have their origin
            from the marriage between goodness and truth (as discussed above,
            nos. 60-63).

            It follows from this origin and this correspondence that true
            married love comes from the Lord and is found in people who go to
            Him directly, but this cannot be established fully without
            discussing these two secrets in some detail. This will be done in
            the chapters that come next after this one, one of which will be
            on the origin of married love from the marriage of good and
            truth,[*1] and the other on the marriage of the Lord and the
            church and correspondence to it.[*2] In those chapters we shall
            also see that it follows from these considerations that the
            married love in a person depends on the state of the church in
            him.

            [*1] See nos. 83ff.

            [*2] See nos. 116ff.

          • 71. [the Lord primarily regards the intention]
            71. No others can be in a state of true married love but those
            who receive it from the Lord – namely, those who go to Him
            directly and live the life of the church from Him – for the reason
            that this love, viewed in terms of its origin and correspondence,
            is celestial, spiritual, holy, pure and clean, more than any other
            love that is found in angels of heaven or people of the church (as
            said above, no. 64). And these attributes of it
            cannot exist except in people who are joined to the Lord and
            brought by Him into association with angels of heaven.

            That is because people like this abstain from love affairs
            outside of marriage, which are liaisons with others than their
            rightful wife or husband, and they abstain from them as injuries
            to the soul and as cesspools of hell. And in the degree that a
            married person abstains from such liaisons, even as regards the
            lusts of his will and his consequent intentions, in the same
            degree married love is purified in him and becomes progressively
            spiritual, first during his life on earth, and afterwards in
            heaven.

            [2] No love can ever become pure in human beings, nor in
            angels. So neither can this love. But because the Lord primarily
            regards the intention that is in the will, therefore to the extent
            that a person has the intention and perseveres in it, to that
            extent he is introduced into the purity and holiness of this love,
            and gradually makes progress in it.

            No others can be in a state of spiritual married love but those
            who are in it from the Lord, because heaven is in that love. And
            the natural man – for whom married love takes its pleasure solely
            from the flesh – cannot draw near to heaven, nor to any angel.
            Indeed, neither can he draw near to any person who possesses that
            love, for that love is the fundamental love of all celestial and
            spiritual loves (see above, nos. 65-67). [3] The
            fact of this was attested for me by an experience I had. I saw
            some evil spirits in the spiritual world who were being prepared
            for hell, going towards an angel who was enjoying the company of
            his wife. As they were approaching, while still at a distance,
            they began to act like frenzied madmen, and they sought caverns
            and pits as places of refuge and threw themselves into them.

            (One may conclude from the incidents related in the
            Introduction, no. 10, that evil spirits like
            whatever is of the same character as their affection, however
            unclean it is, and that they dislike spirits of heaven, because
            heaven is pure, which they avoid as something alien to them.)

        • 72. [True faith and good life]
          72. Only those people come into true married love and only
          those can be in it who love the truths of the church and do the
          good things it teaches, for the reason that no others are accepted
          by the Lord. That is because people who love the truths of the
          church and do the good things it teaches are in a state of
          conjunction with the Lord, and consequently they can be kept in
          that love by Him.

          There are two things which form the church and so heaven in a
          person: truth of faith and goodness of life. Truth of faith brings
          the Lord’s presence, and goodness of life in accordance with
          truths of faith brings conjunction with Him and thus forms the
          church and heaven. Truth of faith brings presence because it has
          to do with light, that being what spiritual light is. Goodness of
          life brings conjunction because it has to do with warmth, that
          being what spiritual warmth is; for spiritual warmth is love, and
          goodness of life has to do with love. We also know that all light
          – even wintry light – brings presence, and that warmth united with
          light brings conjunction; for gardens and flower-beds become
          visible in every kind of light, but they do not produce flowers
          and fruit until warmth is combined with the light.

          The evident conclusion from this is that people are blessed
          with true married love not if they only know the truths of the
          church, but if they know them and do the good things it teaches.

      • (8) This love was the greatest of loves among
        the ancients who lived in the golden, silver and copper ages, but
        after that it gradually disappeared.

        • 73. [This love has disappeared]
          73. (8) This love was the greatest of loves among the ancients
          who lived in the golden, silver and copper ages. It cannot be
          known from historical sources that married love was the greatest
          of loves among the ancient and most ancient peoples who lived in
          those first ages referred to by these names. It cannot be known
          from historical sources because their written records do not
          remain, and the records that do exist come from writers who lived
          after those times. It is, in fact, the later writers who give the
          ages their names, and who also describe the purity and integrity
          of the life of those earlier peoples, likewise its gradual
          deterioration afterwards as being like the descent of gold to
          iron.

          The last or iron age, however, which began at the time of those
          writers, can be deduced to some extent from the records of the
          lives of some of the kings, judges and wise men, who were called
          sages, in Greece and elsewhere. But as it is foretold in Daniel,
          that age would not hold together, as iron holds together by
          itself, but it would become like iron mixed with clay, which does
          not stick together (Daniel 2:43).

          [2] Now because the ages that were named after gold, silver,
          and copper passed away before the dates of our written records,
          and because knowledge of their marriages cannot, therefore, be
          gained on earth, it pleased the Lord to show them to me by a
          spiritual way, by conducting me to the heavens where they have
          their dwellings, so that I might learn from them personally there
          what marriages had been like among them when they lived in their
          ages. For all people whatever, who, since creation, have departed
          out of the natural world, are now in the spiritual world, and in
          respect to their loves they are all the same as they were and so
          remain to eternity.

          Since the things I learned are worth knowing and telling, and
          because they confirm the holiness of marriages, I would like to
          make them public as they were shown me in an awake state of the
          spirit and afterwards recalled to remembrance by an angel and so
          written down. Moreover, because they are from the spiritual world,
          like the rest of the narratives at the ends of the expositional
          chapters, I have chosen to divide them into six accounts,
          presented according to the progressions of the ages.


      • Married love among people who lived in the
        golden age (no. 75).

          • 74. [The Five Ages]
            74. These six accounts come from the spiritual world, on the
            subject of married love, and they reveal what that love was like
            in the first ages, and what it was like afterwards, and what it is
            like today. It is apparent from them that that love gradually
            moved away from its holiness and purity, until it became
            licentious; but that there is still hope of its returning to its
            pristine or ancient holiness.

        • 75. [The golden age]
          75. The first account:

          When I was once meditating on married love, my mind was seized
          with a desire to know what that love was like among the people who
          lived in the golden age, and afterwards what it was like among
          those who lived in the following ages which are named after
          silver, copper, and iron. And because I knew that all those people
          who lived well in those ages are now in heaven, I prayed to the
          Lord to be allowed to speak with them and be instructed.

          Then suddenly an angel stood beside me, and he said, “I
          have been sent by the Lord to be your guide and companion. First I
          will guide and accompany you to the people who lived in the first
          age or period, which is called golden.” He also added, “The
          way to them is difficult. It lies through a dark forest which no
          one can pass through without being given a guide by the Lord.”

          [2] I was in the spirit, and so I readied myself for the
          journey, and we turned our faces to the east. And as we went I saw
          a mountain, whose height extended beyond the level of the clouds.

          We crossed a great desert, and we came to a forest thick with
          trees of various kinds and dark on account of their density, as
          the angel had predicted. However, the forest was intersected by
          many narrow paths, but the angel said they were all winding ways
          leading astray, and that, unless a traveler’s eyes were opened by
          the Lord to see the olive trees covered with leafy vines and to
          make his way from olive tree to olive tree, he would wander off
          into infernal regions which surrounded the forest on each side.
          “This is what this forest is like,” the angel said, “in
          order to guard the approach, for none but the earliest people
          dwell on that mountain.”

          [3] After we entered the forest, our eyes were opened, and here
          and there we saw olive trees entwined with vines, which had
          bunches of purplish-blue grapes hanging from them. Moreover, the
          olive trees were arranged in a continuous series of circles.
          Consequently we went around and around as each one came to view,
          until finally we saw a grove of tall cedars, with some eagles on
          their branches.

          Seeing them the angel said, “We are now on the mountain,
          not far from its summit.”

          We went on, and lo, beyond the grove, there was a circular
          field, where male and female lambs were grazing, which were forms
          representative of the state of innocence and peace of the people
          who dwelt on the mountain. We crossed this field, and suddenly
          tents appeared – tent after tent – reaching many thousands in
          number, in front and on each side, as far as the eye could see.

          And the angel said, “We are now in an encampment. Behold
          the army of the Lord Jehovih! That is what they call themselves
          and their dwellings. When these most ancient people lived in the
          world, they dwelled in tents. Therefore they also live in tents
          now. But let us turn our way southward – where the wiser ones
          among them are – to find someone to talk with.”

          [4] As we went, I saw in the distance three boys and three
          girls sitting at the entrance of one of the tents. But when we
          drew near, they looked like men and women of average height.

          And the angel said, “All the inhabitants of this mountain
          appear at a distance like little children, because they are in a
          state of innocence, and early childhood is the way innocence
          appears.”

          Seeing us, the men hurried over to us and said, “Where are
          you from, and how did you get here? Your faces are different from
          the faces of our mountain.”

          But the angel answered and told them how we were able to pass
          through the forest and the reason for our coming.

          Hearing this, one of the three men invited us into his tent and
          led us inside. The man was dressed in a blue-colored robe and a
          tunic of very white wool. And his wife was dressed in a purple
          dress, with a blouse 5underneath of embroidered fine linen. [5]
          Then because I had in my thought the desire to learn about the
          marriages of the most ancient peoples, I looked by turns at the
          husband and wife, and I observed a seeming unity of their souls in
          their faces.

          So I said, “You two are one.”

          The man replied, “We are. Her life is in me, and my life
          is in her. We have two bodies, but one soul. The union between us
          is like the union of the two tabernacles in the breast which are
          called the heart and the lungs. She is my heart and I am her
          lungs. But since when we say heart here we mean love, and when we
          say lungs we mean wisdom, therefore she is the love of my wisdom,
          and I am the wisdom of her love. Therefore her love outwardly
          clothes my wisdom, and my wisdom is inwardly within her love.
          Consequently, as you have said, the unity of our souls appears in
          our faces.”

          [6] Then I asked, “If such is the union between you, are
          you able to look upon any other woman than your own?”

          He replied, “I can, but because my wife is united to my
          soul, the two of us look together, and then not a trace of lust
          can enter. For when I look at other men’s wives, I look at them
          through the eyes of my wife, who is the only one I am in love
          with. And because she, as my wife, can perceive all my
          inclinations, she acts as an intermediary and directs my thoughts,
          taking away anything discordant and at the same time inspiring a
          coldness and horror towards anything unchaste. As a result it is
          impossible for us here to regard any of our companions’ wives with
          lust – as impossible as it would be to look at the light of our
          heaven from a state of infernal darkness. We have no mental
          concept among us, therefore, and not even any word in our speech
          for the temptations of libidinous love.” He could not say
          free love, because the chastity of their heaven resisted it.

          My angel guide then said to me, “You hear, now, the speech
          of the angels of this heaven, that it is a speech of wisdom,
          because they speak in terms of causes.”

          [7] After this I looked around, and seeing that their tent
          appeared covered with gold, I asked why this was.

          The man replied that it was due to the flaming light, which
          glittered like gold. “It shines and strikes the curtains of
          our tent,” he said, “whenever we are engaged in
          conversation on the subject of married love. For the heat from our
          sun, which in its essence is love, then bares itself and tints the
          light, which in its essence is wisdom. It tints it with its own
          color, which is golden. This occurs because married love in its
          origin is the interplay of wisdom and love, for man was born to be
          a form of wisdom, and woman to be a form of love for the wisdom in
          a man. From this come the delights of that interplay in married
          love, and therefore between us and our wives.

          “We here have seen, for thousands of years, that those
          delights become more excellent and exalted in abundance, degree
          and strength, according to the worship of the Lord Jehovih among
          us. That heavenly union or that heavenly marriage which exists
          between love and wisdom infuses itself as a result of that
          worship.”

          [8] When he said this, I saw a great light on a hill at the
          center amid the tents, and I asked where that light was coming
          from.

          The man said, “It is coming from the sanctuary of our
          tabernacle of worship.”

          I then inquired whether we might go there, and he said we
          could. So I went, and I saw a tabernacle which, outside and in,
          exactly fit the description of the tabernacle which was built for
          the children of Israel in the wilderness, whose form was shown to
          Moses on top of Mount Sinai (Exodus 25:40, 26:30). And I asked
          what there was inside the sanctuary that was giving off so much
          light.

          He answered, “There is a tablet, which bears the
          inscription, “The Covenant Between Jehovah and Heaven.””
          That was all he said.

          [9] Then, because by that time we were getting ready to leave,
          I asked, “When you lived in the natural world, did any of you
          live with more than one wife?”

          He replied that he did not know one person who did. “For
          we could not think of having more,” he said. “Those who
          had had such thoughts told us that their states of heavenly bliss
          instantly receded from the inmost depths of their souls to the
          outmost parts of their bodies, even into their fingernails, and
          along with them the virtues of manhood. When others perceived
          this, they were exiled from our lands.”

          Having said this, the man hurried to his tent and returned with
          a pomegranate containing a number of seeds made of gold. He gave
          it to me and I took it away with me, as a memento to me that we
          had been with people who had lived in the golden age.

          So then, after saying farewell, we departed and returned home.

      • Among people who lived in the silver age (no.
        76).

        • 76. [the silver age]
          76. The second account:

          The next day the same angel came to me and said, “Would
          you like me to take and accompany you to the peoples who lived in
          the silver age or period, so that we may hear from them about the
          marriages of their time?” He also said that these people,
          too, could not be approached except under the Lord’s guidance.

          I was in the spirit as before, and I went with my guide. And we
          came first to a hill in the border region between the east and the
          south. Then, as we stood upon its slope, he showed me a far
          extended stretch of land, and we saw in the distance an elevation
          like that of a mountain. Between it and the hill on which we stood
          was a valley, and beyond that a level area, and after that a
          gently rising incline.

          We descended from the hill to cross the valley, and here and
          there on each side we saw blocks of wood and stone carved into the
          shapes of people and various kinds of animals, birds and fish. So
          I asked the angel, “What are these? Are they idols?”

          And he answered, “Not at all. They are figures
          representative of various moral virtues and spiritual truths.
          Among the peoples of this age there was a knowledge of
          correspondences. Since every person, animal, bird and fish
          corresponds to some quality, therefore each carving represents
          some aspect of a virtue or truth, and a group of them taken
          together represents the whole virtue or truth in a general,
          extended form. They are what in Egypt were called hieroglyphics.”

          [2] We continued through the valley, and as we entered the
          level area, suddenly we saw horses and chariots – horses with
          variously decorated harnesses and halters, and chariots variously
          shaped, some carved out like eagles, some like whales, and some
          like stags with horns, or like unicorns. At the end we also saw
          some wagons, and stables around at the sides. But when we drew
          near, both the horses and the chariots disappeared, and instead of
          them we saw people in couples and pairs, walking, talking and
          reasoning together.

          The angel then said to me, “The various horses, chariots
          and stables – as they seem at a distance – are appearances
          expressive of the rational intelligence of the people of this age.
          For by correspondence a horse symbolizes an understanding of
          truth; a chariot, its accompanying doctrine; and stables, sources
          of instruction. You know that in this world, all things take on
          appearances according to correspondences.”

          [3] We went on by these things, however, and we ascended by a
          long incline, until at last we saw a city, which we entered. As we
          wandered through it, from the streets and public squares we
          observed its houses. They were all palaces, built out of marble.
          In front they had steps of alabaster, with columns of jasper on
          each side of the steps. We also saw temples made of precious stone
          the color of sapphire and lapis lazuli.

          The angel said to me, “They have houses made of different
          kinds of stone because stones symbolize natural truths, and
          precious stones symbolize spiritual truths. The people who lived
          in the silver age all had their intelligence from spiritual truths
          and so from natural truths. Silver also has a similar symbolism.”

          [4] As we surveyed the city, we saw married couples here and
          there in pairs; and since they were husbands and wives, we waited
          to see if we would be invited in somewhere. Even as we had this in
          mind, moreover, as we were passing by, two of them called us back
          into their house. So we went up the steps and went in. Then,
          speaking with them on my behalf, the angel explained the reason
          for our coming to that heaven, saying that we had come to be
          instructed concerning marriages among ancient peoples – “you
          here being some of them,” he said.

          They then replied, “We come from peoples in Asia, and the
          focus of our age was the pursuit of truths, by which we acquired
          intelligence. This pursuit was the focus of our soul and mind. But
          the focus of our physical senses was on representations of truths
          in forms, and a study of correspondences combined the sensory
          interests of our bodies with the perceptions of our minds, gaining
          for us intelligence.”

          [5] Hearing this, the angel asked them to tell us something
          about marriages among them.

          So the husband said, “There is a correspondence between
          the spiritual marriage, which is a marriage of truth with good,
          and natural marriage, which is the marriage of a man with one
          wife. And because we have studied correspondences, we see that the
          church with its truths and goods can by no means exist except in
          people who live with one wife in a state of true married love. For
          a marriage of good and truth in a person is the church in him.

          “Consequently, we who are here all say that a husband is a
          form of truth, and his wife a form of good, and that good cannot
          love any other truth than its own truth, nor can truth love any
          other good in return than its own good. If it were to love
          another, the inner marriage that forms the church would die, and
          the marriage would become merely external – the kind of marriage
          that idolatry corresponds to, not the church. Therefore we call
          marriage with one wife a sacred union, but if it were contracted
          with more than one among us, we would call it a sacrilege.”

          [6] Saying this, he showed us into an anteroom outside the
          bedroom, which had a number of works of art on the walls and
          little images apparently cast out of silver. I then asked what
          they were.

          They said, “They are pictures and forms representing the
          many qualities, attributes and delights which have to do with
          married love. These ones here represent the unity of souls; these
          other ones, the conjunction of minds; the ones there, the harmony
          of hearts; those over there, the delights arising as a result.”

          While we were looking, we saw on the wall a kind of rainbow,
          consisting of three colors, purple, blue, and bright white. And we
          saw how the purple color passed through the blue and tinted the
          white with a purplish blue hue, and that the latter color flowed
          back through the blue into the purple and raised it into a kind of
          flaming radiance.

          [7] Then the husband said to me, “Do you understand it?”

          And I said, “Instruct me.”

          So he said, “The purple by its correspondence symbolizes
          the married love of the wife; the bright white, the intelligence
          of the husband; the blue, the beginning of married love in the
          husband’s perception from the wife; and the purplish blue, which
          tinted the white, married love then in the husband. This latter
          color’s flowing back through the blue into the purple and raising
          it into a kind of flaming radiance symbolizes the married love of
          the husband flowing back to the wife. Things like these are
          represented on these walls whenever we reflect on married love,
          its mutual, progressive and simultaneous union, and then look
          closely at the rainbows exhibited there.”

          At this I said, “Things like this today are more than
          mysteries, for they are of a representational type, representing
          the secrets of the married love of one man with one wife.”

          He replied, “So they are, but to us here they are not
          secrets, and therefore not mysteries.”

          [8] When he said this, a chariot appeared in the distance drawn
          by white ponies, and seeing it, the angel said, “That chariot
          is a signal for us to depart.”

          Then as we were going down the steps, our host gave us a
          cluster of white grapes with leaves from the vine still attached,
          and suddenly the leaves turned silver. And we took them away with
          us as a memento that we had spoken with people of the silver age.

      • Among people who lived in the copper age (no.
        77).

        • 77. [the copper age]
          77. The third account:

          The next day my angel guide and companion came again and said,
          “Prepare yourself, and let us go to the inhabitants of heaven
          in the west, who are some of the people who lived in the third
          period or copper age. The places where they live stretch from the
          south across the west towards the north, but not extending into
          the north.”

          So, having prepared myself, I accompanied him, and entering
          their heaven from the south side, we found there a magnificent
          grove of palm trees and laurels. We passed through it, and then on
          its western border we saw giants twice the height of ordinary
          people.

          They interrogated us. “Who let you in through the grove?”

          The angel said, “The God of heaven.”

          And they replied, “We are guards to the ancient western
          heaven. But go ahead and pass.”

          [2] So we passed, and from a watch-tower we saw a mountain
          rising to the clouds, and between us in the tower and that
          mountain we saw villages after villages, with gardens, groves and
          fields in between. We then passed through the villages to the
          mountain and ascended. And lo, at its summit was not a peak but a
          plateau, and on it a city widely extended and spread out. All of
          its houses, moreover, were made out of wood from resinous trees,
          and their roofs out of wooden planks.

          I asked, “Why are the houses here made of wood?”

          The angel answered, “Because wood symbolizes natural
          goodness, and the people of the third age on the earth were in
          this state of goodness. And because copper also symbolizes natural
          goodness, therefore the age in which they lived was named after
          copper by people of earlier times.

          “There are also sacred halls here, built out of boards of
          olive wood, and in the middle of them is a sanctuary, containing
          in an ark the Word given to the inhabitants of Asia before the
          Word which the Israelites had. Its narrative books are called the
          Wars of Jehovah, and the prophetical books, Oracles, both referred
          to by Moses (Numbers 21:14,15,27-30).

          “In the kingdoms of Asia it has now been lost, and it is
          preserved only in Great Tartary.”

          The angel then led me to one of the buildings, and looking in,
          we saw in the middle of it the sanctuary, all bathed in a
          brilliant white light. And the angel said: “The light comes
          from that ancient Asiatic Word, for all Divine truth shines with
          light in heaven.”

          [3] As we were going out of the building, we heard it had been
          reported in the city that two strangers were about, and that they
          were to be investigated to find out where they came from and what
          their business was here. Moreover, an attendant came running from
          the court and ordered us to appear for a hearing.

          When we were then asked where we came from and what our
          business was here, we replied, “We passed through a grove of
          palm trees and then through the abodes of giants, the ones who
          guard your heaven, and afterwards through a stretch of villages.
          You may conclude from this that we have come here, not of
          ourselves, but thanks to the God of heaven. As for our business,
          the reason for our coming, it is to be instructed regarding your
          marriages, to find out whether they are monogamous or perhaps
          polygamous.”

          They replied, “What are polygamous marriages? Are they not
          forms of licentiousness?”

          [4] Then the panel of magistrates there selected someone
          intelligent to instruct us in his own home about this matter. And
          when we arrived at his house, he called his wife to his side and
          said the following:

          “The earliest or most ancient people were in a state of
          true married love, and they therefore experienced the strength and
          power of that love, more than any other peoples in the world. They
          are now in a most blissful state in their heaven, which is in the
          east. We have precepts from them regarding marriage which we have
          preserved among us. We are their descendants, and they have handed
          down rules of life to us, like fathers to sons, and the rules
          which have to do with marriage include this maxim:

          Children, if you wish to love God and the neighbor, and if you
          wish to be wise and be happy to eternity, we advise you to live
          monogamously. If you depart from this precept, all heavenly love
          will escape you, and with it inward wisdom, and you will become
          outcasts.

          “We have obeyed, like children, this precept of our
          fathers, and we have perceived the truth in it. The truth we
          perceived is that a person becomes heavenly and internal to the
          extent that he loves his married partner only, and that a person
          becomes natural and external to the extent that he does not love
          his married partner only. In the latter case, he loves no one but
          himself and the imaginations of his own mind, and he is foolish
          and stupid.

          [5] “This is why all of us in our heaven are monogamous.
          And because we are, therefore all the boundaries of our heaven are
          guarded to keep out polygamists, adulterers and licentious people.
          If polygamists get in, they are cast out into the darkness of the
          north. If adulterers get in, they are cast out into the fires of
          the west. And if licentious people get in, they are cast out into
          the illusory lights of the south.”

          Hearing this I asked what he meant by the darkness of the
          north, the fires of the west, and the illusory lights of the
          south.

          He answered that the darkness of the north was dullness of mind
          and ignorance of truths; that the fires of the west were loves of
          evil; and that the illusory lights of the south were
          falsifications of truth. “These last,” he said, “are
          forms of spiritual licentiousness.”

          [6] After this he said, “Follow me to our treasure house.”

          So we followed, and he showed us some written documents of very
          ancient peoples, telling us that they wrote on wooden and stone
          tablets and afterwards on polished sheets of wood assembled into
          books, and that people of the second age wrote their records on
          parchments of animal skin. Then he brought out a parchment
          containing maxims of the earliest peoples transcribed from their
          stone tablets, including also the precept regarding marriage.

          [7] When we had seen these records and others from very early
          antiquity, the angel said, “It is now time for us to go.”

          Then our host went out into the garden and took some sprigs
          from a tree, and, tying them into a bundle, he presented them,
          saying, “These sprigs come from a tree native or peculiar to
          our heaven, whose sap has the fragrance of balsam.”

          We took away this bundle of sprigs with us and descended by a
          way, over to the east, which was not guarded. And behold, the
          sprigs turned into shiny bronze and their very tips into gold, as
          a memento that we had been among a people of the third age, which
          is named after copper or bronze.

      • Among people who lived in the iron age (no.
        78).

        • 78. [the iron age]
          78. The fourth account:

          Two days later the angel spoke with me again, saying, “Let
          us complete the course of the ages. The last age remains, which is
          named after iron. The people of this age live in the north, on the
          western side, extending inward or in a latitudinal direction
          towards the interior. They all come from early inhabitants of Asia
          who had the Ancient Word and who worshiped according to it.
          Consequently they lived before the advent of our Lord into the
          world. This is apparent from the writings of ancient authors in
          which those times are given these names. The same ages are meant
          by the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar, whose head was of gold, its
          breast and arms of silver, its belly and thighs of bronze, its
          legs of iron, and its feet of iron and also clay (Daniel
          2:32,33).”

          [2] The angel told me this on the way, which was shortened and
          speeded along by the changes of state produced in our minds
          according to the character of the inhabitants through whom we
          passed. For intervals of space, and therefore distances, in the
          spiritual world are appearances in accordance with states of mind.

          When we lifted our eyes, behold, we were in a forest consisting
          of beech trees, horse chestnuts and oaks. And when we looked
          around, we caught sight of bears there to the left and leopards to
          the right.

          When I wondered at this, the angel said, “They are not
          really bears or leopards, but people who guard these inhabitants
          of the north. With their noses they sniff the atmospheres of life
          emanating from passers-by, and rush upon all who are spiritual,
          because the inhabitants are natural. People who only read the Word
          and take nothing of doctrine from it, at a distance look like
          bears. And people who confirm falsities from it look like
          leopards.”

          But having seen us, they turned away and we passed on.

          [3] After the forest we saw scrubland, and then grassy plains
          divided into fields and surrounded by boxwood. After this the
          ground sloped downward to a valley, in which there were cities,
          one after another. We passed by several of them and entered into
          one great one. Its streets were irregular. So, too, were its
          houses. These were built out of bricks, with timbers in between,
          and plastered.

          In the squares we found chapels made of cut limestone, with the
          lower part of the buildings below ground level, and the upper part
          above. We went down three steps into one of these, and around on
          the walls we saw idols in various forms, and a lot of people on
          their knees worshiping them. In the middle of them was a choir,
          out of which the tutelary god of the city projected so that his
          head could be seen.

          As we were leaving, the angel said to me that among the ancient
          peoples who lived in the silver age (spoken of above), these idols
          were images representative of spiritual truths and moral virtues.
          And that when a knowledge of correspondences faded from memory and
          became extinct, these images became first objects of worship and
          afterwards were adored as deities. This was the origin of
          idolatries.

          [4] When we were outside the chapel, we observed the people and
          their dress. They had steel-like faces, gray-colored, and they
          were dressed like clowns, with skirts around their hips and thighs
          hanging down from a shirt tied at the chest. And on their heads
          they had the cocked hats of sailors.

          “But enough of this,” the angel said. “We are
          here to be instructed about the marriages of the people of this
          age.”

          So we entered into the house of an important person, who had on
          his head a turreted headdress. He received us kindly and said,
          “Come in, and let us have a conversation together.”

          We went into the entrance hall and sat down there. Then I asked
          him about the marriages in this city and general area.

          He said, “We do not live with one wife, but some people
          have two or three wives, and some more. That is because the
          variety, submissiveness, and honor entertain us, as though we were
          kings. These are the things we have from our wives when there is
          more than one. With only one wife we would not have the pleasure
          of variety but boredom resulting from sameness. We would not have
          the deference of submission but the irritation of equality. Nor
          would we have the bliss of ruling with its accompanying honor, but
          the annoyance of struggling for superiority.

          “After all, what is a woman? Is she not born subject to a
          man’s will, and born to serve and not to rule? For this reason
          every man here in his own house is like a royal majesty. Because
          this is what we like, it is also the blessing of our life.”

          [5] But I asked, “Where, then, is married love, which
          forms two souls into one? And joins minds together and blesses a
          person? This love cannot be a divided love. If it is, it becomes a
          passion which evaporates and passes away.”

          To this he replied, “I do not understand what you are
          saying. What else blesses a person but the rivalry of wives for
          the honor of being first with her husband?”

          Saying this, the man went into his harem and opened its double
          doors. But a libidinous odor came out of it which stank like a
          cesspool. This was the result of polygamous love, which is
          matrimonial and at the same time licentious. I got up, therefore,
          and closed the doors.

          [6] Afterwards I said, “How can you remain in this land,
          when none of you have true married love, and when you also worship
          idols?”

          He replied, “With respect to marital love, we are so
          violently jealous of our wives that we do not allow anyone to
          enter our houses past the entrance halls. And where there is
          jealousy there is also love.

          “As for the idols, we do not worship them, but we cannot
          think about the God of the universe except through images
          presented to our eyes. For we cannot raise our thoughts above the
          sense impressions of the body, nor can we raise our thoughts about
          God above the visible things we can see.”

          Then again I asked, “Do your idols not have various forms?
          How can they present a vision of one God?”

          To this he replied, “It is a mystery to us. Something
          having to do with the worship of God lies hidden in every form.”

          So I said, “You are merely sensual, carnal people. You do
          not have any love for God, nor any love for a married partner that
          derives anything from spiritual love. And it is these loves that
          together shape a human being, and from being sensual make him
          heavenly.”

          [7] When I said this, I saw through the doorway what seemed to
          be a flash of lightning. And I asked, “What is this?”

          He said, “Lightning like this is a signal to us that the
          ancient one of the east is coming, who teaches us about God – that
          He is one, alone the Almighty, who is the First and the Last. He
          also warns us not to worship the idols, but only to look on them
          as images representing virtues that emanate from the one God,
          which together form a worship of Him. This ancient one is our
          angel, whom we respect and listen to. He comes to us and raises us
          up whenever we fall into a hazy worship of God owing to some
          delusion regarding the images.”

          [8] Having heard this, we departed from the house and from the
          city, and on the way, from the things we had seen in heaven, we
          formed conclusions regarding the course and progress of married
          love. With respect to its course, we observed that it had moved in
          a circle from the east to the south, from there to the west, and
          from there into the north. With respect to its progress, we saw
          that it had declined as it went – in other words, that it had been
          celestial in the east, spiritual in the south, natural in the
          west, and sensual in the north. We also noted as well that it had
          declined in the same measure that the love and worship of God
          declined.

          Consequently we formed this conclusion, that married love in
          the first age was like gold, in the second age like silver, in the
          third age like bronze, and in the fourth age like iron, and that
          at last it ceased to exist.

          But afterwards my angel guide and companion said,
          “Nevertheless, I am sustained by the hope that the God of
          heaven, who is the Lord, will revive this love, because it is
          possible for it to be revived.”

      • Among peoples who lived after those ages
        (nos. 79, 80).

        • 79. [after those ages]
          79. The fifth account:

          The same angel as before, who had been my guide and companion
          to the ancient peoples who had lived in the four ages called
          golden, silver, copper and iron – the same angel appeared again
          and said to me, “You would like to see the age that followed
          those ancient ages, to find out what it was like, and what it is
          still like today. Follow me, then, and you will see. These are the
          people of whom Daniel prophesied when he said:

          (A kingdom will arise after those other four, in which iron
          will be mixed with miry clay.) They will mingle together through
          the seed of man, but they will not adhere to one another, just as
          iron does not mix with clay. (Daniel 2:41-43)”

          The angel added, “The seed of man, through which iron will
          be mingled with clay, and yet without their adhering together –
          this seed means the truth of the Word falsified.”

          [2] After these words I followed him, and on the way he told me
          this. “They live,” he said, “in the border region
          between the south and the west, but at a great distance beyond
          those who lived in the previous four ages, and also deeper down.”

          So we continued through the south to a region bordering on the
          west, and we passed through a dreadful forest. For we found pools
          of water there from which crocodiles raised their heads, gaping at
          us with jaws open wide and showing their teeth. And between the
          pools we saw horrible dogs, some of them with three heads like
          Cerberus, some of them with two heads, all of them with hideous
          mouths and watching us with savage eyes as we passed by. Entering
          the western part of this area, we also saw dragons and leopards,
          like the ones described in the book of Revelation, chapters 12:3
          and 13:2.

          [3] Then the angel said to me, “All these wild beasts you
          have seen are not beasts but correspondent and thus representative
          forms of the lusts that motivate the inhabitants we are going to
          visit. Those hideous dogs represent the lusts themselves; the
          crocodiles, their deceits and deceptions; the dragons and
          leopards, their falsities and corrupt feelings towards things that
          have to do with worship.

          “The inhabitants thus represented, however, do not live
          just the other side of the forest, but beyond a great desert that
          lies between, to keep them completely away and separate from the
          inhabitants of the preceding ages. Moreover, they are altogether
          alien – totally different from those other people. Indeed, they
          have heads above their breasts, breasts above their loins, and
          loins above their feet, like the earliest people. But there is not
          a bit of gold in their heads, or of silver in their breasts, or of
          bronze in their loins. In fact, there is not a bit of just plain
          iron in their feet. Instead, they have iron mixed with clay in
          their heads, both of these mixed with bronze in their breasts,
          both of these also mixed with silver in their loins, and these
          mixed with gold in their feet.

          “By this inversion they have been transformed from human
          beings into caricatures of human beings, in which nothing inwardly
          holds together. For what had been uppermost has become lowermost,
          so that what was the head has become the heel, and vice versa.
          Viewed from heaven, they look to us like play-actors who turn
          their bodies upside down, support themselves on their elbows and
          thus move about. Or they look like animals that lie upside down on
          their backs, raise their feet in the air, and, digging their heads
          into the ground, from that position look up at the sky.”

          [4] We passed through the forest and proceeded into the desert,
          which was no less horrible. It consisted of piles of rocks, with
          pits in between, out of which crept poisonous snakes and vipers
          and from which flew fiery serpents.

          This whole desert kept sloping downward, and we descended by a
          long decline, until at last we came to a valley inhabited by the
          people of that region and age. We saw huts here and there, which
          finally appeared to come together and be joined into the form of a
          city.

          We went into the city, and behold, the houses were constructed
          out of charred tree branches mortared together with clay. The
          roofs were made of black tiles. The streets were irregular, all
          narrow at first, but widening as they went, becoming finally quite
          broad and terminating in squares. Consequently there were as many
          squares as there were streets.

          Darkness fell as we entered the city, because the sky was not
          visible. We looked up, therefore, and we were given light by which
          to see.

          I then asked the people I encountered, “Can you see, since
          the sky does not appear above you?”

          And they replied, “What sort of question is this? We see
          clearly. We walk in full light.”

          Hearing this the angel said to me, “Darkness to them is
          light, and light to them is darkness, as it is for nocturnal
          birds. For they look downwards instead of upwards.”

          [5] We went into some of the shacks here and there, and in each
          we saw a man with his woman. And we asked whether all of them here
          lived each in his own house with only one wife.

          But they replied to this with a hiss, “What do you mean,
          with only one wife? Why not ask whether we live with only one
          harlot? What is a wife but a harlot?

          “According to our laws we are not allowed to commit
          whoredom with more than just one woman, but still it is not
          dishonorable or shameful for us to do so with more than one,
          provided we do it away from the house. We boast about it with each
          other! In this way we enjoy license and its pleasure more than
          polygamists do.

          “Why is having more than one wife denied to us, when it
          has been permitted in the past and is permitted today in the whole
          world around us? What is life with just one woman but captivity
          and imprisonment?

          “But here we break open the bar of this prison and so
          rescue ourselves from slavery and set ourselves free. Who is angry
          with a prisoner if he liberates himself when he can?”

          [6] To this we replied, “You speak, my friend, like one
          devoid of religion. What person endowed with any power of reason
          does not know that adulterous affairs are profane and hellish, and
          that marriages are sacred and heavenly? Are not adulterous
          relationships found among devils in hell, and marriages among
          angels in heaven? Have you not read the sixth commandment in the
          Decalogue? And in Paul, that adulterers can by no means come into
          heaven?[*1]”

          At this our host laughed heartily, and he looked on me as a
          simpleton – almost, even, as insane.

          But at that very moment a messenger came running from the
          headman of the city and said, “Bring the two strangers to the
          city square, and if they will not come voluntarily, drag them
          there! We saw them under the dark cover of daylight. They have
          come here in secret. They are spies!”

          The angel then said to me, “The reason we seemed to be
          under dark cover is that we were in the light of heaven, and the
          light of heaven to them is darkness, while the darkness of hell to
          them is light. This is because they regard nothing as sinful, not
          even adultery, and consequently they see falsity altogether as
          truth. Falsity shines with light in hell, in the eyes of satanic
          spirits, while truth darkens their eyes like the gloom of night.”

          [7] Then we said to the messenger, “We will not be forced,
          still less dragged to the city square, but we will go with you
          voluntarily.”

          So we went, and behold, we found a great crowd there. From it
          came some lawyers who whispered in our ear, “Take care that
          you do not say anything against religion, against our form of
          government, or contrary to good manners.”

          But we kept answering, “We will only speak in favor of
          them and in accordance with them.”

          Then we asked, “What is your religion in regard to
          marriage?”

          At this the crowd began to murmur, and they said, “What
          concern do you have here with marriage? Marriages are marriages.”

          So we asked a second time, “What is your religion in
          regard to licentious relationships?”

          At this the crowd began to murmur again, saying, “What
          concern do you have here with licentious relationships? Illicit
          affairs are illicit affairs. He who is without guilt, let him
          throw the first stone.[*2]”

          So we asked a third time, “Does your religion teach
          regarding marriages that they are sacred and heavenly, and
          regarding adulterous affairs that they are profane and hellish?”

          In response to this many in the crowd guffawed, mocked, and
          jeered, saying, “Ask our priests about matters of religion,
          not us. We accept without comment whatever they say, since nothing
          of religion falls within the ability of the understanding to
          judge. Have you not heard that the understanding is devoid of
          reason in the mysteries on which the whole of religion is based?

          “Besides, what do our actions have to do with religion? Is
          it not the pious murmurings of the heart that makes souls blessed
          – murmurings about expiation, satisfaction and imputation – and
          not works?”

          [8] But then some of the so-called wise men of the city came
          over and said, “Get away from here. The crowd is becoming
          inflamed. There will be a riot in a minute. Let us talk about this
          by ourselves. There is an alley behind the courthouse. Let us go
          back there. Come with us.”

          So we followed. And then they asked us where we came from and
          what our business was there.

          We said, “We have come to be instructed about marriage, to
          find out whether or not marriages among you are sacred unions as
          they were among the ancient peoples who lived in the golden,
          silver and copper ages.”

          But they replied, “What do you mean, sacred unions? Are
          they not deeds of the flesh and the night?”

          Then we began to answer, “Are they not also deeds of the
          spirit? And what the flesh does impelled by the spirit, is that
          not spiritual? Moreover, everything that the spirit does, it does
          from a marriage of goodness and truth. Is it not this spiritual
          marriage which enters into the natural marriage that exists
          between husband and wife?”

          To this the so-called wise men replied, “You probe and
          refine the matter too much. You leap over rational considerations
          to spiritual ones. Who can begin there, then descend and thus form
          a judgment about anything?” To which they added
          sarcastically, “Perhaps you have the wings of an eagle and
          can soar to the uppermost regions of the sky and look down on such
          matters. But we cannot.”

          [9] So we then asked them to tell us, from the height or region
          to which the ideas of their minds flew aloft, whether they knew or
          were able to know that such a thing exists as the married love of
          one man with one wife, into which have been gathered all the
          blessings, felicities, delights, gratifications and pleasures of
          heaven. Moreover, that this love comes from the Lord according to
          people’s reception of goodness and truth from Him, thus according
          to the state of the church.

          [10] Hearing this they turned away and said, “These men
          are crazy. They go into outer space with their rational faculties,
          form empty conjectures and shower us with nutty speculations.”

          Afterwards they turned around to us and said, “We will
          give a straight answer to your airy conjectures and dreams.”

          Then they said, “What does married love have in common
          with religion and with being inspired by God?

          “Does that love not exist in everyone according to the
          condition of his sexual powers? Is it not found among people who
          are outside the church as well as among people who are in the
          church? Among gentiles as well as among Christians? In fact, among
          impious people as well as among pious ones?

          “Does the vigor of that love in everyone not come either
          from heredity, or from good health, or from temperance of life, or
          from the warmth of the climate? And can it not also be
          strengthened and stimulated by drugs?

          “Is the same love not found in animals, especially in
          birds which mate in pairs? Is that love not a matter of the flesh?
          What does a matter of the flesh have to do with the spiritual
          state of the church?

          “Does that love with a wife in its ultimate expression
          differ one bit from love with a harlot in its ultimate expression?
          Is the lust not the same, and the delight the same?

          “It is harmful, therefore, to trace the origin of married
          love from the sacred things of the church.”

          [11] When we heard this we said to them, “You are
          reasoning from the heat of lasciviousness and not from married
          love. You do not know at all what married love is because among
          you that love is cold. We are convinced by what you have said that
          you come from the age that is named after and consists of iron and
          clay, which do not cohere, according to the prophecy in Daniel
          2:43. For you make married love and licentious love the same
          thing. Can these two cohere any more than iron and clay? People
          believe you are wise and call you wise, yet you are anything but
          wise!”

          Inflamed with anger at these words, they began to cry out and
          call the crowd to throw us out. But then, by a power given us by
          the Lord, we stretched out our hands, and suddenly fiery serpents,
          vipers and poisonous snakes came from the desert, and dragons,
          too, and they invaded and filled the city, so that the inhabitants
          became frightened and fled away.

          And the angel said to me, “New people keep coming from
          earth to this region every day, and the previous inhabitants are
          by turns removed and cast down into chasms in the west, which at a
          distance look like lakes of fire and brimstone. The people there
          are all adulterers, both spiritually and naturally.”

          [*1] See 1 Corinthians 6:9.

          [*2] Cf. John 8:7.

      • A glorification of the Lord by angels in the
        heavens on account of His advent, and celebrating then married love
        (no. 81).

          • 80. [End times]
            80. The sixth account:

            When the angel said this, I looked over at the western horizon,
            and behold, I saw what appeared to be lakes of fire and brimstone.
            So I asked the angel why the hells there had this appearance.

            He replied, “They appear as lakes on account of the
            falsifications of truth there, because water spiritually
            interpreted is truth. What looks like fire appears around them and
            in them as a result of their love of evil; and what looks like
            brimstone, because of their love of falsity. These three
            appearances – lake, fire and brimstone – so appear because they
            correspond to the evil loves which motivate the people.

            “The people there are all shut up in eternal workhouses,
            and they labor in exchange for food, clothing and a bed. And
            whenever they do evil, they are severely and miserably punished.”

            [2] Again I asked the angel, “Why did you say that the
            people there are adulterers both spiritually and naturally? Why
            not say that they are evildoers and irreligious?”

            “Because,” he replied, “all people who regard
            adulterous affairs as nothing, that is, who believe they are not
            sins and who commit them deliberately and so purposefully, at
            heart are evildoers and irreligious. For the human inclination
            towards marriage goes hand in hand with religion at every step.
            Every little step and every stride away from religion or towards
            religion is also a step or stride away from or towards the marital
            inclination that is peculiar and proper to a Christian person.”

            At my asking what that marital inclination was, he said, “It
            is a wish to live with only one wife, and a Christian person has
            this wish to the extent that he has religion.”

            [3] I afterwards grieved in spirit that marriage – which in
            ancient times was so sacred – had so wantonly been transformed
            into adulterous relationships.

            And the angel said, “It is the same with religion today.
            For the Lord says that at the end of the age there will be the
            abomination of desolation foretold by Daniel,[*1] and that “there
            will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the
            beginning of the world” (Matthew 24:15,21).

            “The abomination of desolation symbolizes the
            falsification and loss of all truth. Tribulation symbolizes the
            state of the church infested by evils and falsities. And the end
            of the age, of which these things are said, symbolizes the final
            period or end of the church.

            “The end has now come, because no truth remains that has
            not been falsified, and falsification of truth is spiritual
            licentiousness, which allies itself with natural licentiousness,
            because they go together.”

            [*1] See Daniel 9:27, 11:31, 12:11.

          • 81. [Celebration]
            81. While we were talking in sorrow about these things,
            suddenly a burst of light shone about us, dazzling my eyes. I
            looked up, therefore, and behold, the whole sky above us appeared
            lit up, and we heard a glorification echoing across it in long
            succession from the east to the west.

            Then the angel said to me, “The glorification you hear is
            a glorification of the Lord on account of His Advent, and it is
            coming from angels of the eastern and western heavens.” (From
            the southern and northern heavens we heard only a polite murmur.)

            Moreover, since he understood it all, the angel told me, first,
            that glorifications and celebrations of the Lord are taken from
            the Word, because then they come from the Lord, inasmuch as the
            Lord is the Word, in the sense that He is the essential Divine
            truth in the Word.

            Then the angel said, “Specifically now, they are
            glorifying and celebrating the Lord with these words which were
            spoken by the prophet Daniel:

            You saw iron mixed with miry clay; they will mingle together
            through the seed of man, but they will not cohere…. But (in
            those days) the God of heaven will make to rise a kingdom which
            for ages shall not perish…; it shall crush and consume all these
            kingdoms, while it shall stand for ages. (Daniel 2:43,44)”

            [2] After this I heard what seemed to be the sound of singing,
            and deeper in the east I saw a burst of light more brilliant than
            the first. And I asked the angel what they were glorifying there.

            The angel said that they were glorifying the Lord with these
            words in Daniel:

            I was seeing in the visions of night, and behold, with the
            clouds of heaven, was One like the Son of man…. And to Him was
            given dominion…and a kingdom, and all peoples and
            nations…shall worship Him. His dominion is the dominion of an
            age, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom one which shall
            not perish. (Daniel 7:13,14)

            In addition, the angel said, they are celebrating the Lord with
            these phrases taken from the book of Revelation:

            To (Jesus Christ) be glory and might…. Behold, He is coming
            with clouds…. (He is) the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and
            the End, the First and the Last…, who is, who was, and who is to
            come, the Almighty. I, John…heard…(this from the Son of Man
            from out of) the midst of the seven lampstands…. (Revelation
            1:5-7; 22:13; 1:8-13; taken also from Matthew 24:30,31)

            [3] I looked again into the eastern sky, and a light shone over
            to the right, whose glow extended into the southern hemisphere.
            Hearing as well a sweet sound, I asked the angel what aspect of
            the Lord they were glorifying there.

            The angel said they were quoting these words in the book of
            Revelation:

            I saw a new heaven and a new earth…. And I…saw the holy
            city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared
            as a bride…for her husband…. And (an angel) talked with me and
            said, “Come, I will show you the bride, the Lamb’s wife.”
            And he carried me away in the spirit on to a great and high
            mountain, and showed me the…city, the holy Jerusalem….
            (Revelation 21:1,2,9,10)

            Also these words:

            I, Jesus…am…the Bright and Morning Star. And the Spirit and
            the bride shall say, “Come!”…. (And He said,) “I
            also am coming quickly.” Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus!
            (Revelation 22:16,17,20)

            [4] After these and other things, we heard a general
            glorification echoing across the sky from the east to the west and
            also from the south to the north, and I asked the angel, “What
            is happening now?”

            He said they were quoting these verses from the Prophets:

            Let all flesh know that I, Jehovah, am your Savior and your
            Redeemer…. (Isaiah 49:26)

            Thus said Jehovah, the King of Israel, and his Redeemer,
            Jehovah of Hosts: “I am the First and the Last, and beside Me
            there is no God.” (Isaiah 44:6)

            It will be said in that day: “Behold, this is our God,
            whom we have waited for to free us. This is Jehovah, whom we have
            waited for.” (Isaiah 25:9)

            The voice of one crying in the wilderness, “Prepare the
            way of Jehovah….” …Behold, the Lord Jehovih comes in
            strength…. He will feed His flock like a shepherd. (Isaiah
            40:3,10,11)

            Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given…, whose name
            shall be…Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity,
            Prince of Peace. (Isaiah 9:6)

            Behold, the days will come…, and I will raise to David a
            righteous Branch, who shall reign, a King…. And this is His
            name…: JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. (Jeremiah 23:5,6; 33:15,16)

            Jehovah of Hosts is His name, and your Redeemer, the Holy One
            of Israel. He shall be called God of the whole earth. (Isaiah
            54:5)

            In that day…Jehovah shall become King over all the earth. In
            that day there will be one Jehovah and His name will be one.
            (Zechariah 14:8,9)

            [5] When I heard these things and understood their meaning, as
            a result my heart leapt, and I went home filled with joy. And
            there, returning from the state of my spirit into a bodily state,
            I wrote down what I had seen and heard. To which I now add this,
            that following His Advent the Lord will revive married love, such
            as it was among ancient peoples. For married love comes only from
            the Lord, and it is found in people who are made spiritual by Him
            through His Word.

        • 82. [New Church teachings in brief]
          82. After this a man came rushing from the northern zone in a
          rage, and looking at me with a threatening expression and speaking
          in a heated tone, he said, “You are the one who is trying to
          lead the world astray by establishing a New Church, which you take
          to be meant by the New Jerusalem that will come down out of heaven
          from God, and by teaching that people who embrace the doctrines of
          this church will be blessed by the Lord with true married love,
          whose delights and happiness you exalt to the sky! Is that not
          something you just made up? Are you not just saying it as a snare
          and inducement to get people to go along with your new ideas?

          “Tell me in short, however, what these New Church
          doctrines are, and I will see whether they hang together or not.”

          So I replied, “The doctrines of the church that is meant
          by the New Jerusalem are as follows:

          “1. There is one God, in whom is the Divine Trinity, and
          that God is the Lord Jesus Christ.

          “2. Saving faith is to believe in Him.

          “3. Evils must be abstained from because they are of the
          devil and from the devil.

          “4. Good deeds must be done because they are of God and
          from God.

          “5. These good deeds must be done by a person as though he
          were doing them from himself, but he must believe that they are
          from the Lord in him and by means of him.”

          [2] When he heard this, the man’s rage subsided for several
          minutes. But after some consideration, he again looked at me with
          a fierce expression, saying, “These five precepts – are they
          doctrines of the faith and charity of the New Church?”

          And I answered, “Yes.”

          Then he asked me gruffly, “How are you able to demonstrate
          the first one, that there is one God, in whom is the Divine
          Trinity, and that He is the Lord Jesus Christ?”

          “I demonstrate it,” I said, “in this way. Is God
          not one and indivisible? Is there not a Trinity? If God is one and
          indivisible, is He not one person? If He is one person, is the
          Trinity not in that person?

          “That He is the Lord Jesus Christ I demonstrate by the
          following points: Jesus Christ was conceived by God the Father
          (Luke 1:34,35), so that in regard to His soul He was God. And
          therefore, as He Himself says, the Father and He are one (John
          10:30). He is in the Father and the Father in Him (John 14:10,11).
          He who sees Him and knows Him, sees and knows the Father (John
          14:7,9). No one sees and knows the Father but He who is in the
          bosom of the Father (John 1:18). All things belonging to the
          Father are His (John 3:35, 16:15). He is the way, the truth, and
          the life, and no one comes to the Father except through Him (John
          14:6), thus by Him, because the Father is in Him. And, according
          to Paul, all the fullness of the Godhead dwells in Him bodily
          (Colossians 2:9). And furthermore, He has authority over all flesh
          (John 17:2), and He has all authority in heaven and on earth
          (Matthew 28:18).

          “From all this it follows that He is God of heaven and
          earth.”

          [3] The man then asked how I demonstrate the second precept,
          that saving faith is to believe in Him.

          “I demonstrate it,” I said, “by these words of
          the Lord:

          This is the will of the Father…, that everyone who…believes
          in (the Son) may have everlasting life. (John 6:39,40)

          God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that
          everyone who believes in Him should not perish but have
          everlasting life. (John 3:16,15)

          He who believes in the Son has everlasting life; but he who
          does not believe the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God
          abides on him. (John 3:36)”

          [4] After that he said, “Demonstrate as well the third
          precept, and the ones that follow.”

          Then I replied, “What need is there to establish that
          evils must be abstained from because they are of the devil and
          from the devil, that good deeds must be done because they are of
          God and from God, and that these good deeds must be done by a
          person as though he were doing them from himself, but that he must
          believe they are from the Lord in him and by means of him? The
          Holy Scripture from beginning to end attests throughout that these
          three precepts are true. What else does it teach in sum but to
          abstain from evils and do good deeds, and to believe in the Lord
          God?

          “And besides, there is not any religion without these
          three precepts. Religion has to do with a way of life, does it
          not? And what is that life but to abstain from evils and do good
          deeds. How can a person do these things and believe in them unless
          he does so as though he were doing them from himself?

          “If you dismiss these precepts from the church, therefore,
          you dismiss the Holy Scripture from the church, and you also
          dismiss religion. And if you dismiss these, the church is not a
          church.”

          On hearing these things, the man withdrew and considered them.
          But still he went away in annoyance.

    • 83. THE ORIGIN OF MARRIED LOVE FROM THE
      MARRIAGE BETWEEN GOOD AND TRUTH

        • 83. [THE MARRIAGE BETWEEN GOOD AND TRUTH]
          The origins of married love are internal and external, there
          being many internal origins, likewise many external ones. The
          inmost or fundamental origin of them all, however, is one. This is
          the marriage between good and truth, as we will show in the
          following paragraphs.

          No one has traced the origin of this love from this source
          before, because no one has seen that there is any union between
          good and truth. No one has seen it, moreover, because goodness is
          not visible to the sight of the understanding as truth is, and
          therefore knowledge of it has remained hidden and eluded
          investigation. Since goodness is consequently one of the unknowns
          in life, no one has been able to discern any marriage between it
          and truth.

          Indeed, to the natural sight of reason, good appears so far
          removed from truth as to have no connection with it. The fact of
          this can be seen from people’s remarks whenever they mention
          goodness and truth. For instance, when they say, “This is
          good,” they have no thought of truth. And when they say, “This
          is true,” neither do they have any thought of good.

          As a result, many people today believe that truth is something
          completely separate, likewise goodness. Many also believe as well
          that a person is intelligent and wise and thus truly human
          according to the truths that he thinks, speaks, writes, and
          believes, and not at the same time according to his goodness.

          Nevertheless, we will now explain that good does not exist apart
          from truth, nor truth apart from good, consequently that there is
          an eternal marriage between them, and that this marriage is the
          origin of married love. The explanation will be developed according
          to the following outline:

          (1) Goodness and truth are universal in creation, and are
          therefore in all created things, but they are present in their
          created vessels according to each one’s form.

          (2) Good does not exist by itself, nor truth by itself, but they
          are everywhere united.

          (3) There is good’s truth and from this truth’s good, or truth
          resulting from good and good resulting from that truth, and
          implanted in these two from creation is an inclination to join
          together into one.

          (4) In members of the animal kingdom, good’s truth or truth
          resulting from good is masculine, and truth’s consequent goodness
          or good resulting from that truth is feminine.

          (5) From the marriage of good and truth flowing in from the Lord
          comes love for the opposite sex and also married love.

          (6) A love for the opposite sex is a love of the external or
          natural man, and is therefore common to every animal.

          (7) But married love is a love of the internal or spiritual man,
          and is therefore peculiar to mankind.

          (8) Married love in a person lies within love for the opposite
          sex, like a gem in its native rock.

          (9) A love for the opposite sex in a person is not the origin of
          married love, but it is its first stage, being thus like any
          external natural quality in which an internal spiritual one is
          implanted.

          (10) When married love has been implanted, love for the opposite
          sex turns around and becomes a chaste love for the opposite sex.

          (11) Male and female were created to be the very image of the
          marriage between good and truth.

          (12) They are an image of that marriage in their inmost
          qualities and thus in their subsequent ones as the inner faculties
          of their minds are opened.

          Explanation of these statements now follows.

      • (1) Goodness and truth are universal in
        creation, and are therefore in all created things, but they are
        present in their created vessels according to each one’s form.

          • 84. [Goodness and truth are universal]
            84. (1) Goodness and truth are universal in creation, and are
            therefore in all created things, but they are present in their
            created vessels according to each one’s form. Goodness and truth
            are universal in creation because they both exist in the Lord God
            the Creator. Indeed, they are the Lord, for He is Divine good
            itself and Divine truth itself.

            But this falls more clearly within the perception of the
            understanding and so into some mental concept if instead of good
            we say love, and if instead of truth we say wisdom. Let us say,
            therefore, that in the Lord God the Creator there is Divine love
            and Divine wisdom, and that these are the Lord, which is to say
            that He is love itself and wisdom itself. For these two are the
            same as good and truth. The reason is that good has to do with
            love and truth with wisdom, for love is composed of goodness and
            wisdom of truths.

            Since the two sets of terms amount to the same thing, in what
            follows now we will sometimes use one, sometimes the other, and
            both sets of terms have the same meaning. We say this at the
            outset lest the understanding see a difference of meaning in the
            following pages where these terms are used.

          • 85. [Every created thing has goodness and
            truth from the Lord]

            85. So, then, since the Lord God the Creator is love itself and
            wisdom itself, and the universe was created by Him, being in
            consequence a work, so to speak, issuing from Him, it must be that
            in each and every created thing there is some goodness and truth
            from Him. For whatever is accomplished by and issues from anyone,
            derives from him a character similar to his.

            Reason can also see that this is so from the order which each
            and every thing in the universe was created in, in which one thing
            exists for the sake of another, and in which one thing therefore
            depends on another, like the links in a chain. For all things
            exist for the sake of the human race, that from it may come the
            angelic heaven by which creation returns to the Creator, its
            source. From this comes the conjunction of the created universe
            with its Creator, and by that conjunction its everlasting
            preservation.

            That is why we say that goodness and truth are universal in
            creation. The fact of this is evident to everyone who considers it
            reasonably. In every created thing he sees something that relates
            to good and something that relates to truth.

        • 86. [Whatever flows into any vessel is
          received by it according to its form]

          86. Goodness and truth are present in their created vessels
          according to each one’s form because whatever flows into any
          vessel is received by it according to its form. The preservation
          of the whole is nothing but the constant flowing in of Divine
          goodness and Divine truth into forms created by that influx –
          continued existence or preservation being thus constant birth or
          creation.

          The fact that whatever flows into any vessel is received by it
          according to its form can be illustrated by various examples. It
          may be illustrated, for instance, by the flowing in of heat and
          light from the sun into species of plant life of every kind. Each
          one of these receives that influx according to its form. Thus
          every tree receives it according to its form, every bush according
          to its form, every plant and every kind of grass according to its
          form. That which flows in is the same in every case, but the way
          it is received causes each species to remain the species it was,
          because the reception is according to the form.

          The same point may also be illustrated by the influx into
          animals of every kind, according to each one’s form.

          Even an simple peasant can see that whatever flows in is
          received according to the form of the particular recipient if he
          reflects on various kinds of wind instruments – pipes, flutes,
          trumpets, horns, and pipe organs – and considers that from the
          same breath or influx of air they each make a sound according to
          their form.

      • (2) Good does not exist by itself, nor truth
        by itself, but they are everywhere united.

        • 87. [Good and truth are united]
          87. (2) Good does not exist by itself, nor truth by itself, but
          they are everywhere united. Anyone with any sense who tries to
          form for himself an idea of goodness, finds he cannot do it
          without adding something that expresses it and presents it to
          view. Unless something is added, good is a nameless entity. That
          which expresses it and presents it to view has to do with truth.

          Try saying just “good” without at the same time
          mentioning some particular or other with which it is associated,
          or define it abstractly, that is, without attaching any additional
          idea, and you will see that it has no reality, but that it has
          reality when something is added. If you focus the sight of reason
          on it, moreover, you will perceive that without any added
          qualification goodness has no assignable attribute and so no way
          of being compared, no capacity for being affected, and no
          character – in a word, no quality.

          It is the same with truth if it is referred to without a
          subject. Educated reason can see that its subject has to do with
          good.

          [2] Instances of goodness are beyond number, however, and each
          one rises to its highest point and descends to its lowest point as
          though along the degrees of a scale, changing its name, too, as it
          varies in its progression and quality. Because of this it is
          difficult for any but the wise to see the relationship of goodness
          and truth to things and their union in them. Nevertheless, it is
          evident from common sense that good does not exist apart from
          truth, nor truth apart from good, as soon as it is accepted that
          each and every thing in the universe relates to goodness and
          truth, as we showed under the previous heading (nos. 84,
          85).

          [3] That good does not exist by itself nor truth by itself may
          be illustrated and at the same time attested by various
          considerations. Take, for example, the following, that there is no
          essence without a form, and no form without an essence. Good is
          the essence or being, while truth is what gives form to the
          essence and expression to the being.

          Again, in the human being we find will and intellect. Good has
          to do with the will, and truth with the intellect. The will does
          not accomplish anything by itself but through the intellect, nor
          does the intellect accomplish anything by itself but from the
          will.

          Or again, in the human being there are two sources of physical
          life, the heart and the lungs. The heart is unable to produce any
          conscious or active life without the breathing of the lungs, nor
          are the lungs able to do so without the heart. The heart relates
          to good, and the breathing of the lungs to truth. There is also a
          correspondence between them.

          [4] Something similar exists in each and every part of the mind
          and in each and every part of the body in the human being. We do
          not have the space, however, to present further confirmations
          here. See instead the same ideas more fully established in Angelic
          Wisdom Regarding Divine Providence, nos. 3-26, where these points
          are explained under the following series of headings:

          (1) The universe, together with every created thing in it,
          comes from Divine love through Divine wisdom, or to say the same
          thing, from Divine good through Divine truth.

          (2) Divine good and Divine truth emanate from the Lord as a
          unity.

          (3) This unity exists in some sort of image in every created
          thing.

          (4) Good is not good except to the extent that it is united
          with truth, and truth is not truth except to the extent that it is
          united with good.

          (5) The Lord does not permit anything to be divided; a person
          must either be in a state of good and at the same time of truth,
          therefore, or he must be in a state of evil and at the same time
          of falsity.

          Further discussions may be found as well.

      • (3) There is good’s truth and from this
        truth’s good, or truth resulting from good and good resulting from
        that truth, and implanted in these two from creation is an
        inclination to join together into one.

          • 88. [Good’s truth and truth’s good]
            88. (3) There is good’s truth and from this truth’s good, or
            truth resulting from good and good resulting from that truth, and
            implanted in these two from creation is an inclination to join
            together into one. It is necessary to form some clear idea of
            these concepts, because on it depends any recognition of the
            essential origin of married love. For, as explained below, good’s
            truth or truth resulting from good is masculine, and truth’s good
            or good resulting from that truth is feminine.

            This may be more clearly understood, however, if instead of
            good we say love, and instead of truth, wisdom (that they mean the
            same thing, see above, no. 84).

            Wisdom cannot take form in a person except through a love of
            growing wise. If this love is removed, a person is completely
            incapable of becoming wise. Wisdom resulting from this love is
            what is meant by good’s truth or truth resulting from good.

            On the other hand, when a person has acquired wisdom for
            himself as a result of that love, and he loves that wisdom in
            himself or himself on account of that wisdom, then he forms
            another love, which is a love of wisdom, and this is meant by
            truth’s good or good resulting from that truth.

            [2] There are, in consequence, two loves in a man, one of which
            is the love of growing wise, which comes first, and the second of
            which is the love of wisdom, which comes afterwards.

            But if this second love continues on in a man, it is an evil
            love, and is called conceit or love of his own intelligence. It
            will be established later that to keep this love from destroying
            man, it was provided from creation that this love be taken from
            him and transferred into woman, so that it might become married
            love, which makes him whole again. (Something concerning these two
            loves and the transfer of the second love into woman may be seen
            above, nos. 32, 33, and in the
            Introduction, no. 20.)

            If instead of love, therefore, we think good, and instead of
            wisdom, truth, then it follows from what we have now said that
            there is good’s truth or truth resulting from good, and truth’s
            consequent good or good resulting from that truth.

        • 89. [The inclination to join]
          89. Implanted in these two from creation is an inclination to
          join together into one, for the reason that one was formed out of
          the other. Wisdom is formed out of a love of growing wise, which
          is to say that truth is formed as a result of good. And a love of
          wisdom is formed as a result of that wisdom, or in other words,
          the good of truth is formed as a result of that truth.

          From this process of formation it can be seen that they have a
          mutual inclination to reunite themselves and to join together into
          one. But this happens only in the case of men who are in a state
          of genuine wisdom, and in women who are in a state of love for
          that wisdom in their husbands, thus who are in a state of true
          married love. As for the wisdom that a man needs to have and that
          a wife ought to love, however, this, too, will be discussed later.

      • (4) In members of the animal kingdom, good’s
        truth or truth resulting from good is masculine, and truth’s
        consequent goodness or good resulting from that truth is feminine.

          • 90. [Intellect oriented]
            90. (4) In members of the animal kingdom, good’s truth or truth
            resulting from good is masculine, and truth’s consequent goodness
            or good resulting from that truth is feminine. We showed above
            (nos. 84-86) that a constant union of love and
            wisdom or marriage of goodness and truth flows in from the Lord,
            the Creator and Sustainer of the universe, and that created
            vessels receive it, each according to its form. Reason can see,
            moreover, that from this marriage or union, the male sex receives
            the truth of wisdom, and to it the Lord joins goodness of love
            according to his reception. Also, that this reception takes place
            in the intellect, and that the male sex is therefore born to
            become intellect-oriented. Reason can see this from its own sight
            of various characteristics in the male, especially from his
            disposition, his employment, his behavior, and his physique.

            [2] With respect to the disposition of the male, reason sees
            that it is a disposition to know, understand, and be wise – a
            disposition to know in childhood, a disposition to understand in
            adolescence and early youth, and a disposition to be wise from
            this time of his youth on into old age. From this it is evident
            that the male is by nature or temperament inclined to develop his
            understanding, consequently that he is born to become
            intellect-oriented. But because this cannot happen apart from
            love, therefore the Lord attaches love to him according to his
            reception, that is, according to the spirit in him that wills to
            become wise.

            [3] With respect to his employment, reason sees that it has to
            do with things involving the intellect, or things in which the
            intellect predominates, most of which are occupational and are
            directed towards serving the public.

            With respect to his behavior, reason sees that his customary
            habits all stem from a predominance of the intellect.
            Consequently, the actions of his life, meant by behavior, are
            directed by reason – or if they are not, he wants them to appear
            so. A masculine exercise of reason is also visible in his every
            virtue.

            With respect to his physique, reason sees that it is different
            and totally distinct from the figure of the female – on which
            subject, something may also be seen above, no. 33.

            In addition to these traits, there is the power of insemination
            which resides in the male. This has no other source than the
            intellect, for its source is truth there resulting from good. That
            the power of insemination comes from this source will be seen
            later.

        • 91. [Will oriented]
          91. In contrast, the female is born to be will-oriented, but
          will-oriented in response to the intellectual orientation of the
          male, or in other words, to be a lover of the wisdom in a man,
          because she was formed by means of his wisdom (regarding which,
          see above, nos. 88, 89). This
          can also be seen from the disposition of the female, her
          employment, her behavior, and her figure.

          With respect to the disposition of the female, it can be seen
          that it is a disposition to love knowledge, intelligence and
          wisdom – though not in herself but in a man – and for that reason
          to love a man. For a man is not lovable simply on account of his
          physique, the fact that he looks like a man, but on account of the
          gifts he has in him which make him human.

          With respect to the employment of the female, it can be seen
          that it has to do with things that are works of the hands and are
          called sewing, needlework, and other names, which serve for
          decoration, for her personal adornment, and for enhancing her
          beauty. Also, that it has to do as well with various tasks called
          domestic, which complement the tasks of men (which, as we said,
          are called occupational). Women do these things out of an
          inclination towards marriage, in order to become wives and so one
          with their husbands.

          With respect to the behavior and figure of the female, it is
          evident without explanation that the same thing is visible from
          these.

      • (5) From the marriage of good and truth
        flowing in from the Lord comes love for the opposite sex and also
        married love.

          • 92. [The origin of sexual love]
            92. (5) From the marriage of good and truth flowing in from the
            Lord comes love for the opposite sex and also married love. We
            showed above (nos. 84-87) that goodness and
            truth are universal in creation, and are therefore in all created
            vessels; that they are present in these vessels according to each
            one’s form; and that good and truth emanate from the Lord not as
            two entities but as a unity. It follows from this that there is a
            universal conjugal atmosphere emanating from the Lord and
            pervading the universe from the firsts to the lasts of it, thus
            from angels all the way down to worms.

            Such an atmosphere of a marriage of good and truth emanates
            from the Lord because it is at the same time an atmosphere of
            propagation, that is, of procreation and fructification. It is
            also the same thing as the Divine providence in the preservation
            of the universe by successive generations.

            Now because that universal atmosphere, which is an atmosphere
            of a marriage of good and truth, flows into its vessels according
            to each one’s form (no. 86), it follows that the
            male sex receives it according to its form, thus in the intellect,
            because the male is an intellect-oriented form, and that the
            female sex receives it according to its form, thus in the will,
            because the female is a will-oriented form derived from the
            intellect-oriented form of the male. And because the same
            atmosphere is also an atmosphere of procreation, it follows that
            it is the origin of love between the sexes.

        • 93. [The origin of married love]
          93. This atmosphere is as well the origin of married love,
          because it flows into forms of wisdom among people and also
          angels. For a person can grow in wisdom till the end of his life
          in the world, and afterwards to eternity in heaven, and as he
          grows in wisdom, so his form is perfected. This form does not
          receive a love for the opposite sex but love for one of the sex,
          for with this one he can be united even to inmost levels, where
          heaven resides with its felicities. This union is the union of
          married love.

      • (6) A love for the opposite sex is a love of
        the external or natural man, and is therefore common to every
        animal.

        • 94. [Sexual love is external]
          94. (6) A love for the opposite sex is a love of the external
          or natural man, and is therefore common to every animal. Everybody
          is born carnal and becomes more and more inwardly natural, and to
          the extent that he loves intelligence he becomes rational, and
          afterwards, if he loves wisdom, he becomes spiritual. (We will say
          later, in no. 130, what that wisdom is, by
          which a person becomes spiritual.)

          Now as a person advances from knowledge to intelligence, and
          from this to wisdom, his mind also changes its form accordingly,
          for it opens up more and more and becomes more closely connected
          with heaven and through heaven with the Lord. Consequently the
          person becomes a greater lover of truth and more devoted to
          goodness of life.

          If a person stops, therefore, at the first stage in his
          progress towards wisdom, the form of his mind remains natural, and
          it receives the inflowing of the universal atmosphere – the
          atmosphere of the marriage between good and truth – in just the
          same way as it is received by the lower members of the animal
          kingdom called beasts and birds. And because these are merely
          natural, the person becomes like them, and consequently he feels a
          love for the opposite sex in the same way they do.

          This is what we mean by the statement that a love for the
          opposite sex is a love of the external or natural man, and is
          therefore common to every animal.

      • (7) But married love is a love of the
        internal or spiritual man, and is therefore peculiar to mankind.

          • 95. [Married love is internal]
            95. (7) But married love is a love of the internal or spiritual
            man, and is peculiar to mankind. Married love is a love of the
            internal or spiritual man because the more intelligent and wise a
            person becomes, the more internal or spiritual he becomes. The
            more, too, is the form of his mind perfected, and the perfected
            form receives married love, for it perceives and feels in that
            love a spiritual delight that is inwardly blessed, and a natural
            delight arising from that love which takes its soul, life and
            essence from the spiritual delight.

        • 96. [Married love is human]
          96. Married love is peculiar to mankind because only a human
          being can become spiritual. For a human being can raise his
          understanding above his natural loves and from that elevation view
          them beneath him, make judgments about their character, and also
          correct, discipline, and remove them. No animal can do this
          because its loves are inseparable from its instinctive knowledge,
          and this knowledge cannot therefore be raised into intelligence,
          and still less into wisdom. Consequently an animal is carried
          along by the love enrooted in its knowledge, like a blind man
          being led through the streets by his dog.

          It is because of this that married love is peculiar to mankind.
          It may even be said to be native or indigenous to mankind, because
          mankind possesses a capacity for becoming wise, a capacity with
          which this love is united.

      • (8) Married love in a person lies within love
        for the opposite sex, like a gem in its native rock.

        • 97. [Married love withing sexual love]
          97. (8) Married love in a person lies within love for the
          opposite sex, like a gem in its native rock. Since this is only a
          metaphor, however, it will be explained under the next heading. It
          illustrates further that a love for the opposite sex is a love of
          the external or natural man, while married love is a love of the
          internal or spiritual man, as we showed just above (nos. 94-96).

      • (9) A love for the opposite sex in a person
        is not the origin of married love, but it is its first stage, being
        thus like any external natural quality in which an internal
        spiritual one is implanted.

        • 98. [Not the origin of married love]
          98. (9) A love for the opposite sex in a person is not the
          origin of married love, but it is its first stage, being thus like
          any external natural quality in which an internal spiritual one is
          implanted. We are referring here to true married love, and not the
          ordinary love which is also called married, and which in some
          cases is nothing more than a love for the opposite sex that has
          been restricted. True married love in contrast exists solely in
          people who are eager for wisdom and who accordingly advance
          further and further into it. The Lord foresees these people and
          provides married love for them. In such people married love indeed
          begins with a love for the opposite sex, or rather, through the
          agency of that love, but still it does not originate from it. For
          it springs up as wisdom advances and emerges into light in the
          person, wisdom and married love being inseparable companions.

          [2] We say that married love begins through the agency of a
          love for the opposite sex because before a married partner is
          found, a person loves the opposite sex in general and regards it
          with loving eyes. In their company he also treats the opposite sex
          with courteous morality. For the adolescent is in a period of
          choosing, and at that time his external nature grows pleasantly
          warm from a deep-seated inclination to marriage with one, which
          lies hidden in the inner sanctum of his mind.

          We also say that married love begins through the agency of a
          love for the opposite sex for the further reason that decisions to
          marry are delayed for various reasons, even till half one’s youth
          is spent, and in the meantime the beginning of married love is
          felt as lust, which in some cases goes off into love between the
          sexes in act. But still, in such people, it is not given free rein
          further than is healthy. This refers, however, to the male sex,
          because it suffers an enticement that actively arouses it. It does
          not refer to the female sex.

          [3] It is apparent from this that a love for the opposite sex
          is not the origin of true married love, but that it is its first
          stage, being first in time, but not in end. For that which is
          first in end is what is first in the mind and its intention, this
          being the primary objective. But no one reaches this primary
          objective except gradually, through intermediate steps. These
          steps are not primary goals in themselves, but only means of
          advancement to that which is primary in them.

      • (10) When married love has been implanted,
        love for the opposite sex turns around and becomes a chaste love for
        the opposite sex.

        • 99. [Married love makes sexual love chaste]
          99. (10) When married love has been implanted, love for the
          opposite sex turns around and becomes a chaste love for the
          opposite sex. We say that love for the opposite sex then turns
          around, because when married love comes to its source, which lies
          in the inner recesses of the mind, it sees love for the opposite
          sex not before it but behind it, or not above it but below it,
          thus viewing it as something it has left in passing. It is similar
          to what happens when someone rises from position to position in
          his work, finally reaching one much higher in rank, and then looks
          back at the positions behind or below him through which he passed.
          Or to what happens when someone plans a journey to the court of
          some king, then after his arrival turns and looks back on the
          things he saw on the way.

          Testimony that love for the opposite sex still remains then and
          becomes chaste, and yet sweeter than before to people who are in a
          state of true married love – this may be seen from the description
          of it by people who are in the spiritual world, recorded in two
          accounts from that world in nos. 44 and 55.

      • (11) Male and female were created to be the
        very image of the marriage between good and truth.

        • 100. [The image of the marriage of good and
          truth]

          100. (11) Male and female were created to be the very image of
          the marriage between good and truth. This is because the male was
          created to be an expression of the understanding of truth, thus a
          picture of truth, and the female was created to be an expression
          of the will of good, thus a picture of good, and implanted in both
          from their inmost beings is an inclination to conjunction into one
          (see above, no. 88). Thus the two together form
          a single image, which imitates the conjugal model of good and
          truth.

          We say that it imitates this model, because it is not identical
          to it but similar. For the good that attaches itself to the truth
          in a man comes directly from the Lord, whereas the wife’s good
          that attaches itself to the truth in a man comes from the Lord
          indirectly through the wife. Consequently there are two kinds of
          good, one internal, one external, which attach themselves to the
          truth in a husband and cause the husband to remain constant in an
          understanding of truth and so in a state of wisdom through the
          agency of true married love.

          But more on this subject later.

      • (12) They are an image of that marriage in
        their inmost qualities and thus in their subsequent ones as the
        inner faculties of their minds are opened.

          • 101. [Marriage begins in the soul]
            101. (12) A married couple is an image of that marriage in
            their inmost qualities and thus in their subsequent ones as the
            inner faculties of their minds are opened. Every person consists
            of three components which follow in order in him: soul, mind, and
            body. The inmost one is his soul. The intermediate one is his
            mind. And the outmost one is his body. Everything that flows into
            a person from the Lord flows first into his inmost component,
            which is the soul, and descends from there into his intermediate
            component, which is the mind, and through this into his outmost
            component, which is the body.

            A marriage of good and truth flows in from the Lord in a person
            in the same way. It flows into his soul directly, and continues
            from there into the subsequent faculties, and through these to the
            outmost constituents. And thus conjointly they bring about married
            love.

            It is apparent from a consideration of this influx that a
            married couple is an image of the marriage between good and truth
            in their inmost qualities and thus in their subsequent ones.

        • 102. [It develops as their minds are opened]
          102. However, married partners become an image of the marriage
          between good and truth only as the inner faculties of their minds
          are opened, because the mind only gradually opens from infancy to
          late old age. For people are born carnal, and they become rational
          as the mind just above the body opens and as this rationality is
          purified and decanted, so to speak, from its dregs – from
          fallacious appearances that flow in from the physical senses and
          from urges that flow in from temptations of the flesh. Rationality
          thus opens, and this is accomplished only through wisdom. Then,
          when the inner faculties of the rational mind have been opened,
          the person becomes an image of wisdom, and this wisdom is the
          receptacle of true married love.

          The wisdom which forms this image and receives this love is
          rational and at the same time moral wisdom. Rational wisdom views
          the truths and good virtues that inwardly appear in a person not
          as qualities belonging to him but as qualities flowing in from the
          Lord. And moral wisdom shuns evils and falsities as contagious
          diseases – especially lascivious ones which contaminate his
          married love.


      • The origin of married love and its vigor or
        potency, discussed by wise men assembled from the European world
        (nos. 103114).

          • 103. [A convocation on married love]
            103. To this I will append two narrative accounts. Here is the
            first:

            One morning before sunrise, I looked out towards the east in
            the spiritual world and I saw four horsemen seemingly flying out
            of a cloud that shone with the blaze of dawn. On the heads of the
            horsemen I saw curled helmets[*1], on their arms what appeared to
            be wings, and about their bodies light orange-colored tunics. Thus
            dressed, like racers they rose up on their horses and held the
            reins out over their manes, so that the horses went out at a
            gallop like wing-footed steeds.

            I followed their course or flight with my eyes, with a mind to
            find out where they were going. Then suddenly three of the
            horsemen peeled off in three directions, to the south, the west,
            and the north, while the fourth pulled up after a short space and
            came to a halt in the east.

            [2] Wondering at this, I looked up to heaven and asked where
            the horsemen were going. I received the reply, “To the wise
            in the kingdoms of Europe, people of polished reason and keen
            sight in analytical investigations who enjoyed a reputation for
            genius among their contemporaries. They are being summoned to come
            and solve the secret of the origin of married love and its vigor
            or potency.”

            Those speaking from heaven also said, “Keep looking, and
            in a little while you will see twenty-seven carriages, three with
            Spaniards in them, three with natives of France or Frenchmen,
            three with Italians, three with Germans, three with natives of the
            Netherlands or Dutchmen, three with Englishmen, three with Swedes,
            three with Danes, and three with Poles.”

            Then, after two hours, their carriages appeared, drawn by
            ponies light bay in color with strikingly decorated harnesses. And
            traveling rapidly to an immense house visible in the border region
            between the east and the south, the riders all got out of their
            carriages around the house and boldly went in.

            [3] Moreover I was then told, “Go on over and go in, too,
            and you will hear.”

            I went and entered the house, and examining it inside, I saw
            that it was square, with sides facing towards the four points of
            the compass. Each of the sides had three high windows containing
            panes of crystal, whose frames were made of olive wood. From
            either side of the frames projected walls in the form of rooms,
            with vaulted ceilings and containing tables. These walls were made
            out of cedar, the ceilings out of fine sandarac wood[*2], and the
            floors out of boards of poplar. Against the east wall – where I
            did not see any windows – a table stood, overlaid with gold, on
            which had been placed a miter covered with precious stones. This
            would go as an award or prize to the one who found the secret of
            the riddle to be presently put before them.

            [4] As I looked around at the rooms formed by the projecting
            walls, which were like compartments along the windows, I saw in
            each of them five men from the same European kingdom, who were
            ready and waiting for the topic on which they were to render
            judgment.

            Instantly, then, an angel stood in the middle of the palace and
            said, “The subject on which you are to render judgment is the
            origin of married love and its vigor or potency. Discuss it and
            come to a decision. Then when you have reached a decision, write
            your opinion on a piece of paper and put it into the silver urn
            that you see placed beside the gold table. Also, sign it with the
            initial letter of the kingdom you are from. For example, if you
            are natives of France or French, write F. If you are natives of
            the Netherlands or Dutch, write N. If you are Italian, write I. If
            you are English, write E. If you are Polish, write P. If you are
            German, write G. If you are Spanish, write Sp. If you are Danish,
            write D. And if you are Swedish, write Sw.”

            With these words the angel departed, saying as he left, “I
            will return.”

            The five fellow countrymen in each compartment along the
            windows then considered this instruction, analyzed the subject,
            and after coming to a decision to the best of their ability to
            judge, wrote it down on a piece of paper, signed it with the
            initial letter of their kingdom, and put it into the hollow silver
            container.

            Three hours later, when they were all finished, the angel
            returned to draw the pieces of paper out of the urn one by one and
            read them in the presence of the whole gathering.

            [*1] Probably morions or comb morions.

            [*2] Literally, “thyine wood.” See Revelation 18:12,
            where it has been variously translated.

          • 104. [Spain: Solar power]
            104. From the first piece of paper that his hand happened to
            chance upon, the angel then read aloud the following statement:

            “We five fellow countrymen in our compartment have decided
            that the origin of married love comes from the most ancient
            peoples in the golden age, and among them, from the creation of
            Adam and his wife. The origin of marriage comes from this source,
            and with marriage, the origin of married love.

            “As for the vigor or potency of married love, we trace the
            origin of this from no other source than the climate or solar
            zone, and thus from the heat of the sun upon the land. We came to
            this consideration not as the result of empty figments of reason,
            but from the plain indications of experience. We came to it, for
            instance, from our knowledge of peoples below the equatorial line
            or circle, where the day’s heat blazes like fire, and from
            comparing peoples who live nearer that line and peoples who live
            further away from it. We also came to this consideration as well
            from seeing the cooperation of solar heat with the vital heat in
            animals of the earth and birds of the sky in springtime when they
            beget their young.

            “Besides, what is married love but heat, which, if
            strengthened by additional heat from the sun, becomes vigorous or
            potent.”

            This statement was signed below with the letters, Sp., the
            initial letters of the kingdom the writers were from.

          • 105. [Netherlands: Chastity]
            105. After this the angel reached his hand into the urn a
            second time, and taking out another piece of paper, he read from
            it the following opinion:

            “We fellow countrymen in our group agreed that the origin
            of married love is the same as the origin of marriage, which has
            been prescribed by law to restrain the inborn urges in people for
            adulterous relationships that destroy the soul, pollute the mind’s
            reason, corrupt morals, and waste the body with disease. For
            adulterous relationships are not human but beastlike, not rational
            but animal, and thus not at all Christian but barbarian. A
            condemnation of such things led to the origination of marriage,
            and at the same time of married love.

            “It is similar with the vigor or potency of this love. It
            depends on chastity, which means abstaining from promiscuous and
            licentious relationships. The reason is that in one who makes love
            to his partner only, the vigor and potency is preserved for just
            that one person, and is thus collected and concentrated, so to
            speak, and then it becomes like a fine quintessence from which the
            impurities have been removed, a quintessence that would otherwise
            be dissipated and discharged every which way.

            “One among the five of us, who is a priest, added also the
            idea of predestination as a reason for this vigor or potency,
            saying, “Are marriages not predestined? And since these are
            predestined, so, too, are the offspring resulting from them and
            the varying abilities to beget them.” The man insisted on
            this as a cause because he had sworn himself to it.”

            This statement was signed below with the letter N.

            On hearing it, someone said in a mocking tone, “Predestination!
            Oh, what a beautiful excuse for inability or impotence!”

          • 106. [Italy: Possessive and permissive]
            106. Next, drawing for the third time a piece of paper from the
            urn, the angel read from it the following opinion:

            “We fellow countrymen in our cubicle discussed causes of
            the origin of married love, and we saw the leading one of these to
            be the same as the original cause for marriage, since before
            marriage married love did not exist. It came about, then, because
            when anyone is dying for or desperately loves a young woman, he
            tries with his heart and soul to possess her as his most prized
            possession. And as soon as she pledges herself to him, he regards
            her as an owner regards his property. That this is the origin of
            married love is plainly evident from everyone’s fury at rivals and
            jealousness against intruders.

            “We considered afterwards the origin of the vigor or
            potency of that love, and the prevailing opinion of three against
            two was that vigor or potency with one’s partner comes from having
            some license in matters of sex. They said that they know from
            experience that the potency of promiscuous love is greater than
            the potency of married love.”

            This statement was signed below with the letter I.

            When the others heard this, they cried from the tables, “Put
            that paper away and take another from the urn.”

          • 107. [England: wise laws and health]
            107. So after a moment the angel pulled out a fourth piece of
            paper, from which he read the following statement:

            “We fellow countrymen under our window have decided that
            the origin of married love is the same as the origin of love for
            the opposite sex, because it results from it. The difference is
            only that a love for the opposite sex is unrestricted,
            uninhibited, liberated, indiscriminate and fickle, while married
            love is restricted, directed, contained, sure and constant.
            Married love has therefore been prescribed and established by the
            prudence of human wisdom, because otherwise there would be no
            empire, no kingdom, no commonwealth, indeed no society, but people
            would roam through the fields and forests in bands and troops with
            licentious and stolen women, and they would flee from place to
            place to escape bloody slaughter, rape and pillage, by which the
            whole human race would be wiped out of existence.

            “That is our judgment regarding the origin of married
            love.

            “As for the vigor or potency of married love, however, we
            trace the origin of this from physical health that lasts
            throughout life from birth to old age. For a person who remains
            uninjured and possessed of steady good health does not lack in
            vigor. His fibers, sinews, and muscles, including the suspensory
            muscles of the testes, do not grow sluggish, loose and flabby, but
            continue in the strength of their powers. See that you stay well.”

            This statement was signed below with the letter E.

          • 108. [Poland: the first passion of love]
            108. A fifth time the angel drew a piece of paper from the urn,
            and he read from it the following opinion:

            “We fellow countrymen at our table, with the rationality
            our minds possess, looked into the origin of married love and the
            origin of its vigor or potency. And with well-considered
            reasonings we saw and confirmed that married love takes its origin
            simply from the following circumstance: that owing to
            inflammations and thus stimulations concealed in the inmost
            recesses of his mind and body, after experiencing various lusts
            with his eyes, everybody at last turns and inclines his mind to
            one of the feminine sex, until he inwardly burns with passion for
            her. From that time on, his burning passion mounts from flame to
            flame till it becomes a blazing fire. In this state sexual lust is
            banished, and instead of lust comes married love.

            “In this blazing state of passion, a young man engaged to
            be married does not know but that the vigor or potency of this
            love will never cease, for he has not experienced and so does not
            know about the state in which the powers fail and in which love
            then grows cool after its delights are over.

            “The origin of married love, therefore, comes from that
            first state of passion before the wedding, and from this comes its
            vigor or potency. After the wedding, however, its fires change,
            sometimes lessening, sometimes increasing. But still its potency
            continues with steady change or with a steady lessening and
            increasing until old age, by the prudent exercise of self-control
            and by restraining the lusts that break out from the caverns of
            the mind before they have been cleansed of their filth. For lust
            exists before wisdom.

            “That is our judgment regarding the origin and continuance
            of marital vigor or potency.”

            This statement was signed below with the letter P.

          • 109. [Germany: a distinct and higher love]
            109. A sixth time the angel drew out a piece of paper, and he
            read from it the following opinion:

            “We fellow countrymen in our party looked around for the
            causes of the origin of married love, and we agreed on two. One of
            these is the proper upbringing of children, and the other, the
            clear claim of heirs to their inheritances.

            “We selected these two, because they are aimed and
            directed towards the same objective, this being the public good.
            This is achieved by these means, because children conceived and
            born of married love become the proper and true offspring of both
            parents; and as objects of a parental love that is deepened by
            their being of legitimate descent, they are raised to become the
            heirs of all their parents’ possessions, both spiritual and
            natural. Reason sees that the public good is founded on a proper
            upbringing of children and on the clear claim of heirs to their
            inheritances.

            “A love for the opposite sex is one thing, and married
            love another. Married love appears to be the same as a love for
            the opposite sex, but it is distinctly different. Nor is the one
            love on the same level as the other, but the one is within the
            other; and whatever is within is nobler than that which is
            without. Furthermore, we saw that married love by creation is
            within and concealed in love for the opposite sex just like an
            almond inside its shell. Consequently, when married love is broken
            out of its shell, which is love for the opposite sex, it shines
            before the angels like a gemstone of beryl or a star sapphire.
            Such is the case because married love has engraved on it the
            salvation of the whole human race, which is what we mean by the
            public good.

            “That is our judgment regarding the origin of this love.

            “With respect to the origin of its vigor or potency,
            moreover, from considering its causes we have come to the
            conclusion that the origin is the removal or separation of married
            love from a love for the opposite sex, which is accomplished by
            wisdom on the part of the man, and by love of the man’s wisdom on
            the part of the wife. For a love for the opposite sex is shared in
            common with animals, whereas married love is peculiar to human
            beings. In the measure that married love is removed and separated
            from a love for the opposite sex, therefore, in the same measure
            is a person a human being and not an animal; and a human being
            gets his vigor or potency from his love, as an animal does from
            its love.”

            This statement was signed below with the letter G.

          • 110. [France: Delight and pleasure]
            110. A seventh time the angel drew out a piece of paper, and he
            read from it the following opinion:

            “We representatives in the room under the light from our
            window found our thoughts and our consequent judgments stimulated
            by reflecting on married love. Who is not stimulated by this love?
            For when it fills the mind, it at the same time fills the whole
            body.

            “We judge the origin of this love from its delights. Who
            knows or ever has known the path any love takes except from its
            delight and pleasure? The delights of married love are felt in
            their origins as blessings, felicities, and states of happiness,
            in their derivative states as gratifications and pleasures, and in
            their final states as the most consummate of delights.

            “Love for the opposite sex has its origin, therefore, when
            the inner faculties of the mind and thus the inner faculties of
            the body are opened to receive the inflowing of these delights;
            but the origin of married love occurs at the time the states of
            engagement and betrothal begin and when through these states the
            first atmosphere of that love advances these delights into an real
            conception of them.

            “With respect to the vigor or potency of married love,
            this results from the capacity of this love and its flow to pass
            from the mind into the body. For the mind is in the body from the
            head whenever it feels and acts, especially when it is
            experiencing the delights of this love. We judge the degrees of
            its potency and the constancies of its successive expressions to
            be a consequence of this.

            “Moreover, we also trace the vigor of its potency as
            coming from heredity. If it is superior in the father, it becomes
            also superior by transmission in the offspring. Reason agrees with
            experience that this superior ability is by transmission
            reproduced, inherited, and passed down.”

            This statement was signed below with the letter F.

          • 111. [Denmark: Love is from love]
            111. An eighth time a piece of paper was drawn, and the angel
            read from it the following opinion:

            “We fellow countrymen in our meeting did not find the
            actual origin of married love, because it lies inmostly hidden
            away in the sacred repositories of the mind. The most consummate
            wisdom cannot with any ray of understanding even touch that love
            in its origin. We formed a number of theories, but after vainly
            debating the finer points, we did not know whether we had come up
            with empty guesses or sound opinions. Anyone, therefore, who would
            ferret out the origin of married love from the sacred repositories
            of the mind and bring it before his view, let him go to an oracle!

            “As for us, we considered this love on a level below its
            origin, observing that it is spiritual in the mind and is like the
            wellspring of a pleasant stream there. From this point it flows
            down into the breast, where it becomes delightful and is called a
            love of the heart, which regarded in itself is full of friendship
            and full of confidence resulting from a total inclination to
            mutual companionship. Then, when it has passed down through the
            breast, it becomes a sexual love.

            “When a young man in his thoughts reflects on these and
            similar considerations, which he does when he chooses one of the
            opposite sex for himself in preference to the rest, they kindle in
            his heart the fire of married love. Since this fire is the first
            kindling of that love, it is its origin.

            “As for the origin of its vigor or potency, we acknowledge
            no other source than the love itself, for love and ability are
            inseparable companions. But still they are such that sometimes the
            one leads and sometimes the other. When love leads and vigor or
            potency follows it, both are noble, because the potency is then
            the vigor of married love. But if potency leads and love follows,
            then both are ignoble, because love is then love belonging to a
            carnal potency. We judge the quality of each, therefore, depending
            on the order in which love descends or ascends and thus proceeds
            from its origin to its goal.”

            This statement was signed below with the letter D.

          • 112. [Sweden: from creation]
            112. A final and ninth time the angel took up a piece of paper,
            and he read from it the following opinion:

            “We fellow countrymen in our committee applied our
            judgment to the two aspects of the subject proposed – to the
            origin of married love, and to the origin of its vigor or potency.

            “When we debated the finer points regarding the origin of
            married love, in order to avoid obscurities in our arguments we
            drew distinctions between a spiritual, a natural, and a carnal
            love between the sexes. By a spiritual love between the sexes we
            mean true married love, because it is spiritual. By a natural love
            between the sexes we mean polygamous love, because it is natural.
            And by a merely carnal love between the sexes we mean licentious
            love, because it is merely carnal.

            “When we looked with our powers of judgment into true
            married love, we saw clearly that this love is possible only
            between one male and one female, and that it is from creation
            heavenly, most interior, and the soul and parent of all good
            loves, having been inspired into the first parents and capable of
            being inspired into Christians. It is also so conjunctive that by
            it two minds can become one mind, and two persons like one person,
            which is what is meant by their becoming one flesh.

            “That this love was inspired from creation is apparent
            from these words in the book of creation:

            And a man shall leave his father and mother and cling to his
            wife, and they shall become one flesh. (Genesis 2:24)

            “That it can be inspired into Christians is apparent from
            these verses:

            (Jesus said,) “Have you not read that He who made them at
            the beginning “made them male and female,” and said,
            “For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and
            cling to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh”? So
            then, they are no longer two but one flesh.” (Matthew 19:4-6)

            “The subject is the origin of married love.

            “As for the origin of the vigor or potency of true married
            love, moreover, we theorize that it comes from a similarity and
            unanimity of minds. For when two minds are joined in marriage,
            their thoughts then spiritually kiss each other, and they inspire
            in the body their vigor or potency.”

            This statement was signed below with the letters Sw.

          • 113. [Africa: From God]
            113. A rectangular screen had been set up in the palace in
            front of the doors, and behind it stood foreigners from Africa,
            who called to the natives of Europe, “Permit one of us to
            present an opinion, too, regarding the origin of married love and
            its vigor or potency.”

            All the tables then signaled with their hands permission for
            him to do so.

            Then one of them entered and stood beside the table on which
            the miter had been placed. He said:

            “You Christians trace the origin of married love from the
            love itself. We Africans, on the other hand, trace it from the God
            of heaven and earth.

            “Is married love not a chaste, pure and holy love? Are the
            angels of heaven not in an enjoyment of it? The whole human race,
            and therefore the entire angelic heaven – are they not the
            offspring of this love? Could anything so wonderful spring from
            any other source than God Himself, the Creator and Sustainer of
            the universe?

            “You Christians trace the origin of marital vigor or
            potency from various rational and natural causes. We Africans,
            however, trace it from a person’s state of conjunction with the
            God of the universe. (We call this state a state of religion, but
            you call it a state of the church.) We trace it from this origin,
            for when love comes from this source and is constant and lasting,
            it cannot help but maintain its vigor, a vigor that is like the
            love, thus also constant and lasting.

            “True married love is not known except to the few who are
            near to God. Neither, therefore, is the potency of this love known
            to others. Angels in heaven describe the potency accompanying this
            love as the delight of endless spring.”

        • 114. [The prize]
          114. At the conclusion of these words the people all rose, and
          suddenly, behind the gold table on which the miter rested, a
          window materialized that had not been visible before. Through it
          also came a voice, saying, “The miter will go to the
          African.”

          The angel then gave the miter to him, handing it to him rather
          than placing it on his head. And the African went away home with
          it.

          The inhabitants of the kingdoms of Europe also went out and got
          into their carriages, in which they returned to their companions.

      • A piece of paper sent down from heaven to
        the earth, on which was written, “The marriage between good and
        truth” (no. 115).

        • 115. [A message obscured]
          115. The second account:

          Awakened from sleep in the middle of the night, I saw an angel
          at some height towards the east, holding in his right hand a piece
          of paper. It appeared in a shining brilliance owing to the light
          coming in from the sun. In the middle of the paper there was
          writing in gold letters, and I saw the phrase, “The marriage
          between good and truth.” From the writing sprang a radiance
          that turned into a large halo around the piece of paper. The halo
          or ring consequently had an appearance similar to the appearance
          of dawn in springtime.

          After this I saw the angel descending with the paper in his
          hand. Moreover, as he descended, the paper appeared less and less
          bright, and the writing – which said, “The marriage between
          good and truth” – turned from the color of gold to silver,
          then to the color of copper, next to the color of iron, and lastly
          to the color of rusty iron and corroded copper. Finally I saw the
          angel enter a dark cloud and descend through the cloud to the
          ground. There the piece of paper disappeared, although the angel
          was still holding it in his hand. (This took place in the world of
          spirits, the world all people go to first after they die.)

          [2] The angel then spoke to me, saying, “Ask the people
          who are coming this way whether they see me and whether they see
          anything in my hand.”

          A host of people came – a crowd from the east, a crowd from the
          south, a crowd from the west, and a crowd from the north. Those
          coming from the east and south were people who in the world had
          devoted themselves to becoming learned, and I asked them whether
          they saw anyone with me there and whether they saw anything in his
          hand. They all said they saw nothing at all.

          I then asked the people who came from the west and north. They
          were people who in the world had believed whatever the learned
          said. They said they did not see anything, either.

          The last of these, however, were people who in the world had
          possessed a simple faith stemming from charity, or some truth
          resulting from goodness, and after the people before them went
          away, they said that they saw a man with a piece of paper – a man
          handsomely dressed, and a piece of paper with letters printed on
          it. Moreover, when they looked more closely, they said they could
          read the phrase, “The marriage between good and truth.”
          Then they spoke to the angel, asking him to tell them what it
          meant.

          [3] The angel said that everything which exists in the whole of
          heaven and everything which exists in the whole world is nothing
          but a form of the marriage between good and truth, since each and
          every thing was created out of and into a marriage of good and
          truth – both everything that lives and breathes and also whatever
          does not live and breathe.

          “There is nothing,” he said, “that was created
          solely into a form of truth, and nothing that was created solely
          into a form of good. Good alone or truth alone has no reality, but
          they take form and become real through a marriage of the two, the
          character of the resulting form being determined by the character
          of the marriage.

          “Divine good and Divine truth in the Lord the Creator are
          good and truth in their very essence. The being of His essence is
          Divine good, and the expression of His essence is Divine truth. In
          Him, moreover, good and truth exist in their very union, for in
          Him they are infinitely united. Since these two are united in Him,
          the Creator, therefore they are also united in each and every
          thing created by Him. By this the Creator is also conjoined with
          all things created by Him in an eternal covenant like that of a
          marriage.”

          [4] The angel said further that the Holy Scripture, which came
          directly from the Lord, is as a whole and in every part an
          expression of the marriage between good and truth. And because the
          church, which is formed through truth of doctrine, and religion,
          which is formed through goodness of life in accordance with truth
          of doctrine, are in the case of Christians based solely on the
          Holy Scripture, it can be seen that the church as a whole and in
          every part is an expression of the marriage between good and
          truth. (For an explanation of this, see The Apocalypse Revealed,
          nos. 373, 483.)

          The same thing that the angel said above regarding the marriage
          of good and truth he also said of the marriage between charity and
          faith, since good has to do with charity and truth has to do with
          faith.

          Some of the first people, who had not seen the angel or the
          writing, were still standing around, and on hearing these things
          they mumbled, “Yes, of course. We see that.”

          But then the angel said to them, “Turn away from me a
          little and repeat what you said.”

          So they turned away, and they said quite plainly, “No, it
          isn’t so.”

          [5] Afterwards the angel spoke with some married couples about
          the marriage of good and truth, saying that if their minds were in
          a such a state of marriage, with the husband being a form of truth
          and the wife a form of the good of that truth, they would both
          experience the blissful delights of innocence and thus the
          happiness that angels of heaven enjoy.

          “In such a state,” he said, “the husband’s power
          of insemination would continually be in the spring of youth, and
          he would therefore remain in the effort and power to transmit his
          truth, and the wife, out of love, would be in a continual state to
          receive it.

          “The wisdom that men have from the Lord knows no greater
          delight than to transmit its truths. And the love of wisdom that
          wives have in heaven knows no greater pleasure than to receive
          them as though in a womb, and thus to conceive them, carry them,
          and give them birth.

          “That is what spiritual procreations are like among angels
          of heaven. And if you would believe it, natural procreations come
          also from the same origin.”

          After bidding all farewell, the angel rose from the earth, and
          passing through the cloud, ascended into heaven. Moreover, as he
          ascended, the piece of paper then began to shine as before, until
          the halo that had previously had the appearance of dawn suddenly
          descended and dispelled the cloud which had cast a shadow over the
          earth, and it became sunny.

    • 116. THE MARRIAGE OF THE LORD AND THE CHURCH
      AND CORRESPONDENCE TO IT

        • 116. [THE MARRIAGE OF THE LORD AND THE CHURCH]
          This chapter also takes up the marriage of the Lord and the
          church and correspondence to it, because without a knowledge and
          understanding of the subject, scarcely anyone can see that married
          love in its origin is sacred, spiritual and heavenly, and that it
          comes from the Lord. Some in the church indeed say that marriage
          has a relationship to the marriage of the Lord with the church, but
          they do not know what the nature of that relationship is.

          In order to make this relationship perceptible to some sight of
          the understanding, therefore, we must discuss in detail that sacred
          marriage which exists with and in those people who form the Lord’s
          church. They, too, and not others, possess true married love.

          To explain this secret, however, we must divide our treatment
          into sections under the following headings:

          (1) In the Word, the Lord is called a Bridegroom and Husband,
          and the church a bride and wife; and the conjunction of the Lord
          with the church and the reciprocal conjunction of the church with
          the Lord is called a marriage.

          (2) The Lord is also called Father, and the church, mother.

          (3) The offspring from the Lord as Husband and Father and from
          the church as wife and mother are all spiritual offspring, and this
          is what is meant in the spiritual sense of the Word by sons and
          daughters, brothers and sisters, sons-in-law and daughters-in-law,
          and by other terms which have to do with descending generations.

          (4) The spiritual offspring that are born from the marriage of
          the Lord with the church are truths, from which come understanding,
          perception and all thought; and also qualities of goodness, from
          which come love, charity and all affection.

          (5) From the marriage of good and truth that emanates and flows
          in from the Lord, a person acquires truth, to which the Lord joins
          good, and in this way the church is formed in the person by the
          Lord.

          (6) A husband does not represent the Lord and his wife the
          church, because both husbands and wives together form the church.

          (7) Therefore neither in the marriages of angels in heaven nor
          in the marriages of people on earth does the husband correspond to
          the Lord and the wife to the church.

          (8) Rather, the correspondence rests with married love,
          insemination, procreation, love for little children, and other
          things of a similar sort that occur in marriage and result from it.

          (9) The Word is the means of conjunction, because it is from the
          Lord and thus is the Lord.

          (10) The church comes from the Lord and it exists in people who
          go to Him and live according to His commandments.

          (11) Married love depends on the state of the church in a
          person, because it depends on the state of his wisdom.

          (12) So, then, because the church comes from the Lord, married
          love comes from Him as well.

          Now follows the development of these points.

      • (1) In the Word, the Lord is called a
        Bridegroom and Husband, and the church a bride and wife; and the
        conjunction of the Lord with the church and the reciprocal
        conjunction of the church with the Lord is called a marriage.

        • 117. [The Lord as husband and church as wife]
          117. (1) In the Word, the Lord is called a Bridegroom and
          Husband, and the church a bride and wife; and the conjunction of
          the Lord with the church and the reciprocal conjunction of the
          church with the Lord is called a marriage. It can be seen from the
          following passages that the Lord is called a Bridegroom and
          Husband in the Word, and the church a bride and wife:

          He who has the bride is the Bridegroom; but the friend of the
          Bridegroom (is the one) who stands and hears Him, (who) rejoices
          greatly because of the Bridegroom’s voice. (John 3:29)

          (John the Baptist said this in reference to the Lord.)

          …Jesus said…, “…As long as the Bridegroom is with
          them, the wedding guests cannot fast…. The days will come when
          the Bridegroom will be taken away from them; …then they will
          fast.” (Matthew 9:15, Mark 2:19,20, Luke 5:34,35)

          …I…saw the holy city, New Jerusalem…, prepared as a bride
          adorned for her Husband. (Revelation 21:2)

          (That the Lord’s New Church is meant by the New Jerusalem, see
          The Apocalypse Revealed, nos. 880, 881.)

          (An angel said to John,) “Come, and I will show you the
          bride, the Lamb’s wife.” (And he showed him) the city, the
          holy Jerusalem…. (Revelation 21:9,10)

          (The time for) the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife
          has made herself ready…. Blessed are those who are called to the
          marriage supper of the Lamb. (Revelation 19:7,9)

          The bridegroom that the five ready virgins went out to meet,
          with whom they went in to the wedding (Matthew 25:1-10), means the
          Lord, as is plain from the thirteenth verse, where He says:

          Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour in
          which the Son of Man will come. (Matthew 25:13)

          Further references may be found in many passages in the
          Prophets as well.

      • (2) The Lord is also called Father, and the
        church, mother.

          • 118. [The Lord as Father]
            118. (2) The Lord is also called Father, and the church,
            mother. That the Lord is called Father is apparent from the
            following passages:

            …Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given…. And His
            name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, God…, Everlasting
            Father, Prince of Peace. (Isaiah 9:6)

            You, Jehovah, are our Father; our Redeemer from of old is Your
            name. (Isaiah 63:16)

            (Jesus said,) “He who sees Me sees (the Father) who sent
            Me.” (John 12:45)

            “If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also;
            and from now on you know Him and have seen Him.” (John 14:7)

            Philip said…, “…Show us the Father….” Jesus
            said to him, “…He who has seen Me has seen the Father; so
            how can you say, “Show us the Father”?” (John
            14:8,9)

            (Jesus said,) “The Father and I are one.” (John
            10:30)

            “All things that the Father has are Mine.” (John
            16:15, cf. 17:10)

            “…the Father is in Me, and I in the Father.” (John
            10:38, cf. 14:10,11,20)

            (We showed in full in The Apocalypse Revealed that the Lord and
            His Father are one as the soul and body are one; that God the
            Father descended from heaven and assumed a human form in order to
            redeem and save mankind; and that His human form is what is called
            the Son who was sent into the world.)

        • 119. [The church as mother]
          119. That the church is called mother is apparent from the
          following passages:

          (Jehovah said,) “Contend with your mother…; …she is
          not My wife, and I am not her Husband.” (Hosea 2:2)

          “You are the daughter of your mother, who loathes her
          Husband….” (Ezekiel 16:45)

          “Where is the certificate of your mother’s divorce, whom I
          have put away?” (Isaiah 50:1)

          Your mother was like a vine…, planted by the waters,
          fruitful…. (Ezekiel 19:10)

          “Mother” in the those places refers to the Jewish
          Church.

          (Jesus, stretching out His hand toward His disciples, said,)
          “My mother and My brothers are they who hear the word of God
          and do it.” (Luke 8:21, cf. Matthew 12:48-50, Mark 3:33-35)

          The church is meant by the Lord’s disciples.

          By the cross of Jesus stood His mother…. (And) Jesus…seeing
          His mother and the disciple whom He loved standing by, (also) said
          to His mother, “Woman, behold your son!” And He said to
          the disciple, “Behold your mother!” (Therefore) from
          that hour the disciple took her into his own [home]. (John
          19:25-27)

          The meaning here is that the Lord did not acknowledge Mary but
          the church as His mother. That is why He calls her “woman”
          and names her the mother of the disciple. He named her the mother
          of this disciple, John, because John represented the church in
          respect to its good acts of charity. These good acts are the
          church in actual practice. Therefore it is said that the disciple
          took Mary into his own [home].

          (We explained in The Apocalypse Revealed that Peter represented
          truth and faith, James charity, and John works of charity – see
          nos. 5, 6, 790, 798, 879 – and that the twelve disciples together
          represented the church in all its elements – see nos. 233, 790
          [798?], 903, 915.)

      • (3) The offspring from the Lord as Husband
        and Father and from the church as wife and mother are all spiritual
        offspring, and this is what is meant in the spiritual sense of the
        Word by sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, sons-in-law and
        daughters-in-law, and by other terms which have to do with
        descending generations.

        • 120. [Spiritual offspring]
          120. (3) The offspring from the Lord as Husband and Father and
          from the church as wife and mother are all spiritual offspring,
          and this is what is meant in the spiritual sense of the Word by
          sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, sons-in-law and
          daughters-in-law, and by other terms which have to do with
          descending generations. We have no need to show that spiritual
          offspring are the only kind of offspring born from the Lord
          through the church, because reason sees it is so without
          demonstration. For the Lord is the source from which all good and
          truth flow, and it is the church which receives this good and
          truth and puts them into effect. Moreover, the spiritual virtues
          of heaven and the church all have to do with good and truth.

          It is because of this that sons and daughters in the Word in
          its spiritual sense mean truths and goods – sons meaning truths
          conceived in a person’s spiritual self and born in the natural
          self, and daughters meaning qualities of goodness similarly
          conceived and born. In the Word, therefore, people who have been
          regenerated by the Lord are called sons of God, sons of the
          kingdom, and ones born of Him; and the Lord called the disciples
          sons.

          The male child whom the woman bore and who was caught up to God
          in the twelfth chapter of the book of Revelation (Revelation 12:5)
          has the same symbolism (see The Apocalypse Revealed, no. 543).

          Since daughters symbolize a church’s qualities of goodness,
          therefore reference is so often made in the Word to the daughter
          of Zion, daughter of Jerusalem, daughter of Israel, and daughter
          of Judah. By daughter in these places is not meant an actual
          daughter, but an affection for good which is connected with the
          church (see The Apocalypse Revealed, no. 612).

          The Lord also calls those people brothers and sisters who
          belong to His church (Matthew 12:49, 25:40, 28:10, Mark 3:35, Luke
          8:21).

      • (4) The spiritual offspring that are born
        from the marriage of the Lord with the church are truths, from which
        come understanding, perception and all thought; and also qualities
        of goodness, from which come love, charity and all affection.

        • 121. [Understanding, perception and thought;
          love, charity and affection.]

          121. (4) The spiritual offspring that are born from the
          marriage of the Lord with the church are truths, from which come
          understanding, perception and all thought; and also qualities of
          goodness, from which come love, charity and all affection. The
          spiritual offspring that are born from the Lord through the church
          are truths and qualities of goodness, because the Lord is good
          itself and truth itself (which in Him are not two but one), and
          because nothing can issue from Him but what is in Him and is Him.
          In the previous chapter on the marriage between good and
          truth,[*1] we showed that a marriage of good and truth emanates
          from the Lord and flows into people, and that it is received
          according to the state of mind and life in those who belong to the
          church.

          A person has understanding, perception and all thought as a
          result of truths, and love, charity and all affection as a result
          of qualities of goodness, because all the characteristics of a
          human being are connected with truth and good. The two elements in
          a person which make him what he is are will and understanding, and
          the will is a recipient vessel of good and the understanding a
          recipient vessel of truth. To show that love, charity and
          affection are attributes of the will and that perception and
          thought are attributes of the understanding does not require the
          light of demonstration, since light on the statement is provided
          by the understanding itself.

          [*1] See “The Origin of married love from the Marriage
          between Good and Truth,” nos. 83ff.

      • (5) From the marriage of good and truth that
        emanates and flows in from the Lord, a person acquires truth, to
        which the Lord joins good, and in this way the church is formed in
        the person by the Lord.

          • 122. [We consciously acquire truths]
            122. (5) From the marriage of good and truth that emanates and
            flows in from the Lord, a person acquires truth, to which the Lord
            joins good, and in this way the church is formed in the person by
            the Lord. A person acquires truth from the good and truth that
            emanate as one from the Lord, because he receives it and
            assimilates it into himself as if it were his own; for he thinks
            of truth as though it originated with him, and he speaks from
            truth in the same way. This comes about because truth is seen in
            the light of the understanding and is therefore visible to him;
            and he does not know the origin of whatever he sees inside himself
            or in his mind, since he does not see it flowing in like the
            phenomena that strike the vision of the eye. Consequently he
            supposes that truth exists in him.

            This appearance has been granted to people by the Lord in order
            that they may be human beings and have the means of reciprocating
            necessary for conjunction.

            In addition, man is born with a faculty for knowing,
            understanding and becoming wise, and this faculty receives truths,
            by which he gains knowledge, intelligence and wisdom. And since
            the female was created through the truth of the male and is formed
            into a love of it more and more after marriage, it follows that
            she also receives her husband’s truth into herself and joins it to
            her good.

          • 123. [The Lord invisibly gives goodness]
            123. The Lord attaches and joins good to the truths a person
            acquires, because a person cannot take goodness as though it
            originated with him, since it is invisible to his sight. The
            reason is that goodness is a matter of warmth rather than light,
            and warmth is not seen but felt. Consequently, when a person sees
            truth in his thinking, he rarely reflects on the good that flows
            into it from the love in his will and gives it life.

            A wife also does not reflect on the goodness in herself, but on
            her husband’s inclination toward her, which depends on the ascent
            of his understanding to wisdom. She influences him with the
            goodness that is in her from the Lord without the husband’s having
            any awareness of that influence.

            From this the truth now appears, that a person acquires truth
            from the Lord, and that the Lord joins good to that truth
            according as the truth is put to use, thus as a person tries to
            think wisely and so live wisely.

        • 124. [These together are the church]
          124. In this way the church is formed in the person by the
          Lord, because he is then in conjunction with the Lord, being in a
          state of good from the Lord and in a state of truth apparently
          originating with himself. Thus the person is in the Lord and the
          Lord in him, according to the Lord’s words in John 15:4,5. It is
          the same if we say charity instead of good and faith instead of
          truth, since good has to do with charity and truth has to do with
          faith.

      • (6) A husband does not represent the Lord
        and his wife the church, because both husbands and wives together
        form the church.

        • 125. [A husband does not represent the Lord]
          125. (6) A husband does not represent the Lord and his wife the
          church, because husbands and their wives both together form the
          church. It is a common saying in the church that as the Lord is
          the head of the church, so the husband is the head of the
          wife.[*1] If this were true, it would follow that the husband
          represents the Lord and the wife the church. But the truth is
          that, whereas the Lord is the head of the church, people – both
          men and women – are the church, and still more so husbands and
          wives together.

          In the case of married couples, the church is implanted first
          in the man, and through the man in his wife, because the man with
          his understanding acquires the truth that the church teaches, and
          the wife acquires it from the man. But if the reverse takes place,
          it is not according to order. Nevertheless, this sometimes
          happens, but only in the case of men who either are not lovers of
          wisdom and so are not part of the church, or who hang like slaves
          on the bidding of their wives.

          For something more on this subject, see the introductory
          chapter, no. 21.

          [*1] Quoting Ephesians 5:23. Cf. 1 Corinthians 11:3.

      • (7) Therefore neither in the marriages of
        angels in heaven nor in the marriages of people on earth does the
        husband correspond to the Lord and the wife to the church.

        • 126. [The husband does not correspond to the
          Lord]

          126. (7) Therefore neither in the marriages of angels in heaven
          nor in the marriages of people on earth does the husband
          correspond to the Lord and the wife to the church. This statement
          follows from what has already been said.

          Still, we should add that it seems as though truth is the
          primary thing in the church, because it is its first concern in
          time. It is because of this appearance that leaders of the church
          have given the palm to faith, which has to do with truth, over
          charity, which has to do with good. In similar fashion, the
          learned have given the palm to thought, which has to do with the
          intellect, over affection, which has to do with the will. As a
          result, what the good of charity is and what the affection of the
          will is lie buried in a mound of earth, so to speak, and some have
          also thrown dirt on them, as though on dead men, to keep them from
          rising again.

          The good of charity is nevertheless the primary thing in the
          church, and this can be plainly seen by people who have not closed
          off the way from heaven into their understanding by arguments in
          support of faith as the only thing that makes the church, and in
          the support of thought as the only thing that makes the man.

          Now because the good of charity is from the Lord, and the truth
          of faith exists in a person as though it originated with him, and
          because these two form the kind of conjunction of the Lord with
          people and of people with the Lord meant by the Lord’s saying that
          He should be in them and they in Him (John 15:4,5), it is apparent
          that this conjunction is the church.

      • (8) Rather, the correspondence rests with
        married love, insemination, procreation, love for little children,
        and other things of a similar sort that occur in marriage and result
        from it.

        • 127. [The correspondence rests with married
          love]

          127. (8) Rather, the correspondence rests with married love,
          insemination, procreation, love for little children, and other
          things of a similar sort that occur in marriage and result from
          it. These secrets, however, are too deep for the understanding to
          be able to take them in with any light, unless it has first gained
          a concept of correspondence. Without a concept of correspondence
          unveiled and present in the understanding, the topics that belong
          under this heading cannot be comprehended, no matter how
          explained.

          But what correspondence is – that it is a correspondence of
          natural things with spiritual things – we have shown many times in
          The Apocalypse Revealed, and also in Arcana Coelestia (The Secrets
          of Heaven). We have shown it in particular as well in The Doctrine
          of the New Jerusalem Regarding the Sacred Scripture; and
          specifically in a narrative account on the subject later on.[*1]

          Until a concept of correspondence has been absorbed, for the
          understanding still in darkness concerning it we will offer only
          these few observations: that married love corresponds to an
          affection for genuine truth and its chasteness, purity and
          holiness; that insemination corresponds to the power of truth;
          that procreation corresponds to the propagation of truth; and that
          love for little children corresponds to the protection of truth
          and good.

          Now because truth in a person appears as if it were his, and
          good is joined to it by the Lord, it is evident that these
          correspondences are correspondences of the natural or outer self
          with the spiritual or inner self. But some light will be shed on
          these points in the narrative accounts that follow.

          [*1] See perhaps no. 183, or no. 532,
          or nos. 416-422. Cf. also nos. 76,
          342.

      • (9) The Word is the means of conjunction,
        because it is from the Lord and thus is the Lord.

        • 128. []
          128. (9) The Word is the means of conjunction, because it is
          from the Lord and thus is the Lord. The Word is the means by which
          the Lord is conjoined with people and people with the Lord,
          because it is in its essence Divine truth united to Divine good
          and Divine good united to Divine truth. (On the presence of this
          union in each and every part of the Word in its celestial and
          spiritual meanings, see The Apocalypse Revealed, nos. 373, 483,
          689, 881.)

          It follows from this that the Word is a perfect marriage of
          good and truth. And because it is from the Lord, and because that
          which is from Him also is Him, it follows as a consequence that
          when a person reads the Word and draws truths from it, the Lord
          attaches good. For the person does not see the states of good
          affecting him, because he uses his intellect to read the Word, and
          the intellect takes in from the Word only what is proper to it,
          namely, truths.

          The intellect does have a sense that the Lord joins good to
          these truths, from the delight that flows in when it is in a state
          of enlightenment, but this takes place inwardly only in the case
          of people who read the Word for the purpose of gaining wisdom, and
          those have this purpose who are trying to learn genuine truths
          from it and thereby form the church in themselves.

          In contrast, people who read the Word only for the glory in
          being learned, and people who suppose that simply the reading or
          hearing of the Word inspires faith and leads to salvation – such
          people do not receive any good from the Lord. That is because the
          goal of the second sort of people is to save themselves by just
          the mere sayings in the Word, apart from the presence of any truth
          in them; and the goal of the first sort of people is to become
          renowned for their learning, a goal which does not have any
          spiritual good attached to it but only natural delight arising
          from the glory of the world.

          Since the Word is the means of conjunction, it is therefore
          called a covenant – the Old Covenant and the New Covenant. A
          covenant symbolizes conjunction.

      • (10) The church comes from the Lord and it
        exists in people who go to Him and live according to His
        commandments.

        • 129. [The church comes from the Lord]
          129. (10) The church comes from the Lord and it exists in
          people who go to Him and live according to His commandments. No
          one at the present day denies that the church is the Lord’s, and
          that because it is the Lord’s, it is from the Lord.

          It exists in people who go to Him, because the Lord’s church in
          the Christian world is founded on the Word, and the Word is from
          Him and from Him in such a way that it is Him. The Word contains
          Divine truth united to Divine good, and this also is the Lord.
          This is precisely what is meant by the Word which was with God and
          which was God, from which men have life and light, and which
          became flesh (John 1:1-14).

          Moreover, the church exists in people who go to the Lord for
          the further reason that it exists in those who believe in Him. And
          no one can believe that He is God the Savior and Redeemer, Jehovah
          who is Righteousness,[*1] the door by which one must enter the
          sheepfold (that is to say, the church),[*2] the way, the truth and
          the life, that no one comes to the Father except through Him,[*3]
          that the Father and He are one,[*4] besides many other things that
          the Lord Himself teaches – no one, I say, can believe these things
          unless he gets his belief from the Lord. No one can believe these
          things without going to the Lord, because He is God of heaven and
          earth, as He Himself also teaches.[*5] Who else should one go to?
          Who else can one go to?

          The church exists in people who live according to the Lord’s
          commandments, because they alone have conjunction with Him. For
          the Lord says:

          He who has My commandments and obeys them, it is he who loves
          Me….and I will love him….and (I will) make an abode with him.
          (But) he who does not love Me does not keep My (commandments)….
          (John 14:21-24)

          Love is what conjoins, and conjunction with the Lord is the
          church.

          [*1] See Jeremiah 23:5,6, 33:15,16, 1 Corinthians 1:30.

          [*2] John 10:1,7,9.

          [*3] John 14:6.

          [*4] John 10:30, 17:11,22, cf. 8:19, 12:45, 14:7-9.

          [*5] Matthew 28:18.

      • (11) Married love depends on the state of
        the church in a person, because it depends on the state of his
        wisdom.

        • 130. [Married love depends on the state of
          the church in a person]

          130. (11) Married love depends on the state of the church in a
          person, because it depends on the state of his wisdom. We have
          said several times before that married love depends on the state
          of wisdom in a person, and we will be saying it several times
          again after this. We will explain here, therefore, what wisdom is,
          and show that it is inseparably bound up with the church.

          People are capable of knowledge, intelligence and wisdom.
          Knowledge has to do with concepts, intelligence with reason, and
          wisdom with life.

          Regarded in its fullness, wisdom has to do with concepts,
          reason and life at the same time. Concepts come first; reason is
          formed by means of them, and wisdom by both concepts and reason
          together – and this when a person lives reasonably or rationally
          according to truths formed as concepts.

          Wisdom, therefore, has to do with both reason and life
          together. It is on the way to becoming wisdom when it is a matter
          of reason first and consequently of life; but it is wisdom when it
          has become a matter of life first and consequently of reason.

          The most ancient people in this world did not acknowledge any
          other wisdom than wisdom of life. This was the wisdom of those who
          were formerly called sages. The ancients, however, who came after
          those most ancient people, recognized as wisdom a wisdom of
          reason, and they were called philosophers. But today, many even
          call knowledge wisdom, for the educated, the learned, and the
          merely knowledgeable are called wise. Thus has wisdom fallen from
          its peak to its valley.

          [2] Nevertheless, something must also be said respecting what
          wisdom is in its rise, progress, and then full state.

          Concerns that have to do with the church and are called
          spiritual have their seat in the inmost recesses in a person.
          Concerns that have to do with the civil state and are called
          political occupy a position below them. And concerns that have to
          do with knowledge, experience and skill and are called natural –
          these form their footstool.

          Concerns that have to do with the church and are called
          spiritual have their seat in the inmost recesses in a person,
          because they are connected with heaven and through heaven with the
          Lord. For it is just these concerns that enter a person from the
          Lord through heaven.

          Concerns that have to do with the civil state and are called
          political occupy a position below spiritual matters, because they
          are connected with the world, since they have to do with the
          world. For they are the statutes, laws and regulations by which
          men are bound, in order that they may be formed into a stable and
          united society and state.

          Concerns that have to do with knowledge, experience and skill
          and are called natural – these form the footstool, because they
          are closely connected with the five senses of the body, and the
          senses are the lowest elements, on which rest, so to speak, the
          interior elements that have to do with the mind and the inmost
          elements that have to do with the soul.

          [3] Now because concerns that have to do with the church and
          are called spiritual have their seat in the inmost regions, and
          whatever has its seat in the inmost regions forms the head, and
          because the concerns that follow next below them, which are called
          political, form the body, and the lowest concerns which are called
          natural form the feet, it follows that when these three come one
          after the other in their proper order, a person is a proper human
          being. For one level then flows down into the next, in a manner
          similar to the way activities of the head flow down into the body
          and through the body to the feet. So do spiritual concerns flow
          down into political concerns, and through political concerns into
          natural ones.

          Furthermore, because spiritual concerns reside in the light of
          heaven, it is apparent that they illumine with their light the
          concerns that follow in order, and animate them with their warmth
          (which is love), and that when this happens, a person has wisdom.

          [4] Since wisdom is, as we said above, a matter of life first
          and consequently of reason, the question arises, what wisdom of
          life is. In brief summary, it is this: to refrain from evils
          because they are harmful to the soul, harmful to the civil state,
          and harmful to the body, and to do good things because they are of
          benefit to the soul, to the civil state, and to the body.

          This is the wisdom that is meant by the wisdom to which married
          love attaches itself. For it attaches itself through wisdom’s
          shunning the evil of adultery as a pestilence injurious to the
          soul, to the civil state, and to the body. And because this wisdom
          springs from spiritual concerns which have to do with the church,
          it follows that married love depends on the state of the church in
          a person, because it depends on the state of his wisdom. This also
          means, as we have frequently said before, that a person is in a
          state of true married love to the degree that he becomes
          spiritual. For a person becomes spiritual through the spiritual
          things of the church.

          More on the wisdom to which married love joins itself may be
          seen below in nos. 163, 164,
          and 165.

      • (12) So, then, because the church comes from
        the Lord, married love comes from Him as well.

        • 131. [Married love comes from the Lord]
          131. (12) So, then, because the church comes from the Lord,
          married love comes from Him as well. Because this follows as a
          consequence from what we have already said, I refrain from
          confirming it further. Besides, the angels of heaven all testify
          that true married love comes from the Lord; and they testify also
          that this love depends on the state of their wisdom, and that the
          state of their wisdom depends on the state of the church in them.
          That angels of heaven testify to these points is apparent from the
          narrative accounts at the end of the chapters, which are things I
          saw and heard in the spiritual world.


      • What the image and likeness of God are, and
        what the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil
        are (nos. 132-136).

          • 132. [What is the image and likeness of God?]
            132. To this I will append two narrative accounts. Here is the
            first:

            I was once speaking with two angels. One was from an eastern
            heaven, the other from a heaven in the south. When they perceived
            that I was pondering secrets of wisdom relating to married love,
            they said, “Do you know about schools of wisdom in our
            world?”

            I replied that I did not yet.

            They said, “There are many.” And they described how
            people who love truths with a spiritual affection, or who love
            them because they are true and because wisdom is gained by means
            of them, at a specified signal come together to discuss and draw
            conclusions on matters requiring a deeper understanding.

            Then they took me by the hand, saying, “Follow us and you
            will see and hear for yourself. The signal has been given for a
            meeting today.”

            I was taken through a flat stretch of country to a hill, and
            behold, at the foot of the hill was an avenue of palm trees that
            extended all the way up to the top. We entered the avenue and
            ascended. At the top or apex of the hill we then saw a grove whose
            trees grew round about on a rise of ground and formed a kind of
            theater, with a level area in the middle covered with variously
            colored stones. Chairs had been placed around this space in the
            shape of a square, where the lovers of wisdom were already seated.
            Moreover, in the center of the theater stood a table, on which a
            piece of paper had been placed, sealed with a seal.

            [2] The people sitting on the chairs invited us to seats that
            were still empty. But I replied, “I was brought here by the
            two angels to observe and listen, not to participate.”

            The two angels then went to the table in the middle of the
            level area; and undoing the seal on the piece of paper, they stood
            before the people seated and read them the secrets of wisdom
            written on the paper, which the people were now to discuss and
            explain. (The topics had been written by angels of the third
            heaven and sent down to their place on the table.)

            There were three secrets to be explained. First, what the image
            of God is and the likeness of God into which man was created.
            Secondly, why man does not come by birth into the knowledge
            necessary to any love, whereas both higher and lower animals and
            birds come by birth into the kinds of knowledge necessary to all
            their loves. Thirdly, what the tree of life symbolizes and the
            tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and what eating from them
            means.

            Underneath, the added instruction had been written, “Combine
            the three explanations into a single statement and write it on a
            new piece of paper, then place it back on the table and we will
            look at it. If the statement seems balanced and accurate, each of
            you will be given an award for wisdom.”

            After they read this, the two angels withdrew and were taken up
            into their respective heavens.

            [3] Then the people sitting on the chairs began to discuss and
            explain the secrets of the questions put before them, speaking in
            turn, beginning with those who sat towards the north, then those
            towards the west, afterwards those towards the south, and finally
            those towards the east. They started by taking up the first topic
            for discussion, namely, what the image of God is and the likeness
            of God into which man was created. First of all, they had the
            following verses read aloud from the book of creation for everyone
            to hear:

            …God said, “Let us make man in our image, according to
            our likeness….” So God created man in His own image; in the
            image of God He created him. (Genesis 1:26,27)

            In the day that God created man, He made him in the likeness of
            God. (Genesis 5:1)

            The people who were sitting towards the north spoke first,
            saying that the image of God and the likeness of God are two kinds
            of life breathed into man by God, these being the life of the will
            and the life of the understanding. For we read, they said, the
            following statement:

            …Jehovah God…breathed into (Adam’ s) nostrils the breath of
            lives; and man became a living creature. (Genesis 2:7)

            “Into the nostrils,” they said, “means into a
            perception that a will of good and an understanding of truth were
            in him, and thus that he had “the breath of lives.” And
            because life was breathed into him by God, the image and likeness
            of God symbolize integrity resulting from wisdom and love and from
            righteousness and judgment in him.”

            Those who were sitting towards the west expressed agreement
            with this view, only adding that that state of integrity inspired
            by God into the first man is continually being breathed into every
            person after him, but that it exists in a person as though in a
            recipient vessel, and a person is therefore an image and likeness
            of God to the extent that he is such a recipient vessel.

            [4] Next, the people third in order, who were those who were
            sitting towards the south, said, “The image of God and the
            likeness of God are two distinct things, but they were united in
            man at his creation. Moreover, from a kind of inner light we see
            that the image of God can be destroyed by a person, but not the
            likeness of God. This appears by inference from the suggestion
            that Adam retained the likeness of God after he had lost the image
            of God, for we read, after the curse, this statement:

            “Behold, the man is like one of us, knowing good and
            evil.” (Genesis 3:22)

            And later he is called a likeness of God, and not an image of
            God (Genesis 5:1).

            “But let us leave it for our colleagues who are sitting
            towards the east and who are therefore in a higher light to say
            precisely what the image of God is, and what the likeness of God
            is.”

            [5] So then, after waiting for silence, the people sitting
            towards the east rose from their chairs and looked up to the Lord.
            And when they had taken their seats again, they said that the
            image of God is the capacity to receive God, and because God is
            love itself and wisdom itself, the image of God in a person is the
            capacity to receive love and wisdom from God.

            On the other hand, the likeness of God, they said, is the
            perfect semblance and complete appearance that love and wisdom are
            in a person, and this entirely as though they belonged to him.
            “For a person has no other sensation than that he feels love
            on his own and becomes wise on his own, or that he wills good and
            understands truth by himself, even though not the least bit of it
            originates from him but from God. God alone loves from within
            Himself and is wise from within Himself, because God alone is love
            itself and wisdom itself.

            “Love and wisdom, or good and truth, seem to be in a
            person as though they belonged to him, because this semblance or
            appearance makes him a human being and causes him to be capable of
            being conjoined with God and so of living to eternity. It follows
            from this that a person is a human being as a result of his
            ability to will good and understand truth entirely as though on
            his own, and yet to know and believe that he does so from God. For
            God sets His image in a person to the extent that he knows and
            believes this. It would be different if he were to believe that he
            had that ability from himself and not from God.”

            [6] As the speakers said this, a zeal came over them from their
            love of truth, prompting them to continue.

            “How,” they went on, “can a person receive any
            measure of love and wisdom so as to be able to retain it and
            reproduce it, unless he feels it as belonging to him? And how can
            there be any conjunction with God by means of love and wisdom
            unless man has been given some way of reciprocating necessary for
            conjunction? For no conjunction is possible without reciprocation.
            The reciprocation required for conjunction is a person’s loving
            God and being wise in matters relating to God as though on his
            own, and yet believing that it is from God. Furthermore, unless a
            person has been conjoined to the eternal God, how is it possible
            for him to live to eternity? Consequently, how can a person be a
            human being without having that likeness of God in him?”

            [7] On hearing this explanation, the rest all expressed their
            agreement, and they proposed that a conclusion be drawn on the
            basis of it, formulated in the following statement:

            “Man is a vessel recipient of God,” they said, “and
            a vessel recipient of God is an image of God. Since God is love
            itself and wisdom itself, man is a vessel recipient of these. And
            as a recipient vessel, a person becomes an image of God to the
            extent that he receives.

            “Moreover, man is a likeness of God because of his sensing
            in himself that the things he has from God are in him as though
            they belonged to him. But still, a person is an image of God as a
            result of that likeness only in the measure that he acknowledges
            that the love and wisdom or good and truth in him are not his and
            so do not originate from him, but are God’s alone and so originate
            from God.”

          • 133. [We are born in ignorance]
            133. After this they took up the second topic for discussion,
            why man does not come by birth into the knowledge necessary to any
            love, whereas both higher and lower animals and birds come by
            birth into the kinds of knowledge necessary to all their loves.

            First they confirmed the truth of the proposed question by
            various considerations. With respect to man, for example, they
            observed that the human being does not come by birth into any
            knowledge, not even into knowledge relating to married love.

            They inquired as well and learned from investigators that an
            infant does not even possess the instinctive knowledge to be able
            to go to its mother’s breast, but it must be placed in contact
            with it by the mother or nurse. It only knows how to suckle, and
            it got this from a continual sucking in the womb. The infant
            afterwards also does not know how to walk, the investigators said,
            nor how to articulate sound to form a single human word. Indeed,
            it does not even know how to voice the affection of its love as
            animals do. Moreover, it does not know any source of food that is
            good for it, either, as all animals do, but clutches at whatever
            it comes upon, whether it is clean or unclean, and puts it into
            its mouth.

            Without being taught, the investigators said, the human being
            does not even know enough to distinguish the opposite sex, and
            nothing at all about how to make love to one. Even young men and
            women do not know how to make love without learning about it from
            others, even if they have been educated in the various arts and
            sciences.

            In a word, the human being is born flesh, like a worm, and
            remains flesh unless he learns to acquire knowledge, intelligence
            and wisdom from others.

            [2] Next, with respect to animals, such as beasts of the earth,
            birds of the sky, creeping things, fish, and little creatures
            called insects, the people confirmed that both higher and lower
            animals come by birth into all the kinds of knowledge necessary to
            their life’s loves. They come, for example, into knowledge of all
            things having to do with their proper diet, with their place of
            habitation, with their mating and reproduction, and with the
            rearing of their young.

            The people confirmed these observations with marvelous
            illustrations that they recalled to memory from things they had
            seen, heard or read about in the natural world (as they termed our
            world in which they had formerly lived), where animals are not
            representational but real.

            After they had thus verified the truth of the proposed
            question, the people turned their attention to investigating and
            finding the ends and causes by which to explain and uncover the
            answer to this mystery. And they all said that this state of
            affairs must result from Divine wisdom, that a human being may be
            a human being, and an animal an animal; and that therefore man’s
            imperfection from birth becomes his perfection, while an animal’s
            perfection from birth is its imperfection.

          • 134. [Why ignorance?]
            134. The people on the north side were then the first to begin
            to present their opinion. And they said that man is by birth
            without knowledge of any kind in order that he may be capable of
            acquiring all types of knowledge. If he were to come into various
            kinds of knowledge by birth, however, he would not be capable of
            acquiring any beyond those into which he came by birth, and in
            that case, neither would he be capable of making any personally
            his own.

            They illustrated this by the following comparison. “When a
            person is first born,” they said, “he is like ground in
            which no seeds have been planted, but which is yet capable of
            accepting all kinds of seeds and germinating them and bringing
            them to fruit. An animal, on the other hand, is like ground
            already sown and filled with grasses and plants, which does not
            accept any other seeds than the ones it has. If others should be
            sown, it would suffocate them.

            “That is why it takes a number of years for a human being
            to grow to maturity, years in which he can be like ground
            undergoing cultivation, and sprouting, so to speak, all kinds of
            grain, flowers and trees. An animal develops in only a few years,
            however, during which time it can be cultivated only into
            producing what it was born with.”

            [2] The people on the west side spoke next, and they said that
            man is not born with knowledge, as animals are, but is born with a
            capacity and inclination – a capacity for learning and an
            inclination to love. Moreover, they said, he is born with a
            capacity not only for learning, but also for understanding and
            becoming wise. So, too, he is born with a most perfect
            inclination, not only to love things having to do with self and
            the world, but also things having to do with God and heaven.

            Consequently, they said, a person by birth and heredity is an
            organism which lives only on the level of the external senses, and
            not at first on the level of any higher sense, in order that he
            may develop by stages into a human being, becoming first natural,
            then rational, and finally spiritual. This would not happen if he
            came by birth into various kinds of knowledge and loves as animals
            do. “For inborn patterns of knowledge and affection limit
            that progression,” they said, “whereas an inborn
            capacity and inclination do not. A person can therefore be
            perfected in knowledge, understanding and wisdom to eternity.”

            [3] The people on the south side took up the discussion and
            added their voice, saying that it is impossible for a person to
            acquire any knowledge on his own, but he must get it from others,
            since no knowledge is inborn in him.

            “Moreover, because he cannot acquire any knowledge on his
            own,” they said, “neither can he acquire any love, since
            there is no love where there is no knowledge. Knowledge and love
            are inseparable companions, and they cannot be divided any more
            than will and understanding or affection and thought – indeed, any
            more than essence and form. As a person acquires knowledge from
            others, therefore, so love attaches itself as its companion. The
            universal love that attaches itself is a love of learning,
            understanding, and becoming wise. Only man has this love and no
            animal, and it flows in from God.

            [4] “We agree with our companions on the west that man
            does not come by birth into any love and so neither into any
            knowledge, but that he comes by birth solely into an inclination
            to love and so into a capacity for acquiring knowledge, not on his
            own but from others, or rather, through others. We say, through
            others, because they, too, did not acquire any knowledge on their
            own but from God.

            “We agree also with our companions to the north that when
            a person is first born, he is like ground in which no seeds have
            been planted, but in which all kinds of seeds can be planted, both
            good and bad. To this we add that animals come by birth into
            natural loves and therefore into forms of knowledge corresponding
            to those loves, and yet they do not learn anything from their
            kinds of knowledge or develop thought, intelligence and wisdom on
            the basis of them. Instead they are carried along in them by their
            loves, almost like blind men being led through the streets by
            dogs. For in terms of their understanding, they are blind. Or
            better still, they are like sleepwalkers, who do what they do out
            of blind knowledge while the understanding sleeps.”

            [5] Lastly the people on the east side spoke, saying, “We
            concur with what our brothers have said. A person of himself knows
            nothing but must learn from others and through others, in order
            that he may know and acknowledge that all his knowledge,
            understanding and wisdom are from God.

            “Only in this way,” they said, “can a person be
            conceived, born and brought forth by the Lord so as to become an
            image and likeness of Him. For a person becomes an image of the
            Lord by his acknowledging and believing that he has acquired and
            continues to acquire every good of love and charity and every
            truth of wisdom and faith from the Lord, and not the least bit
            from himself. And he becomes a likeness of the Lord by his feeling
            these things in himself as though they originated with him. He has
            this feeling because he does not come by birth into various kinds
            of knowledge, but acquires them, and what he acquires appears to
            him as though it originated with him.

            “A person is also given to feel this way by the Lord, in
            order that he may be a human being and not an animal, because his
            willing, thinking, loving, learning, understanding and becoming
            wise seemingly on his own is what leads him to acquire various
            kinds of knowledge, to develop them into intelligence, and by
            applying them turn them into wisdom. In this way the Lord joins
            the person to Himself, and the person joins himself to the Lord.
            This would not have been possible if the Lord had not provided
            that man be born in a state of total ignorance.”

            [6] After these remarks, the people were all ready to reach a
            conclusion from the matters discussed, and they formed the
            following statement:

            “Man does not come by birth into any knowledge,” they
            said, “in order that he may come into every kind of knowledge
            and so progress into a state of intelligence and through this into
            wisdom. So, too, he does not come by birth into any love, in order
            that by applying various kinds of knowledge with intelligence he
            may come into every kind of love, and through love for the
            neighbor come into love towards the Lord; and this to the end that
            he may be thus conjoined with the Lord and by that conjunction
            become human and live to eternity.”

          • 135. [What are the tree of life and the tree
            of knowledge?]

            135. After this they took the piece of paper and read the third
            topic for discussion, namely, what the tree of life symbolizes,
            what the tree of the knowledge of good and evil symbolizes, and
            what eating from them means. And they all asked the people on the
            east to explain this mystery, because it required a deeper
            understanding, and people who come from the east have a flaming
            light, that is to say, a wisdom that comes of love, which is the
            wisdom meant by the garden in Eden in which the two trees were
            placed.

            The people on the east, then, replied, “We will speak. But
            because no one acquires anything from himself but from the Lord,
            we will speak from Him, though it will still seem to come from us
            as though it originated with us.”

            Then they said, “A tree symbolizes a person; and its
            fruit, goodness of life. The tree of life therefore symbolizes a
            person living from God, or God living in the person. And because
            love and wisdom and charity and faith or good and truth constitute
            the life of God in a person, the tree of life symbolizes these
            qualities, from which a person has eternal life. The tree of life
            which people will be given to eat from, in the book of Revelation,
            has a similar symbolism (Revelation 2:7, 22:2,14).

            [2] “The tree of the knowledge of good and evil symbolizes
            a person believing that he lives on his own and not from God, thus
            that the love and wisdom, charity and faith, or good and truth in
            the person are his and not God’s – believing this because he
            thinks and wills, and speaks and acts, in all likeness and
            appearance as if on his own. Because a person with this belief
            comes into the persuasion that God has introduced Himself or
            infused His Divinity into him, therefore the serpent said:

            …God knows that in the day you eat (of the fruit of the tree)
            your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good
            and evil. (Genesis 3:5)

            [3] “Eating from the two trees symbolizes acquisition and
            assimilation. Eating from the tree of life symbolizes acquisition
            of eternal life, and eating from the tree of the knowledge of good
            and evil symbolizes acquisition of damnation. Therefore Adam and
            his wife were both cursed along with the serpent. The serpent
            means the devil in respect to self-love and pride in its own
            intelligence. This love takes possession of the tree, and people
            who are caught up in pride as a result of that love are the trees
            it possesses.

            “People fall into an enormous error, therefore, who
            believe that Adam was wise and did good from his own nature, and
            that this was his state of integrity, when Adam himself was cursed
            for precisely that belief. For this is what is symbolized by his
            eating from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. That was
            why he then fell from his state of integrity, which he had had as
            a result of his believing that he was wise and did good from God
            and not from himself, for that is what is meant by his eating from
            the tree of life.

            “The Lord alone, when He was in the world, was wise of
            Himself and did good of Himself, because the Divine itself was in
            Him and was His from birth. Consequently He also became Redeemer
            and Savior by His own power.”

            [4] On the basis of these remarks and explanations, the people
            formed the following conclusion:

            “The tree of life, the tree of the knowledge of good and
            evil, and eating from them,” they said, “symbolize that
            the source of life for man is to have God in him, and that he then
            gains heaven and eternal life. On the other hand, the source of
            death for man is the persuasion and belief that the source of life
            for man is not God but himself, on which account he gains hell and
            eternal death, which is damnation.”

        • 136. [Summary]
          136. After this the people looked at the piece of paper which
          the angels had left on the table, and they saw the added
          instruction written at the end, “Combine the three
          explanations into a single statement.” They then brought
          their three conclusions together and saw that they formed a single
          connected series, and that the series or final statement was this:

          “Man was created to receive love and wisdom from God, and
          yet to receive them to all appearances as though they originated
          from himself, in order that he might be capable of reception and
          conjunction. Man therefore does not come by birth into any love or
          into any knowledge, neither does he come into any power to love
          and become wise from himself. Consequently, if he attributes every
          good of love and every truth of wisdom to God, he becomes a man
          with life in him. But if he attributes them to himself, he becomes
          a man without life.”

          The people then wrote this statement on a new piece of paper
          and placed it on the table. And behold, suddenly angels appeared
          in a bright white light and took the paper away into heaven.

          After their statement had been read in heaven, the people
          sitting on the chairs heard voices from heaven saying, “Good,
          good, good.” And instantly they caught sight of an angel
          apparently flying from that direction, with a pair of wings about
          his feet and another pair about his temples, carrying their awards
          in his hand. The awards were robes, caps, and laurel wreaths.

          The angel descended, and to the people who were sitting towards
          the north he gave opal-colored robes. To those sitting towards the
          west he gave scarlet-colored robes. To those sitting towards the
          south he gave caps, the borders of which were decorated with
          strips of gold and pearls, with elevations on the left side
          adorned with diamonds cut in the form of flowers. And to those
          sitting towards the east he gave laurel wreaths set with rubies
          and sapphires.

          The people left the school of wisdom and headed home all decked
          out in these awards, but though they meant to show themselves off
          to their wives, their wives came to meet them also arrayed in
          beautiful gifts from heaven, which the men marveled at.

      • Two angels from the third heaven on married
        love there (no. 137).

        • 137. [Married love in the highest heaven]
          137. The second account:

          While I was once thinking about married love, I suddenly caught
          sight of two naked little children in the distance, with baskets
          in their hands and turtledoves flying around them. Then, as they
          came closer, they looked like naked little children modestly
          decked out in garlands of flowers. Their heads were decorated with
          little chaplets of flowers, and their breasts were adorned with
          sash-like wreathes of blue-colored lilies and roses that hung
          diagonally from their shoulders to their hips. And round about the
          two of them appeared what looked like a shared chain of little
          leaves woven together and interspersed with olives.

          When they drew nearer still, however, they did not appear as
          little children or naked, but as two adults in the bloom of their
          early youth, dressed in robes and tunics of shining silk, with
          beautiful-looking flowers woven into them. Moreover, when they
          stood next to me, a springlike warmth wafted down from heaven
          through them with a sweet-scented fragrance, like the fragrance of
          first growth in gardens and fields.

          The two were a married couple from heaven, and they then spoke
          to me. And because I was still thinking about the things I had
          just seen, they asked, “What did you see?”

          [2] So I told them how they had first appeared to me as naked
          little children, then as little children decked out in garlands,
          and finally as people more grown up, dressed in garments decorated
          with flowers. I also told them how an atmosphere of spring had
          then instantly wafted over me with its delights.

          They laughed pleasantly at this and said that on the way they
          had not appeared to themselves as little children or naked or
          wearing garlands, but the whole time had looked the same as they
          did now. Their appearing as they had at a distance, they said,
          represented their married love, its state of innocence being
          represented by their appearing as naked little children, its
          delights by the garlands, and these same delights now by the
          flowers woven into their robes and tunics.

          “And,” they continued, “because you said that as
          we approached, a springlike warmth wafted over you with its
          pleasant aromas, like those from a garden, we will tell you why
          this was.

          [3] “We have been married for centuries now,” they
          said, “and we have remained continually in this bloom of
          youth in which you see us.

          “At first our state was similar to the initial state of a
          maiden and youth when they first come together in marriage.
          Moreover, we believed at the time that that state was the most
          blissful state we could experience in life. But we were told by
          others in our heaven, and we afterwards perceived for ourselves,
          that it was a state of heat not yet tempered with light. We found
          that it is gradually tempered as the husband is perfected in
          wisdom and as the wife grows to love that wisdom in her husband,
          which is achieved through and according to the useful services
          which each of them performs in society with the other’s help. We
          also found that new delights then follow as heat and light or
          wisdom and its accompanying love are tempered each with the other.

          [4] “A seemingly springlike warmth wafted over you when we
          approached because in our heaven married love and that warmth go
          hand in hand. For with us, warmth is love, and light with warmth
          joined to it is wisdom, and useful service is like an atmosphere
          which holds both in its embrace. What are heat and light without
          their containing medium? So likewise, what are love and wisdom
          without their expression in useful service? Without expression in
          useful service, there is no bond of marriage between the two,
          because the objective reality in which they exist is lacking.

          “In heaven, one finds true married love wherever there is
          a springlike warmth. One finds true married love there because a
          springlike climate occurs only where warmth is joined to light in
          an even balance, or where there is as much warmth as there is
          light and vice versa. And we like to think that as warmth works
          its pleasure when accompanied by light and conversely light when
          accompanied by warmth, so love works its pleasure when accompanied
          by wisdom and conversely wisdom when accompanied by love.”

          [5] With us in heaven, the man said further, the light is
          constant, and we never experience the dusk of evening, still less
          darkness, because our sun does not rise and set like your sun but
          stands continually midway between a point overhead and the
          horizon, or as you would say, at an elevation of 45 degrees.

          “That is why,” he said, “the heat and light
          emanating from our sun result in perpetual spring, and this
          inspires a perpetual springlike state in those in whom love is
          united in even measure with wisdom.

          “Through the eternal union of heat and light, moreover,
          our Lord inspires nothing that is not productive and useful. That,
          too, is why the sproutings of plants on your earth and the matings
          of your birds and animals take place in springtime. For the warmth
          of spring opens up their inner capabilities even to the inmost
          forces which are called their souls, stirring them, and imparting
          to them its own inclination to unite, and causing their
          reproductive instinct to come into its delight from a continual
          effort to produce fruits of use, which is the propagation of their
          kind.

          [6] “In the case of human beings, however, there is a
          never-ending influx of springlike warmth from the Lord.
          Consequently they can experience the delights of marriage in any
          season, even in the middle of winter. For men were created to be
          receivers of light from the Lord, meaning the light of wisdom, and
          women were created to be receivers of warmth from the Lord,
          meaning the warmth of love for the wisdom in a man.

          “That now is why as we approached a springlike warmth
          wafted over you with a sweet-scented fragrance, like the fragrance
          of first growth in gardens and fields.”

          [7] Having said this, the man gave me his right hand and took
          me to houses where married couples lived in the same flower of
          youth in which they were. And he told me that the wives, who now
          looked like young girls, had once been wrinkled old ladies in the
          world, and that the husbands, who now looked like adolescent
          youths, had once been decrepit old men there. They have all been
          returned by the Lord to the bloom of this youthful age, he said,
          because they loved each other and out of religion abstained from
          adulterous affairs as enormous sins.

          He added as well that only those people know the blissful
          delights of married love who reject the horrible delights of
          adultery. And no one can reject these except one who is wise from
          the Lord, and no one is wise from the Lord unless he performs
          useful services from a love of doing them.

          I also caught sight then of the implements in their houses.
          These were all in heavenly forms, and they shone of gold that was
          practically ablaze with intermingled rubies.

    • 138. CHASTITY AND ITS ABSENCE
        • 138. [CHASTITY AND ITS ABSENCE]
          [We take up chastity and its absence here,] since I am still on
          the way to dealing with married love in particular, and because
          married love in particular can be known only indistinctly and thus
          dimly unless its opposite is also seen to some degree. Its opposite
          is unchasteness, and this is seen to some degree, or some shadow of
          it, when chastity is described along with its absence. For chastity
          is simply the removal of unchasteness from that which is chaste.
          Unchasteness, on the other hand, which is the complete opposite of
          chastity, is discussed in the second part of this work, where it
          will be described in its full scope and in its varieties under the
          title, PLEASURES OF INSANITY RELATING TO LICENTIOUS LOVE.

          Meanwhile, what chastity is and its absence, and who they apply
          to, will be made clear according to the following outline:

          (1) Chastity and a lack of chastity are terms that apply only to
          states of marriage and things that have to do with marriage.

          (2) Chastity is ascribed only to monogamous marriages, or to
          marriages of one man with one wife.

          (3) Only a Christian marital relationship is chaste.

          (4) True married love is the essence of chastity.

          (5) All the delights of true married love, even the end
          delights, are chaste.

          (6) Married love is more and more purified and becomes chaste in
          people who become spiritual from the Lord.

          (7) Chastity in marriage comes about through total renunciation
          of licentious relationships in accordance with religion.

          (8) Chastity cannot be ascribed to little children or boys and
          girls, nor to adolescents of either sex before they feel a love for
          the opposite sex stirring in them.

          (9) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who are born eunuchs
          or who have been made eunuchs.

          (10) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who do not believe
          that adultery is an evil against religion, and still less to those
          who do not believe that adultery is harmful to society.

          (11) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who abstain from
          adulterous relationships only for various external reasons.

          (12) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who believe that
          marriages are unchaste.

          (13) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who have renounced
          marriage by a vow of perpetual celibacy, unless a love for the
          truly married life is present and remains in them.

          (14) The state of marriage is preferable to a state of celibacy.

          Explanation of these statements now follows.

      • (1) Chastity and a lack of chastity are
        terms that apply only to states of marriage and things that have to
        do with marriage.

          • 139. [Chastity refers to marriage]
            139. (1) Chastity and a lack of chastity are terms that apply
            to states of marriage and things that have to do with marriage.
            This is because true married love is the essence of chastity, as
            shown below. And the love opposite to it, which we call
            licentious, is the essence of unchasteness. In the measure,
            therefore, that married love is purified of unchasteness, in the
            same measure married love is chaste, for in that measure the
            opposite that destroys it is taken away.

            It is apparent from this that what we mean by chastity is the
            purity of married love.

            There is also married love in which chastity is absent, which
            is nevertheless not unchaste – such as exists between partners who
            for various external reasons abstain from outward expressions of
            lasciviousness even to the point that they do not think about
            them. Nevertheless, if that love is not purified in their spirits,
            it is still not chaste. It has an outward form that is chaste, but
            its inward essence is not chaste.

        • 140. [It affects the whole person]
          140. Chastity and a lack of chastity are terms that apply only
          to things that have to do with marriage, because the conjugal
          impulse is engraved on each sex from the inmost elements to the
          outmost, and it determines accordingly what a person is in his
          thoughts and affections, consequently what he is inwardly in
          respect to the behavior and actions of his body.

          The truth of this is quite evident from people who are
          unchaste. The unchasteness inherent in their minds is heard in the
          sound of their speech and in the appeal to libidinous thoughts in
          everything they say, even when chastely put. The sound of their
          speech comes from the affection of their will, and their speech
          comes from the thought of their intellect. It is a sign that the
          will with all its qualities and the understanding with all its
          qualities, in other words, the whole mind, and therefore all the
          elements of the body – from the inmost elements to the outmost –
          are overflowing with unchaste desires.

          I have been told by angels that the unchasteness in most
          accomplished hypocrites is perceived on hearing them, however
          chastely they may speak, and is also felt from the atmosphere
          exuding from them. This, too, is a sign that unchasteness resides
          in the inmost elements of their minds and therefore in the inmost
          elements of their bodies, and that these things are covered over
          outwardly, like a nutshell painted with various kinds of colors.

          That an aura of lasciviousness exudes from unchaste people is
          apparent from the statutes among the children of Israel declaring
          that each and every thing which people defiled by unclean things
          simply touched with their hands was rendered unclean.

          One may conclude from this that it is the same with chaste
          people, namely, that each and every thing in them is chaste, from
          the inmost elements to the outmost. Also that the chastity of
          married love is responsible for this.

          That is why it is said in the world that to the clean all
          things are clean, and to the unclean all things are unclean.[*1]

          [*1] From Titus 1:15.

      • (2) Chastity is ascribed only to monogamous
        marriages, or to marriages of one man with one wife.

        • 141. [Only monogamous marriages]
          141. (2) Chastity is ascribed only to monogamous marriages, or
          to marriages of one man with one wife. Chastity is ascribed only
          to such marriages because married love in these marriages does not
          lie in the natural self, but enters into the spiritual self and
          gradually opens its way to the real spiritual marriage, which is a
          marriage of good and truth. This marriage is the origin of the
          love, and it forms a bond with it. For such a love enters as
          wisdom increases, and this takes place as the church is implanted
          by the Lord, as we have shown many times before.

          This cannot happen in the case of polygamists, since they
          divide married love, and when this love is a divided one it is not
          much different from promiscuous love, which in itself is a natural
          love. But on this subject, some important points will be seen in
          the chapter on polygamy.[*1]

          [*1] See nos. 332ff.

      • (3) Only a Christian marital relationship is
        chaste.

        • 142. [Only Christian marriages]
          142. (3) Only a Christian marital relationship is chaste. This
          is because true married love advances in a person in the same
          degree as the state of the church in him and because that love is
          from the Lord (as we showed in the preceding chapter, nos. 130,
          131, and elsewhere). Furthermore, a church in
          possession of its genuine truths is a church that possesses the
          Word, and it is there in those truths that the Lord is present.

          It follows from this that a chaste marital relationship does
          not exist except in the Christian world, and if it does not exist,
          that still it is possible. By a Christian marital relationship we
          mean a marriage of one man with one wife. We will see in its own
          place[*1] that this conjugal state can become implanted in
          Christians, and that it can be passed on hereditarily to offspring
          by parents who are in a state of true married love. We will see
          also that from it is born at the same time both a capacity and an
          inclination to become wise in things that have to do with the
          church and heaven.

          If Christians marry more than one wife, they commit not only
          natural adultery but spiritual adultery as well, as we will show
          in the chapter on polygamy.[*2]

          [*1] See nos. 202ff.

          [*2] See nos. 332ff.

      • (4) True married love is the essence of
        chastity.

        • 143. [True married love is real chastity]
          143. (4) True married love is the essence of chastity. The
          reasons for this are as follows:

          1. Married love is from the Lord, and it corresponds to the
          marriage of the Lord and the church.

          2. It descends from the marriage between good and truth.

          3. It is spiritual, as the church in a person is spiritual.

          4. It is the fundamental love and the head of all celestial and
          spiritual loves.

          5. It is truly the seedbed of the human race and consequently
          of the angelic heaven.

          6. It exists, therefore, also among angels of heaven, and from
          it are born with them spiritual offspring, which are love and
          wisdom.

          7. The use it serves is thus more excellent than the other uses
          in creation.

          It follows from these considerations that, regarded from its
          origin and in its essence, true married love is pure and sacred –
          so pure and sacred that it may be called the essence of purity and
          sacredness, consequently of chastity. But still, it is not
          entirely pure in people, not even in angels, as may be seen in no.
          146, which follows here under point (6) below.

      • (5) All the delights of true married love,
        even the end delights, are chaste.

        • 144. [All the delights of true married love
          are chaste.]

          144. (5) All the delights of true married love, even the end
          delights, are chaste. This follows from the foregoing
          considerations explaining that true married love is the essence of
          chastity. And delights make the life of this love.

          I have indicated earlier how the delights of this love ascend
          and enter heaven, and on the way permeate the joys of heavenly
          loves experienced by angels of heaven. I have also recounted how
          these delights ally themselves with the delights of married love
          in angels. Moreover, I have heard from angels that they perceive
          these delights to be heightened in them and to become fuller as
          they ascend from chaste married partners on earth. And in response
          to some bystanders, who were unchaste – in reply to their question
          whether they also experienced the end delights – the angels nodded
          and quietly said, “What else? Are they not delights of
          married love in their fullest expression?”

          (Regarding the source of the delights of this love and what
          they are like, see no. 69 above and what is said
          in the narrative accounts, especially in those that follow.)

      • (6) Married love is more and more purified
        and becomes chaste in people who become spiritual from the Lord.

          • 145. [Married love is gradually purified]
            145. (6) Married love is more and more purified and becomes
            chaste in people who become spiritual from the Lord. The reasons
            are these:

            1. The first love – meaning the love before the wedding and
            just after the wedding – draws some of its character from a love
            for the opposite sex, thus from a heat belonging to the body not
            yet tempered by a love of the spirit.

            [2] 2. A person from being natural only gradually becomes
            spiritual. For a person becomes spiritual as his rationality –
            which stands in between heaven and the world – begins to draw its
            life or soul from what flows in from heaven. This occurs as he
            becomes affected by and is delighted with wisdom (the wisdom
            spoken of above in no. 130). To the degree that
            this happens, to the same degree his mind is raised into a higher
            atmosphere, which is the containing medium of heavenly light and
            heat, or, to say the same thing, of the wisdom and love which
            angels possess. For the light of heaven is united with wisdom, and
            the warmth of heaven with love. And as wisdom and its accompanying
            love increase in married partners, so married love is purified in
            them. Because this occurs gradually, it follows that this love
            becomes more and more chaste.

            This spiritual purification can be likened to the purification
            of natural spirits which chemists perform, whose processes are
            called clarification, distillation, rectification, cohobation or
            redistillation, concentration, decantation, sublimation. And
            wisdom when purified may be likened to alcohol, which is a highly
            distilled spirit.

            [3] 3. Spiritual wisdom in itself is such that it grows warmer
            and warmer with the love of becoming wise, and because of this, it
            increases to eternity. This takes place as it is perfected as
            though by processes of clarification, distillation, rectification,
            concentration, decantation, and sublimation – processes which are
            accomplished by purifications and separations of the intellect
            from the misconceptions of the senses, and of the will from the
            temptations of the body. Now, because of this, it is apparent that
            married love, being the offspring of wisdom, likewise becomes
            gradually more and more pure, thus more and more chaste.

            For testimony that the first state of love between married
            partners is a state of heat not yet tempered with light, but that
            it is gradually tempered as the husband is perfected in wisdom and
            as the wife grows to love that wisdom in her husband, see what was
            said in the narrative account in no. 137.

        • 146. [No love is pure]
          146. It should be known, however, that married love does not
          become entirely chaste or pure in people, not even in angels.
          There is still something not chaste or not pure, which attaches
          and appends itself to the love. Nevertheless, this element is
          different in nature from unchasteness. For in the kind of people
          referred to here [who are becoming spiritual from the Lord],
          chastity exists above and a lack of chastity below, and between
          the two qualities the Lord puts a door, so to speak, with a hinge.
          This door is opened by conscious decision, but the Lord provides
          that it not stand open so as to allow the one quality to pass
          through to the other and become mixed together with it. For the
          natural character of a person is, from birth, contaminated and
          filled with evil qualities, while his spiritual character is not
          so, since his spiritual character has its birth from the Lord,
          this birth being regeneration. And regeneration is a gradual
          separation from the evil qualities which attach by birth to his
          inclinations.

          As seen above in no. 71, no love in people or
          angels is entirely pure, nor can it become so. But the Lord
          regards primarily the objective, purpose or intention of the will,
          and therefore to the extent that a person has the objective,
          purpose or intention and perseveres in them, to that extent he is
          introduced into purity and progressively draws nearer to it.

      • (7) Chastity in marriage comes about through
        total renunciation of licentious relationships in accordance with
        religion.

          • 147. [Removing unchastity brings chastity]
            147. (7) Chastity in marriage comes about through total
            renunciation of licentious relationships in accordance with
            religion. The reason is that chastity is the removal of
            unchasteness. It is a universal rule that to the extent anyone
            removes evil, to the same extent an opportunity is given for
            goodness to succeed it. And furthermore, to the extent anyone
            hates evil, to the same extent he loves goodness. The reverse is
            also the case as well. Consequently it follows that to the extent
            anyone renounces licentiousness, to the same extent he allows the
            chastity of marriage to enter.

            The fact that married love is purified and refined according to
            one’s renunciation of licentious relationships – this everyone
            sees from common perception if he only hears it said, thus without
            prior arguments. But because all people do not have common
            perception, it is useful that it be clarified by arguments too.

            The arguments are as follows: Married love cools as soon as it
            becomes divided, and the growing coldness causes it to die, it
            being the heat of unchaste love that kills it. For two opposing
            feelings of warmth cannot exist together at the same time without
            the one casting out the other and depriving it of its vitality.
            When the warmth of married love displaces and casts out the heat
            of licentious love, therefore, married love begins to grow
            pleasantly warm and, from a sensation of its delights, to bud and
            blossom, like an orchard or rose garden in springtime. The
            difference is that an orchard or rose garden does so in response
            to the vernal warmth of light and heat from the sun of the natural
            world, while married love does so in response to the vernal warmth
            of light and heat from the sun of the spiritual world.

          • 148. [The internal purifies the external]
            148. From creation and so from birth, every person has
            implanted in him an internal inclination to be married and an
            external one. The internal one is spiritual, and the external one
            natural. A person comes first into the external inclination, and
            as he becomes spiritual he comes into the internal one.
            Consequently, if he remains in the external or natural inclination
            to be married, then the internal or spiritual inclination is
            covered with a veil, until the person knows nothing of it, even,
            indeed, until he calls it an empty fiction.

            But, on the other hand, if the person becomes spiritual, then
            he begins to know something about it, afterwards to perceive
            something of its character, and gradually to feel its pleasant,
            agreeable and delightful sensations. And according as this
            happens, so the aforementioned covering between the external and
            internal inclinations begins to grow thinner, then to melt, so to
            speak, and finally to dissolve and disappear. When this has come
            to pass, the external inclination to be married indeed remains,
            but it is continually chastened and cleansed of its impurities by
            the internal inclination, and this even until the external
            inclination becomes, as it were, the visible expression of the
            internal one – drawing its pleasure, and at the same time its life
            and the delights of its vitality, from the bliss that exists in
            the internal one.

            That is what the renunciation of licentious relationships
            means, through which chastity in marriage comes about.

            [2] One may believe that the external inclination to be married
            that is left after the internal inclination has separated itself
            from it, or it from itself, is no different from an external
            inclination that has not been separated. But I have heard from
            angels that the two are completely unlike each other. They have
            said, for example, that the external inclination resulting from
            the internal one – which they called the external of the internal
            – is free of all lasciviousness, because the internal inclination
            is incapable of lascivious pleasures but can feel delights only in
            a chaste manner, and it induces a similar character on its
            external expression, in which it experiences its delights.

            The external inclination separated from the internal one is
            altogether different. The angels said this was lascivious in
            general and in every part.

            An external inclination to be married resulting from an
            internal one – this they likened to choice fruit, whose pleasant
            flavor and fragrance 3permeate its skin and turn it into a form
            corresponding to them. They also likened it to a granary, whose
            store of grain is never diminished, but whatever is taken from it
            is constantly replaced again.

            On the other hand, an external inclination separated from an
            internal one – this they likened to wheat in a winnow, saying that
            if it is thrown about, only chaff remains, which a breeze in the
            air scatters. This is what happens with married love if the
            licentious element is not renounced.

        • 149. [Only religion changes the internal]
          149. Chastity in marriage does not come about through
          renunciation of licentious relationships unless this is done in
          accordance with religion. The reason is that a person without
          religion does not become spiritual, but remains natural. And if a
          natural person renounces licentious relationships, still his
          spirit does not renounce them. Consequently, even though it seems
          to him that by renouncing them he is chaste, nevertheless
          unchasteness still lies hidden within, like putrefaction in a
          wound only superficially healed.

          As seen above in no. 130, married love
          depends on the state of the church in a person. More on this
          subject may be seen in the exposition of point (11) which follows
          below.

      • (8) Chastity cannot be ascribed to little
        children or boys and girls, nor to adolescents of either sex before
        they feel a love for the opposite sex stirring in them.

        • 150. [Chastity does not describe children]
          150. (8) Chastity cannot be ascribed to little children or boys
          and girls, nor to adolescents of either sex before they feel a
          love for the opposite sex stirring in them. The reason is that
          chastity and unchasteness are terms that apply only to states of
          marriage and things which have to do with marriage (see above, no.
          139). And in the case of persons who know
          nothing about marital matters, there is no ascribing of chastity;
          for it is as nothing to them, and people do not have any affection
          for or any thought about what is nothing to them. After that state
          when chastity is as nothing, however, something else arises, when
          the first impulse towards marriage is felt, which is a love for
          the opposite sex.

          Adolescents of both sexes are commonly called chaste before
          they feel a love for the opposite sex stirring in them, but this
          is owing to people’s ignorance of what chastity is.

      • (9) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people
        who are born eunuchs or who have been made eunuchs.

        • 151. [Chastity does not describe eunuchs]
          151. (9) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who are born
          eunuchs or who have been made eunuchs.[*1] By people who are born
          eunuchs we mean chiefly people in whom the outmost impulse of love
          is missing from birth. And because the highest and intermediate
          impulses then lack a foundation on which to rest, neither do these
          impulses develop. Or if they do, the people are not concerned with
          distinguishing between chaste and unchaste states, since either
          one is a matter of indifference to them. The diversities among
          people like this, however, are many.

          The case with people who have been made eunuchs is almost the
          same, as with some who are born eunuchs; only that having become
          eunuchs, and being such, whether men or women, therefore they
          cannot help but regard married love as a fantasy and its delights
          as fairy tales. If anything of the inclination remains in them, it
          becomes silent, which is neither chaste nor unchaste; and being
          neither, it is incapable of being classed in one category or the
          other.

          [*1] Cf. Matthew 19:12.

      • (10) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people
        who do not believe that adultery is an evil against religion, and
        still less to those who do not believe that adultery is harmful to
        society.

        • 152. [Chastity does not describe people who
          believe in adultery]

          152. (10) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who do not
          believe that adultery is an evil against religion, and still less
          to those who do not believe that adultery is harmful to society.
          Chastity cannot be ascribed to people like this because they do
          not know what chastity is, nor even that it is possible. For
          chastity has to do with marriage, as we showed under the first
          heading here; and although religion in married partners makes
          marriage chaste, people who do not believe that adultery is an
          evil against religion also regard marriage as unchaste. Thus
          nothing to them is chaste. Consequently it is pointless to speak
          to them of chastity. People like this are deliberate adulterers.

          On the other hand, people who do not believe that adultery is
          harmful to society know even less than the first kind of people
          what chastity is or that it is possible. For they are purposeful
          adulterers. If they say that marriage is less unchaste than
          adultery, they say it with the lips but not with the heart,
          because marriages in their case are cold. And people who speak
          from this state of coldness about a state of chaste warmth cannot
          have any idea of the chaste warmth in married love.

          What these people are like, and the ideas of their thought, and
          therefore the interior ideas in their speech, will be seen in Part
          Two on the insanities of adulterers.

      • (11) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people
        who abstain from adulterous relationships only for various external
        reasons.

        • 153. [Chastity is not about the external
          appearance only]

          153. (11) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who abstain
          from adulterous relationships only for various external reasons.
          Many people believe that chastity is simply abstinence from
          adultery physically, even though this is not chastity unless it is
          also at the same time abstinence in spirit. For a person’s spirit
          – meaning here his mind in its affections and thoughts – is what
          makes him chaste or unchaste, chastity or unchasteness being in
          the body as a result of the spirit. For what the body is like
          depends entirely on the mind or spirit. It follows from this that
          people who abstain from adultery physically and not as a result of
          the spirit are not chaste, nor those who abstain from it in spirit
          for the sake of the body.

          There are many reasons which cause a person to refrain from
          adulterous relationships physically, and also in spirit for the
          sake of the body. But still, a person who does not refrain from
          them physically as a result of the spirit is unchaste. For the
          Lord says:

          (If anyone) looks at (another’s) woman so as to lust for her,
          (he) has already committed adultery with her in his heart.
          (Matthew 5:28)

          [2] We cannot list all the reasons for people’s abstaining from
          adulterous relationships only physically, since these reasons vary
          according to the states of their marriage and also according to
          the states of their body.

          For example, there are some who abstain from adulterous
          relationships because they are afraid of the civil law and its
          penalties; because they are afraid of losing reputation and thus
          respect; because they are afraid of diseases resulting from such
          relationships; because they are afraid of being railed at by their
          wives at home and of having no peace in their lives on account of
          it; because they are afraid the husband or a relative will take
          revenge; or because they are afraid of being beaten by the
          servants.

          There are also some who abstain because they are too poor, or
          too stingy, or because they are too feeble owing either to
          illness, or to their abusing themselves, or to age, or to
          impotence.

          There are some among them as well who, because they cannot or
          dare not do it physically, also for that reason condemn adultery
          in spirit and so speak in a moral fashion against it and in favor
          of marriage. But if these people do not renounce adultery in
          spirit and of the spirit in accordance with religion, they are
          still adulterers, for even though they do not do it physically,
          still they commit it in spirit. And after death, when they become
          spirits, they therefore speak openly in favor of it.

          It is apparent from this that even an irreligious person can
          abstain from adulterous relationships as harmful, but that only a
          Christian can abstain from them as sins.

          This now establishes the truth of the argument, that chastity
          cannot be ascribed to people who abstain from adulterous
          relationships only for various external reasons.

      • (12) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people
        who believe that marriages are unchaste.

        • 154. [Chaste people see marriage as chaste]
          154. (12) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who believe
          that marriages are unchaste. People like this neither know what
          chastity is, nor that it is possible, like the people dealt with
          above in no. 152, and like those who place
          chastity only in celibacy, spoken of next.

      • (13) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people
        who have renounced marriage by a vow of perpetual celibacy, unless a
        love for the truly married life is present and remains in them.

        • 155. [Chastity is not celibacy]
          155. (13) Chastity cannot be ascribed to people who have
          renounced marriage by a vow of perpetual celibacy, unless a love
          for the truly married life is present and remains in them. There
          is no ascribing of chastity to people like this, because after a
          vow of perpetual celibacy, they cast aside married love, and yet
          chastity is applicable only to this love.

          Moreover, there is still an attraction to the opposite sex in
          them from creation and so from birth, and when this is restrained
          and suppressed, it inevitably happens that the attraction turns
          into a feeling of warmth and in some cases into a state of heat,
          which, rising from the body into the spirit, torments it and in
          some people corrupts it. It can happen as well that the spirit
          thus corrupted in turn corrupts matters of religion and casts them
          down from their proper internal abode, where they are held in
          reverence, to an external abode, where they become merely words
          and gestures.

          Because of this, the Lord has therefore provided that celibacy
          of this kind occur only among people who have an external worship,
          which they are in because they do not go to the Lord or read the
          Word. In their case, eternal life is not put in peril by
          conditions of celibacy imposed along with a vow of chastity, as it
          would be in the case of people who have an internal worship.

          In addition, many of these people do not enter that kind of
          life of their own free will, but some do so before they reach a
          state of freedom arising from reason, and some do so as a result
          of seductive influences from the world. [2] Among people who adopt
          that way of life in order to free their minds from the world so as
          to have time for Divine worship, only those are chaste in whom a
          love for the truly married life either was present before the
          celibate state or came into being afterwards and then remained,
          because a love for the truly married life is the love to which
          chastity applies.

          For this reason, too, after death, all monastics are finally
          released from their vows and allowed to go free, in order that
          they may be led to choose either married or unmarried life
          according to the inner prayers and longings of their love. If they
          then choose to enter married life, those who have at the same time
          loved the spiritual things of worship are allowed to marry in
          heaven. But those who choose an unmarried life are sent to others
          like themselves, who live in the outskirts of heaven.

          [3] With respect to women who devoted themselves to a life of
          piety, giving themselves up to Divine worship and thus withdrawing
          themselves from the illusions of the world and the lusts of the
          flesh, and who had therefore taken a vow of perpetual virginity, I
          have asked angels whether they are received into heaven, and
          whether they become first among the happy there, according to
          their belief. But the angels replied that they are indeed
          received, but when they feel the atmosphere of married love there,
          they become unhappy and distressed. And then, the angels said,
          they leave or are sent away, some of them going on their own, some
          after asking permission, and some by being told to go. Moreover,
          when they are outside the heaven they had been in, a way opens
          before them leading to companions who had lived in a similar state
          of life in the world. And then they become no longer distressed
          but cheerful, and they rejoice with one another.

      • (14) The state of marriage is preferable to
        a state of celibacy.

        • 156. [Marriage is preferable to celibacy]
          156. (14) The state of marriage is preferable to a state of
          celibacy. This follows from what has been said so far about
          marriage and celibacy. The state of marriage is preferable because
          it exists from creation; because the origin of it is the marriage
          between good and truth; because it corresponds to the marriage of
          the Lord and the church; because the church and married love are
          constant companions; and because the use it serves is more
          excellent than the uses served by anything else in creation,
          seeing that it results, according to order, in the propagation of
          the human race, and also of the angelic heaven, since heaven
          exists from the human race. In addition to this, marriage is the
          completion of a person, for by marriage a person becomes a
          complete person, as we show next in the following chapter.[*1]
          None of these things is true of celibacy.

          [2] On the other hand, if one takes the proposition that a
          state of celibacy is better than the state of marriage and turns
          it over to an inquisition to approve and confirm by arguments,
          then these arguments lead to the following conclusions: That
          marriage is not sacred, nor can any marriage be chaste. Indeed,
          that chastity in the female sex is possible only in the case of
          those who refrain from marrying and take a vow of perpetual
          virginity. And moreover, that people who take a vow of perpetual
          celibacy are the kind of people meant by “eunuchs who make
          themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of God”
          (Matthew 19:12). Besides many other conclusions which, stemming
          from an untrue premise, are also untrue.

          “Eunuchs who make themselves eunuchs for the sake of the
          kingdom of God” mean spiritual eunuchs, and these are people
          who in their marriages abstain from the evils of licentious
          relationships. The statement plainly does not mean Italian
          castrati.[*2]

          [*1] See “The Conjunction of Souls and Minds by Marriage,”
          nos. 156[r]ff.

          [*2] Male singers, especially in the 18th century, castrated
          before puberty to prevent the soprano or contralto voice range
          from changing.

      • Some men of olden times in Greece, who
        inquired of newcomers what news they had from earth and learned of
        people found in a forest there (nos. 151[r]
        154[r] ).

          • 151[r]. [Animal-like
            humans found]

            151r. [repeated][*1] To this I will append two narrative
            accounts. This is the first:

            As I was returning home from the school of wisdom spoken of
            above in no. 132, on the way I saw an angel
            dressed in blue.

            He attached himself to my side and said, “I see that you
            have come from one of the schools of wisdom and that you were
            pleased by what you heard there. I perceive, too, that you are not
            fully in this world, because you are at the same time in the
            natural world. You are therefore also not acquainted with our
            Olympian gymnasia, where sages of old meet and learn from
            newcomers from your world what changes and progressions the state
            of wisdom has gone through and is presently undergoing. This being
            the case, if you wish, I will take you to a place where many of
            the sages of old live, together with their descendants or
            disciples.”

            He then took me to a border region between the north and the
            east. And when from an elevation I looked out toward it, suddenly
            a city appeared, and on one side of it two hills, with the hill
            nearer the city being lower than the other.

            And the angel said to me, “That city is called Athenaeum,
            the lower hill Parnassium, and the higher one Heliconeum. They are
            called by these names because in the city and around it live wise
            men of old from Greece, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, Aristippus,
            and Xenophon, along with their disciples and pupils.”

            I then asked about Plato and Aristotle. The angel said that
            they and their followers lived in another region, because they
            taught matters of reason having to do with the intellect, while
            the ones here taught matters of morality having to do with life.

            [2] The angel said that scholarly envoys are frequently sent
            out from the city of Athenaeum to educated Christians, to find out
            from them what people presently think about God, the creation of
            the universe, the immortality of the soul, the nature of man
            compared to the nature of animals, and other things which are
            matters of interior wisdom. And the angel said that today a herald
            had announced an assembly, a sign that the envoys had found
            newcomers from the earth from whom they had heard some interesting
            news.

            We then saw many people coming out of the city and from the
            surrounding area, some wearing laurel wreaths on their heads, some
            holding palm branches in their hands, some with books under their
            arms, and some with pens under the hair of the left temple.

            We slipped in among them and together ascended. And lo, on the
            hill there was an octagonal palace, which they called the
            Palladium, and we went in. And behold, we saw there eight
            hexagonal alcoves, each with a set of bookcases in it, and also a
            table, at which the people with the laurel wreaths sat. Moreover,
            in the Palladium itself we saw benches carved out of stone, on
            which the rest of the people took their seats. [3] And then a door
            opened on the left, through which two newcomers from earth were
            ushered in. And having first greeted them, one of those wearing
            the laurel wreaths asked: “What news do you have from earth?”

            So the newcomers said, “The news is that some people
            resembling beasts, or beasts resembling people, have been found in
            a forest. From their facial and physical features, however, it has
            been reportedly learned that they were born human, and that they
            were lost or left in the forest when they were about two or three
            years old.

            “According to the report,” the newcomers said, “they
            are unable to express any thought verbally, nor are they able to
            learn how to articulate sound into the form of any word. Nor did
            they know what food was suitable for them, as animals do, but they
            thrust into their mouth things they found in the forest, both
            things fit to be eaten and things unfit – to mention only some of
            many other similar discoveries. As a result of these findings,
            some of the learned among us have formed a number of conjectures,
            and others conclusions, about the nature of human beings compared
            to the nature of animals.”

            [4] When they heard this, some of the sages of old inquired,
            “What conjectures and conclusions do they draw from these
            discoveries?”

            The two newcomers then replied that there were a number of
            them, but that they could be reduced to the following:

            1. By his own nature and also from birth, the human being is
            more stupid and thus worse off than any animal, and that is the
            way he turns out if he is not educated.

            2. He can be educated because he learned how to make articulate
            sounds and thus to speak, and by that means began to express
            thoughts, and this gradually more and more, until he was able to
            formulate laws of society, though many of these laws are imprinted
            on animals from birth.

            3. Animals have the same faculty of reason as human beings.

            4. Therefore if animals could talk, they would reason on any
            subject as cleverly as human beings. It is an indication of their
            ability that they think in accordance with the same reason and
            prudence as human beings.

            [5] 5. The intellect is no more than a modified form of light
            from the sun, aided by warmth, by means of the ether, so that it
            is only an activity of interior nature, and this activity can be
            raised to the point that it appears as wisdom.

            6. It is therefore vain to believe that a person lives after
            death any more than an animal – unless perhaps, owing to an
            exhalation of the life of the body, he may possibly appear for
            several days after death as a vapor resembling a ghost, before it
            evaporates back into nature – in much the same way as a bush
            raised from the ashes appears in a likeness of its prior form.

            7. Consequently, religion, which teaches life after death, is
            an invention to keep simple people in bondage from within by its
            laws, as they are kept in bondage from without by laws of the
            state.

            To this the newcomers added, that that was merely how some
            clever people reasoned, but not the intelligent ones.

            Their listeners then asked, “What is the reasoning of the
            intelligent ones?”

            The newcomers answered that they had not heard, but it was what
            they supposed.

            [*1] Numbers 151-156 are used twice. To maintain the proper
            sequence they are all included after the first number 156.
            NewSearch98 thus treats them all as part of number 156. However,
            when referenced it should be to the specific number, such as CL
            154r.

          • 152[r]. [Wisdom has been lost]
            152r. [repeated][*1] On hearing these things, the people who
            were sitting at the tables all said, “Oh, what the times are
            like on earth now! Alas, what changes wisdom has undergone! Has
            wisdom become ingenious nonsense? The sun has set and now stands
            beneath the earth diametrically opposite its zenith!

            “From the evidence of the people left and found in the
            forest, who cannot see that that is what a human being is like
            without education? Is he not as he is taught? Is he not born in a
            greater state of ignorance than animals? Does he not have to learn
            to walk and talk? If he did not learn to walk, would he stand
            erect upon his feet? And if he did not learn to talk, would he
            mutter anything he thought? Is everyone not as he is taught,
            irrational from being taught falsities, and wise from being taught
            truths? And one who is irrational from being taught falsities – is
            he not entirely caught up in the fantasy that he is wiser than one
            who is wise from being taught truths? Are there not fools and
            lunatics who are no more human than the people found in the
            forest? Are persons without memory not similar to them?

            [2] “From these considerations and observations, we
            ourselves conclude that a person without education is not human,
            and not an animal either, but that he is a form of life which can
            receive into himself that which makes a person human. And thus we
            conclude that he is not born human, but becomes human; and that a
            person is born such a form of life in order that he may be an
            organism receptive of life from God, so that he may become a
            vessel into which God can introduce every kind of good and which
            by union with Himself He can bless to eternity.

            “We perceive from what you have said that wisdom today has
            become so nonexistent or nonsensical that people know nothing at
            all about the nature of the life of human beings compared to the
            nature of the life of animals. That is why they also do not know
            the nature of man’s life after death. Nevertheless, those who
            could know it, but do not wish to know it and therefore deny it,
            as many of your Christians do – we can liken them to the people
            found in the forest. Not that they have become that stupid from a
            lack of education; but by relying on misconceptions of the senses,
            which are dark shadows of truths, they have made themselves that
            stupid.”

            [*1] Numbers 151-156 are used twice. To maintain the proper
            sequence they are all included after the first number 156.
            NewSearch98 thus treats them all as part of number 156. However,
            when referenced it should be to the specific number, such as CL
            154r.

          • 153[r]. [Wisdom and love are from God]
            153r. [repeated][*1] At this point, however, someone in the
            middle of the Palladium stood up, holding a palm branch in his
            hand, and said, “Explain, please, this mystery, how a human
            being, created in the image of God, could be changed into the form
            of a devil. I know that angels of heaven are images of God and
            that angels of hell are images of the devil; and the two forms are
            opposite each other, angels of hell being forms of madness, angels
            of heaven forms of wisdom. Tell us, therefore, how a human being,
            created in the image of God, could pass from the light of day into
            such darkness of night that he could deny God and eternal life.”

            [2] To this the masters replied in turn, first the
            Pythagoreans, then the Socratics, and afterwards the rest.

            But there was among them a certain Platonist. He spoke last,
            and his opinion prevailed. He said that people of the Saturnian
            period or golden age knew and acknowledged that they were
            recipient forms of life from God, and wisdom was therefore
            engraved on their souls and hearts. And consequently, from the
            light of truth they saw truth, and through truths perceived good
            from the delight of a love for good.

            “However,” he said, “in subsequent ages, the
            human race fell away from acknowledging that all truth of wisdom
            and consequent goodness of love in them continually flowed in from
            God; and as they fell away from this acknowledgment, they ceased
            to be dwelling places of God. Moreover, speech with God and
            association with angels also then ceased. For the orientation of
            the inner faculties of their minds, which had been directed
            upwards by God to God, became more and more bent in a slanting
            direction outward to the world, so that it was directed by God to
            God through the world; and finally it was turned upside down in
            the opposite direction, which is downwards to self. And because
            God cannot be regarded by a person who is inwardly upside down and
            thus turned away, people separated themselves from God and became
            forms of hell or the devil.

            [3] “It follows from this that, in the first ages, people
            acknowledged with their heart and soul that all goodness of love
            and so truth of wisdom came to them from God, and also that these
            virtues were virtues of God in them, so that they themselves were
            merely recipients of life from God and for this reason were called
            images of God, sons of God, and born of God. But it follows then
            that, in succeeding ages, they no longer acknowledged this with
            their heart and soul, but did so owing to a certain conviction of
            belief, and then as a result of traditional faith, and finally
            with the lips alone. And to acknowledge something like this with
            the lips alone is not really acknowledging. Indeed, it is to deny
            at heart.

            “Consequently it can be seen what wisdom is like today on
            earth among Christians – even though with their written revelation
            they could be inspired by God – when they do not know the
            difference between man and animal. And because of this, many of
            them believe that if a person lives after death, so will an
            animal. Or, because an animal does not live after death, so
            neither will a person. Has not our spiritual light, which
            enlightens the sight of the mind, become darkness in them? And
            their natural light, which enlightens only the sight of the body –
            has it not become their refulgence?”

            [*1] Numbers 151-156 are used twice. To maintain the proper
            sequence they are all included after the first number 156.
            NewSearch98 thus treats them all as part of number 156. However,
            when referenced it should be to the specific number, such as CL
            154r.

        • 154[r]. [Goodness and truth are the Lord’s]
          154r. [repeated][*1] After this the people all turned to the
          two visitors and thanked them for their coming and for their
          account; and they begged them to report to their comrades what
          they had heard.

          Then the visitors replied that they would convince their
          friends of this truth, that they are human to the extent that they
          attribute every good of charity and truth of faith to the Lord and
          not to themselves; and that in the same measure they become angels
          of heaven.

          [*1] Numbers 151-156 are used twice. To maintain the proper
          sequence they are all included after the first number 156.
          NewSearch98 thus treats them all as part of number 156. However,
          when referenced it should be to the specific number, such as CL
          154r.

      • Golden rain, and a hall where some wives
        made various comments on the subject of married love (no. 155[r]).

        • 155[r]. [Wives on the
          delights of love]

          155r. [repeated][*1] The second account:

          One morning I was awakened by the sound of very sweet singing
          from some height above me. And being therefore in the first moment
          of awakening, which is more internal, peaceful and gentle than any
          other moment of the day, I could be kept for a while in the
          spirit, as though outside the body, and could attend keenly to the
          affection which was being expressed in song. (A song in heaven is
          nothing but an affection of the mind which is expressed vocally as
          a melody, for it is the sound of one speaking without spoken
          words, coming from the same affection of love which gives life to
          speech.)

          In that state I perceived that it was an affection having to do
          with the delights of married love, which was turned into song by
          wives in heaven. I noticed that this was so from the sound of the
          singing, in which those delights were variously expressed in
          marvelous ways.

          After this I arose and looked out into the spiritual world. And
          lo, in the east, beneath the sun there, I saw what seemed to be
          golden rain. It was morning mist, descending in such quantity
          that, struck by the rays of the sun, it presented to my eyes the
          appearance of golden rain. Being still more fully awakened on
          account of it, I went out in spirit, and then, meeting by chance
          an angel, I asked him whether he saw the golden rain coming down
          from the sun.

          [2] Answering, he replied that he saw it whenever he was
          thinking about married love and then turned his eyes in that
          direction.

          He said further, “That rain falls upon a hall where there
          are three husbands with their wives, who live at the center of an
          eastern paradise. This kind of rain seems to be falling from the
          sun upon that hall, because abiding in those husbands and wives is
          wisdom concerning married love and its delights – in the husbands,
          wisdom concerning married love, and in the wives, wisdom
          concerning its delights.

          “But since I perceive that you are thinking about the
          delights of married love, I will take you to that hall and
          introduce you.”

          So he led me through areas befitting a paradise to houses which
          were built with boards of olive wood, with two columns of cedar in
          front of the entrance; and having introduced me to the husbands,
          he asked that I be allowed, in their presence, to speak with their
          wives.

          They then nodded and called their wives.

          The wives looked searchingly into my eyes. So I asked, “What
          are you looking at?” They said, “We can see keenly what
          attraction you feel and therefore what affection you have, which
          is where your thought concerning love for the opposite sex comes
          from. And we see that although you are thinking about it intently,
          still you are thinking chastely.” They then said, “What
          do you want us to tell you about it?”

          So I replied, “Please tell me something about the delights
          of married love.”

          And the husbands nodded, saying, “Reveal to them something
          about these delights, if you wish. Their ears are chaste.”

          [3] So they asked, “Who told you that we were the ones to
          ask about the delights of that love? Why not our husbands?”

          Then I replied, “This angel who is with me, he told me
          privately that wives are vessels receptive of and sensitive to
          those delights, because they are born forms of love, and all
          delights have to do with love.”

          Smiling at this they answered, “Be discreet, and do not
          say such a thing unless it can be interpreted in more than one
          way, because it is a point of wisdom kept deeply hidden in the
          hearts of our sex, which is not revealed to any husband except to
          one who is in a state of true married love. There are many reasons
          for this, which we conceal within and keep to ourselves.”

          At that the husbands then said, “Our wives know all the
          states of our mind, nor is anything hidden from them. They see,
          perceive and feel whatever comes from our will. And we in turn
          know nothing of this in our wives. Wives have this gift, because
          they have very tender loves and feelings of almost blazing zeal
          for the preservation of the friendship and trust in marriage and
          thus for the preservation of both partners’ happiness of life.
          This happiness they watch over for their husbands and themselves
          from a wisdom inherent in their love – wisdom which is so full of
          discretion that they will not and therefore cannot say that they
          are the lovers, but that they are the recipients of love.”

          I then asked why wives will not and so cannot say this.

          The wives replied that if the least suggestion of anything like
          this were to slip from their lips, their husbands would be invaded
          with coldness, which would separate them from their bed, bedroom,
          and sight.

          “But this happens,” they said, “in the case of
          people who do not hold marriage sacred, and who therefore do not
          love their wives with a spiritual love. It is different with those
          who do. This love in their minds is spiritual, and in the body
          becomes natural as a result of that. We here in this hall
          experience the natural love as a result of a spiritual one, and
          consequently we confide to our husbands secrets about the delights
          we feel having to do with married love.”

          [4] At this point, I respectfully asked them to reveal
          something of these secrets to me as well. And immediately they
          looked toward the window to the south, where suddenly a white dove
          appeared. Its wings shone as though with silver, and its head was
          adorned with a crown seemingly of gold. It was standing on a
          branch, which had an olive growing out from it.

          As they saw the dove engaged in an attempt to spread its wings,
          the wives said, “We will reveal something. When that dove
          appears, it is a sign to us that we may.”

          They then said, “Every man has five senses: sight,
          hearing, smell, taste and touch. But we have also a sixth sense,
          which is a sense of all the delights of married love in our
          husbands. We have this sense in the palms of our hands, whenever
          we touch our husbands’ breasts, arms, hands or cheeks – especially
          their breasts – and also when we are touched by them. All the
          happy and pleasant states of the thoughts of their mind, and all
          the joys and delights of their heart, and the merry and cheerful
          feelings in their breast – these are then transmitted from them to
          us, taking form in us and becoming perceptible, discernible, and
          tangible. Moreover, we discern these things as keenly and as
          clearly as the ear discerns the melodies of songs, or as the
          tongue does the flavors of exquisite foods.

          “In a word, the spiritual delights of our husbands take on
          a kind of natural embodiment in us. And for that reason, our
          husbands call us the sensory organs of chaste married love and
          therefore of its delights. But this sense in our sex appears,
          continues, remains, and rises in the measure that our husbands
          love us for our wisdom and judgment, and in the measure that we
          love them in return for the same qualities in them. In heaven,
          this sense in our sex is called the interplay of wisdom with its
          love and of love with its wisdom.”

          [5] I was stirred by this with a desire to ask more questions,
          such as about the variety of the delights.

          Answering, they said, “The variety is endless. However, we
          do not wish to say any more, and therefore we cannot, because the
          dove outside our window, with the olive branch under its feet, has
          flown away.”

          I then waited for its return, but in vain. Meanwhile, I asked
          the husbands, “Do you have a similar sense of married love?”

          And they replied, “We have one in general, but not in
          particular. We have a general sense of bliss, of delight, and of
          pleasant contentment, owing to the particular sensations of these
          in our wives. And this general sense, which we have from them, is
          like a peaceful serenity.”

          At these words, suddenly through the window a swan appeared,
          standing on the branch of a fig tree; and spreading its wings, it
          flew off.

          Seeing this, the husbands said, “That is a sign for us to
          be silent about married love. Come back from time to time, and
          perhaps more will be disclosed.”

          They then withdrew, and we departed.

          [*1] Numbers 151-156 are used twice. To maintain the proper
          sequence they are all included after the first number 156.
          NewSearch98 thus treats them all as part of number 156. However,
          when referenced it should be to the specific number, such as CL
          154r.

    • 156r. THE CONJUNCTION OF SOULS AND MINDS BY
      MARRIAGE MEANT BY THE LORD’S SAYING THAT THEY ARE NO LONGER TWO BUT
      ONE FLESH

        • 156[r]. [CONJUNCTION OF SOULS AND MINDS]
          An inclination and also a capacity for conjunction as though
          into one was implanted in man and woman from creation, and man and
          woman still have this inclination and capacity in them. That this
          is so appears from the book of creation, and at the same time from
          what the Lord said. In the book of creation, which we call Genesis,
          we read:

          Jehovah God fashioned the rib, which He had taken from the man,
          into a woman, and He brought her to the man. And the man said,
          “This one, this time, is bone of my bones and flesh of my
          flesh. She shall be called woman (“ishshah), because she was
          taken from man (“ish). For this reason a man shall leave his
          father and mother and cling to his wife, and they shall be as one
          flesh.” (Genesis 2:22-24)

          The Lord also said something similar in Matthew:

          Have you not read that He who made them from the
          beginning…male and female…, said, “For this reason a man
          shall leave father and mother and cling to his wife, and the two
          shall be as one flesh”? Therefore they are no longer two, but
          one flesh. (Matthew 19:4-6)

          [2] It is apparent from these verses that woman was created out
          of man, and that they each have both an inclination and a capacity
          for reuniting themselves into one. This means into one person, as
          is also apparent from the book of creation, where the two together
          are called “man.” For we read:

          In the day that God created man…, He created them male and
          female…and called their name Man…. (Genesis 5:1,2)

          We find the reading here, “He called their name Adam,”
          but “Adam” and “man” are the same word in the
          Hebrew. Moreover, both together are called “man” in
          Genesis 1:27 and 3:22-24. “One flesh” also means “one
          person,” as is apparent from passages in the Word where the
          term “all flesh” occurs, meaning “every person”
          (such as in Genesis 6:12,13,17,19;[*2] Isaiah 40:5,6, 49:26,
          66:16,23,24; Jeremiah 25:31, 32:27, 45:5; Ezekiel 20:48, 21:4,5;
          and elsewhere).

          [3] But as for the meaning of the rib of the man which was
          fashioned into a woman, of the flesh which was closed up in its
          place, and consequently what is meant by “bone of my bones and
          flesh of my flesh,” also what is meant by the father and
          mother which a man is to leave when he marries, and by his clinging
          to his wife – this we showed in Arcana Coelestia (The Secrets of
          Heaven), where we explained the two books, Genesis and Exodus, in
          their spiritual sense. We established there that a rib does not
          mean a rib, nor flesh flesh, nor a bone bone, nor cling cling, but
          that they mean spiritual things, to which they correspond and which
          they therefore symbolize. They mean the spiritual things which mold
          one person out of two, and this is evident from the fact that it is
          married love which joins them together, and this love is spiritual.

          We have said several times above that a man’s love of wisdom is
          transferred into his wife, and this will be more fully established
          in the chapters that follow next. We cannot go off and thus digress
          now from the subject matter before us here, which is the
          conjunction of two married partners into one flesh by a union of
          their souls and minds. This union, however, will be made clear
          according to the following outline:

          (1) Each sex has implanted in it from creation a capacity and
          inclination that gives them the ability and the will to be joined
          together as though into one.

          (2) Married love joins two souls and thus two minds into one.

          (3) A wife’s will unites itself with her husband’s
          understanding, and the husband’s understanding in consequence
          unites itself with his wife’s will.

          (4) A desire to unite her husband to her is constant and
          continual in a wife, but inconstant and intermittent in a husband.

          (5) A wife inspires the union in her husband according to her
          love, and a husband receives it according to his wisdom.

          (6) This union takes place gradually from the first days of
          marriage, and in people who are in a state of true married love, it
          becomes deeper and deeper to eternity.

          (7) A wife’s union with her husband’s intellectual wisdom takes
          place inwardly, but with his moral wisdom outwardly.

          (8) In order that this union may be achieved, a wife is given a
          perception of her husband’s affections, and also the highest
          prudence in knowing how to moderate them.

          (9) Wives keep this perception in them hidden and conceal it
          from their husbands for reasons that are necessary in building
          married love, friendship and trust, so that they may have bliss in
          living together and happiness of life.

          (10) This perception is a wisdom that the wife has. A man is not
          capable of it, neither is a wife capable of her husband’s
          intellectual wisdom.

          (11) A wife from her love continually thinks about her husband’s
          disposition towards her, with a view to joining him to her. This is
          not true of a husband.

          (12) A wife joins herself to her husband by appeals to his
          will’s desires.

          (13) A wife is joined to her husband by the atmosphere of her
          life emanating from her love.

          (14) A wife is joined to her husband by her assimilation of the
          powers of his manhood, though this depends on the spiritual love
          they have for each other.

          (15) A wife thus receives into herself an image of her husband,
          and from it perceives, sees and feels his affections.

          (16) A husband has duties appropriate to him, and a wife duties
          appropriate to her, and a wife cannot enter into duties appropriate
          to her husband or a husband into duties appropriate to his wife and
          perform them properly.

          (17) These duties also join the two into one, and at the same
          time make a single household, depending on the assistance they
          render each other.

          (18) According as the aforementioned conjunctions are formed,
          married partners become more and more one person.

          (19) Partners who are in a state of true married love feel
          themselves to be a united person and as though one flesh.

          (20) True married love regarded in itself is a union of souls, a
          conjunction of minds, an effort to conjunction in breasts, and a
          consequent effort to conjunction in body.

          (21) The states produced by this love are innocence, peace,
          tranquillity, inmost friendship, complete trust, and a mutual
          desire in mind and heart to do the other every good; also, as a
          result of all these, bliss, felicity, delight, pleasure, and, owing
          to an eternal enjoyment of states like this, the happiness of
          heaven.

          (22) These blessings are not at all possible except in a
          marriage of one man with one wife.

          Explanation of these statements now follows.

          [*1] Numbers 151-156 are used twice. To maintain the proper
          sequence they are all included after the first number 156.
          NewSearch98 thus treats them all as part of number 156. However,
          when referenced it should be to the specific number, such as CL
          154r.

          [*2] “All flesh” in Genesis 6:17,19 seems rather to
          refer to all animal life

      • (1) Each sex has implanted in it from
        creation a capacity and inclination that gives them the ability and
        the will to be joined together as though into one.

        • 157. [Ability to be joined together]
          157. (1) Each sex has implanted in it from creation a capacity
          and inclination that gives them the ability and the will to be
          joined together as though into one. We showed just above from the
          book of creation that woman was taken out of man. It follows from
          this that the two sexes have therefore a capacity and inclination
          to join themselves into one. For whatever is taken from someone
          carries with it and retains something from his character which
          forms its character. And because it is of a like character, it
          yearns for reunion, and when it has been reunited, it exists as
          though in itself when it exists in the other, and conversely.

          It raises no objection to say that each sex has a capacity for
          conjunction with the other or that they can be united. Nor that
          they have an inclination to join themselves together. For personal
          observation and experience attests to both.

      • (2) Married love joins two souls and thus
        two minds into one.

        • 158. [Married love joins two souls]
          158. (2) Married love joins two souls and thus two minds into
          one. Every human being is made up of soul, mind and body. The soul
          is his inmost constituent; the mind is his intermediate one; and
          the body is the outmost part. Because the soul is a person’s
          inmost constituent, it is, from its origin, celestial. Because the
          mind is his intermediate constituent, it is, from its origin,
          spiritual. And because the body is the outmost part, it is, from
          its origin, natural.

          Things which are, from their origin, celestial, and things
          which are, from their origin, spiritual, do not exist in space,
          but are in appearances of space. This is also known in the world.
          That is why it is said that spiritual things cannot have dimension
          or location ascribed to them. Consequently, since the spaces are
          appearances, distances and nearnesses are appearances as well.
          Appearances of distance and nearness in the spiritual world depend
          on congruences, similarities, and affinities of love, as I have
          quite often pointed out and established in works I have written
          about that world.[*1]

          [2] We say this here in order to have it known that people’s
          souls and minds are not in space, as their bodies are, because, as
          we said above, their souls and minds are from their origin
          celestial and spiritual. And because they are not in space, they
          can be joined together as though into one, even though their
          bodies cannot be so joined at the same time.

          This conjunction takes place especially between married
          partners who love each other deeply. But because woman comes from
          man, and this conjunction is a kind of reunion, reason can see
          that it is not an amalgamation into one but an adjunction, nearer
          and closer according to the love, and to the point of contact in
          those who are in a state of true married love. This adjunction may
          be called a spiritual dwelling together, which occurs in the case
          of married partners who love each other tenderly, however
          separated they may be in body. There are many evidences of
          experience, even in the natural world, which attest to this.

          It is apparent from this that married love joins two souls and
          minds into one.

          [*1] See, for example, Arcana Coelestia (The Secrets of Heaven)
          (1749-1756), Heaven and Hell (1758), Divine Love and Wisdom
          (1763), Divine Providence (1764), The Apocalypse Revealed (1766).

      • (3) A wife’s will unites itself with her
        husband’s understanding, and the husband’s understanding in
        consequence unites itself with his wife’s will.

        • 159. [Wife’s will unites with husband’s
          understanding]

          159. (3) A wife’s will unites itself with her husband’s
          understanding, and the husband’s understanding in consequence
          unites itself with his wife’s will. The reason is that a male is
          born to become a form of understanding, and a female to become a
          form of will that loves the understanding of the male. It follows
          from this that the marital union is a union of the wife’s will
          with the husband’s understanding, and a reciprocal union of the
          husband’s understanding with the wife’s will. Everyone sees that
          there is a very close union between understanding and will, and
          that the union is such that the one faculty can enter into the
          other and find delight from and in that union.

      • (4) A desire to unite her husband to her is
        constant and continual in a wife, but inconstant and intermittent in
        a husband.

        • 160. [Wife is constant, husband inconstant]
          160. (4) A desire to unite her husband to her is constant and
          continual in a wife, but inconstant and intermittent in a husband.
          The reason is that love cannot help but love and unite itself in
          order to be loved in return, this being the very essence and life
          of love. And women are born forms of love, while men – with whom
          they unite themselves in order to be loved in return – are
          receivers. Moreover, love is continually operative. It is like
          heat, flames and fire, which die if they are prevented from
          operating. That is why a desire to unite her husband to her is
          constant and continual in a wife.

          On the other hand, a husband does not have the same desire with
          respect to his wife, and that is because a man is not a form of
          love but only a form receptive of love. And a state of reception
          comes and goes, depending on other concerns which interrupt,
          depending on changing feelings of warmth or lack of warmth in the
          mind for various reasons, and depending on increases and decreases
          of the powers in the body. Because these things do not return in a
          constant fashion or at set times, it follows that a desire for
          this union is, in husbands, inconstant and intermittent.

      • (5) A wife inspires the union in her husband
        according to her love, and a husband receives it according to his
        wisdom.

        • 161. [Wife inspires, husband receives]
          161. (5) A wife inspires the union in her husband according to
          her love, and a husband receives it according to his wisdom. The
          idea that a wife inspires the love and thus the union in her
          husband is today kept hidden from men. Indeed, they universally
          deny it. The reason is that their wives persuade them that men
          alone are the lovers, and themselves recipients, or that men are
          forms of love, and themselves forms of compliance. They even
          rejoice at heart when their husbands believe this. Wives persuade
          their husbands of this for many reasons, all of which have to do
          with the prudence and circumspect nature of wives (concerning
          which, something will be said hereafter, and in particular in the
          chapter on the reasons for states of coldness, separations and
          divorces between married partners[*1]).

          We say that it is wives who inspire or insinuate the love in
          their husbands, because not a particle of married love, not even
          of love for the opposite sex, is seated in men, but only in wives
          and women. The fact of this was vividly shown me in the spiritual
          world:

          [2] A conversation on this very subject once occurred there,
          and some men, having been persuaded by their wives, kept insisting
          that they were the lovers, and not their wives, but that their
          wives were recipients of love from them.

          In order to settle the dispute over this question, all women,
          including their wives, were removed from the men; and together
          with them the underlying atmosphere of love for the opposite sex
          was taken away. When this was taken away, the men came into a
          state altogether foreign to them and never before felt, at which
          they complained considerably.

          Then, while they were in this state, some women were brought to
          them, and the wives were presented to their husbands; and the
          women and the wives spoke sweetly to them. But at their
          blandishments the men became cold, and turning away they said to
          each other, “What is this? What is a woman?” And when
          some of the women said that they were their wives, they replied,
          “What is a wife? We do not know you.”

          However, when the wives began to grieve over this utterly cold
          indifference on the part of their husbands, and some of them to
          cry, an atmosphere of love for the feminine sex and of married
          love (which to this point had been taken away from the men) was
          restored. And then at once the men returned to their former state
          – the ones who loved their marriages into their state, and the
          ones who loved the opposite sex in general into their state.

          Thus the men were convinced that not a particle of married
          love, not even of love for the opposite sex, resided in them, but
          only in wives and women. But still, after that, owing to their
          prudence, the wives induced the men to believe that the love
          resided in the men, and that some spark of it might possibly have
          passed from the men to themselves.

          [3] I have presented this experience here in order that it may
          be known that wives are forms of love, and husbands its receivers.
          Husbands are receivers of it according to the wisdom in them,
          especially the wisdom which results from religion, which is that
          they are to love only their wives. And this is plain from
          considering that when they love only their wives, their love is
          concentrated, and being also ennobled, remains in its strength,
          endures and lasts; and that otherwise it would be like taking
          wheat from a granary and throwing it to the dogs, resulting in an
          insufficiency at home.

          [*1] See nos. 234ff.

      • (6) This union takes place gradually from
        the first days of marriage, and in people who are in a state of true
        married love, it becomes deeper and deeper to eternity.

        • 162. [union takes place gradually]
          162. (6) This union takes place gradually from the first days
          of marriage, and in people who are in a state of true married
          love, it becomes deeper and deeper to eternity. The first heat in
          marriage does not join two people together, because it draws its
          character from a love for the opposite sex, which is a love
          belonging to the body and on that account to the spirit. And
          whatever is in the spirit as a result of the body does not last
          long. But love that is in the body as a result of the spirit does
          last. Love belonging to the spirit, and to the body as a result of
          the spirit, is insinuated into the souls and minds of married
          partners together with friendship and mutual trust. When
          friendship and mutual trust join together with the first love in
          marriage, married love results, which opens the partners’ hearts
          and inspires in them the sweet enjoyments of love, and this more
          and more deeply as friendship and trust are added to the original
          love, and as that original love enters into this friendship and
          trust and they into it.

      • (7) A wife’s union with her husband’s
        intellectual wisdom takes place inwardly, but with his moral wisdom
        outwardly.

          • 163. [Intellectual wisdom]
            163. (7) A wife’s union with her husband’s intellectual wisdom
            takes place inwardly, but with his moral wisdom outwardly. Wisdom
            in men is twofold, intellectual and moral, and their intellectual
            wisdom has to do with their understanding alone, while their moral
            wisdom has to do with both their understanding and at the same
            time their life. This can be concluded and seen from simply
            viewing the matter and examining it. Still, to have it known what
            we mean by the intellectual wisdom of men, and what we mean by
            their moral wisdom, we will list some specific examples:

            Various terms are used to designate those elements which have
            to do with men’s intellectual wisdom. In general, they are called
            knowledge, intelligence and wisdom. In particular, however, they
            are rationality, judgment, genius, learning, sagacity. But because
            everyone has special kinds of knowledge peculiar to him in his
            occupation, these kinds of knowledge are therefore many and
            various. For there are special kinds of knowledge peculiar to
            clergymen, to civil officers, to their various officials, to
            judges, to physicians and pharmacists, to soldiers and sailors, to
            craftsmen and workmen, to farmers, and so on. To intellectual
            wisdom belong also all the fields of study to which adolescents
            are introduced in schools, and through which they are afterwards
            led into intelligence; and these studies are also called by
            various names, such as philosophy, physics, geometry, mechanics,
            chemistry, astronomy, law, political science, ethics, history, and
            many more, through which, as through gates, one enters into
            intellectual pursuits, from which comes intellectual wisdom.

          • 164. [Moral wisdom]
            164. Elements having to do with moral wisdom in men, on the
            other hand, are all moral virtues which have regard to the way
            they live and which enter into their manner of life. And they
            include as well spiritual virtues which spring from love toward
            God and love for the neighbor, and which flow together into those
            loves.

            Virtues which have to do with men’s moral wisdom likewise have
            various names, and they are called temperance, sobriety,
            integrity, kindliness, friendliness, modesty, honesty,
            helpfulness, courteousness; also diligence, industriousness,
            skillfulness, alacrity, generosity, liberality, magnanimity,
            energy, courage, prudence – not to mention many others. Spiritual
            virtues in men are love of religion, charity, truthfulness, faith,
            conscience, innocence, as well as many more.

            These virtues, both moral and spiritual, can be attributed in
            general to a man’s love and zeal for religion, for the public
            good, for his country, for his fellow citizens, for his parents,
            for his wife, and for his children. In all of these justice and
            judgment prevail. Justice has to do with moral wisdom, and
            judgment has to do with intellectual wisdom.

        • 165. [Inward and outward union]
          165. We say that a wife’s union with her husband’s intellectual
          wisdom exists inwardly, because this wisdom is characteristic of
          the intellect of men, and it ascends into a light in which women
          are not. That is why women do not speak from it, but in gatherings
          of men where matters like this are being discussed, they keep
          silent and only listen. Nevertheless, wives still have these
          things in them inwardly, as is apparent from the fact that they do
          listen, inwardly recognizing and concurring with those things
          which they hear and have heard from their husbands.

          On the other hand, a wife’s union with men’s moral wisdom
          exists outwardly, because the virtues of this wisdom are akin for
          the most part to similar virtues in women, and they spring from
          the husband’s intellectual will, with which the wife’s will unites
          and forms a marriage. And because a wife recognizes these virtues
          in her husband better than he recognizes them in himself, we say
          that a wife’s union with them exists outwardly.

      • (8) In order that this union may be
        achieved, a wife is given a perception of her husband’s affections,
        and also the highest prudence in knowing how to moderate them.

        • 166. [Wives have perception]
          166. (8) In order that this union may be achieved, a wife is
          given a perception of her husband’s affections, and also the
          highest prudence in knowing how to moderate them. This, too, is
          one of the secrets of married love which wives conceal within and
          keep to themselves – the fact that wives recognize their husbands’
          affections and discreetly moderate them. They recognize these
          affections through the three senses of sight, hearing and touch,
          and they moderate them without their husbands’ being at all aware
          of it.

          Now, because these are among things kept secret by wives, it is
          not appropriate for me to reveal them in their particulars. It is,
          however, appropriate for wives themselves, and therefore I have
          included at the end of several chapters four narrative accounts in
          which wives themselves reveal them. Two of the accounts come from
          the three wives living in the hall on which I saw what seemed to
          be golden rain falling.[*1] And the other two accounts come from
          seven wives sitting in a rose garden.[*2] If these accounts are
          read, this secret will be seen revealed.

          [*1] See nos. 155[r] and 208.

          [*2] See nos. 293 and
          294.

      • (9) Wives keep this perception in them
        hidden and conceal it from their husbands for reasons that are
        necessary in building married love, friendship and trust, so that
        they may have bliss in living together and happiness of life.

        • 167. [Wives hide their perception]
          167. (9) Wives keep this perception in them hidden and conceal
          it from their husbands for reasons that are necessary in building
          married love, friendship and trust, so that they may have bliss in
          living together and happiness of life. The hiding and concealing
          by wives of their perception of their husbands’ affections is
          called necessary, because if their perceptions became known, they
          would alienate their husbands from bed, bedroom, and home. This is
          because most men have in them a deep-seated coldness to marriage,
          for many reasons, which will be disclosed in the chapter on the
          reasons for states of coldness, separations and divorces 2 between
          married partners.[*1] If wives were to divulge what they know of
          their husbands’ affections and feelings, this coldness would break
          out of its hiding places and chill first the inner recesses of the
          mind, then the heart, and afterwards the outmost organs of love
          which are dedicated to reproduction. And if these should become
          cold, married love would be banished to such a degree that there
          would remain no hope of friendship, trust, or bliss in living
          together and thus no hope for happiness of life. Yet wives are
          continually sustained by this hope. To reveal that they know the
          affections and feelings of love in their husbands carries with it
          a declaration and announcement of their own love; and it is well
          known that to the extent wives open their mouths about this, to
          the same extent their husbands grow cold and desire separation.

          This makes plain the truth of the premise, that wives keep
          their perception in them hidden and conceal it from their husbands
          for reasons that are necessary.

          [*1] See nos. 234ff.

      • (10) This perception is a wisdom that the
        wife has. A man is not capable of it, neither is a wife capable of
        her husband’s intellectual wisdom.

        • 168. [Perception is a wife’s wisdom]
          168. (10) This perception is a wisdom that the wife has. A man
          is not capable of it, neither is a wife capable of her husband’s
          intellectual wisdom. This follows from the difference that exists
          between masculinity and femininity. It is masculine to perceive
          from the intellect, and feminine to perceive from love. Moreover,
          the intellect also perceives those sorts of matters which
          transcend the body and the world – it being the nature of
          intellectual and spiritual sight to move in that direction – while
          love does not perceive beyond what it feels. When it does, its
          perception draws on its union with the intellect of a man, a union
          established from creation. For the intellect has to do with light,
          and love with warmth, and concerns that are matters of light are
          seen, whereas concerns that are matters of warmth are felt.

          It is apparent from this that, because of the universal
          difference which exists between masculinity and femininity, a
          husband is not capable of his wife’s wisdom, nor is a wife capable
          of her husband’s wisdom. Women are not even capable of a man’s
          moral wisdom to the extent that it springs from his intellectual
          wisdom.

      • (11) A wife from her love continually thinks
        about her husband’s disposition towards her, with a view to joining
        him to her. This is not true of a husband.

        • 169. [A wife continually thinks about her
          husband]

          169. (11) A wife continually thinks about her husband’s
          disposition towards her, with a view to joining him to her. This
          goes along with what was explained above, namely, that a desire to
          unite her husband to her is constant and continual in a wife, but
          inconstant and intermittent in a husband. See what was said
          there.[*1] It follows from this that a wife thinks continually
          about her husband’s disposition towards her with a view to joining
          him to her. To be sure, a wife’s thinking about her husband is
          interrupted by the domestic concerns which are under her care, but
          still it remains in the affection of her love; and in women, this
          affection does not become detached from their thoughts as it does
          in men. However, I am relating these things as they were told to
          me. See the two narrative accounts which come from seven wives
          sitting in a rose garden, which I have included at the end of one
          of the chapters later on.[*2]

          [*1] No. 160.

          [*2] See nos. 293 and 294.

      • (12) A wife joins herself to her husband by
        appeals to his will’s desires.

        • 170. [She appeals to his will’s desires]
          170. (12) A wife joins herself to her husband by appeals to his
          will’s desires. As this is a matter of common knowledge,
          explanation of it is made unnecessary.

      • (13) A wife is joined to her husband by the
        atmosphere of her life emanating from her love.

        • 171. [Her sphere connects them]
          171. (13) A wife is joined to her husband by the atmosphere of
          her life emanating from her love. From every person there
          emanates, indeed pours, a spiritual atmosphere from the affections
          of his love, and this atmosphere surrounds him. It also enters
          into the natural atmosphere arising from the body, and the two
          atmospheres combine together.

          Everyone knows that a natural atmosphere continually emanates
          from the body, not only from human beings but also from animals –
          in fact, from trees, fruits, flowers, and also metals. So, too, in
          the spiritual world, except that the atmospheres emanating from
          things there are spiritual, and the atmospheres which emanate from
          spirits and angels are interiorly spiritual, because the
          affections of their love and their consequent perceptions and
          thoughts are interior. Every feeling of affinity or aversion has
          its origin from these atmospheres, and also all association or
          dissociation. Thus a person’s presence or absence depends in that
          world on these atmospheres. For similarity or harmony in character
          causes association and presence, while dissimilarity or disharmony
          causes dissociation and absence. Consequently, it is these
          atmospheres which cause distances in that world.

          Some people also know what effect these spiritual atmospheres
          have in the natural world. The dispositions of married partners
          toward each other come from this very origin. Harmonious and
          concordant atmospheres unite them, and contrary and discordant
          ones drive them apart; for concordant atmospheres are delightful
          and pleasant, while discordant ones are undelightful and
          unpleasant.

          [2] Angels have a clear perception of these atmospheres, and I
          have heard from them that every single element in a person, both
          inside and out, renews itself, which it does through processes of
          dissolution and restoration; and this is what produces the
          atmosphere which is continually given off. Moreover, the angels
          said, this atmosphere is concentrated about a person’s back and
          breast, but more lightly around the back, more densely around the
          breast, and the atmosphere which is about the breast combines
          itself with the breathing. That also is why two married partners
          who differ in their dispositions and are out of harmony in their
          affections, in bed lie turned away with their backs to each other,
          while conversely, two who are in harmony in their dispositions and
          affections lie turned toward each other.

          [3] The angels said further that because atmospheres emanate
          from every part of a person and extend widely about him, these
          atmospheres not only join or drive apart two married partners
          outwardly, but also inwardly. And this, they said, is the reason
          for all the differences and diversities in married love.

          Lastly the angels said that the atmosphere of love emanating
          from a wife who is tenderly loved, in heaven is perceived as
          sweetly fragrant, considerably more delightful than the one which
          is perceived in the world by a newly married husband in the first
          days of marriage.

          This makes plain the truth asserted, that a wife is joined to
          her husband by the atmosphere of her life emanating from her love.

      • (14) A wife is joined to her husband by her
        assimilation of the powers of his manhood, though this depends on
        the spiritual love they have for each other.

        • 172. [She absorbs his seed]
          172. (14) A wife is joined to her husband by her assimilation
          of the powers of his manhood, though this depends on the spiritual
          love they have for each other. That this is so is also something I
          have gained from the testimony of angels. They said that the
          seminal fluids expended by husbands are universally received by
          their wives and added to the life in them, and that the wives in
          consequence lead a life in harmony and in progressively greater
          harmony with their husbands. Moreover, that the effect of this is
          to bring about a union of souls and conjunction of minds. The
          angels said that this is because a husband’s seminal fluid
          contains his soul, and also his mind in respect to the interior
          elements of it which have been joined to the soul.

          They said further that this has been provided from creation, in
          order that a husband’s wisdom – which forms his soul – may be
          assimilated into his wife, and that in this way they may become,
          in the Lord’s words, one flesh. Also, that it has been provided as
          well to keep the male of the species from abandoning his wife for
          some imaginary reason after she has conceived.

          However, the angels added that occurrences of the utilization
          and assimilation in wives of the life of their husbands are
          contingent on their married love, because it is love, which is a
          spiritual union, which joins two people together. And that this,
          too, has been provided, for many reasons.

      • (15) A wife thus receives into herself an
        image of her husband, and from it perceives, sees and feels his
        affections.

        • 173. [She pictures him inwardly]
          173. (15) A wife thus receives into herself an image of her
          husband, and from it perceives, sees and feels his affections.
          From the arguments presented above, it follows, as something
          already attested, that wives receive into themselves matters that
          have to do with the wisdom of their husbands, thus matters
          belonging to their souls and minds, and in this way, from being
          maidens, they turn themselves into wives. These are the arguments
          from which this follows:

          1. Woman was created out of man.

          2. Consequently, she has an inclination to unite and, so to
          speak, reunite herself with a man.

          3. On account of and for the sake of that union with her mate,
          a woman is born a form of love for a man, and she becomes more and
          more a form of love for him by marriage, because her love then
          continually devotes its thoughts to joining her husband to her.

          4. She is joined to her particular partner by appeals to his
          life’s desires.

          5. Married partners are joined together by the atmospheres
          surrounding them, which unite them overall and in every instance
          according to the nature of the married love in the wives, and at
          the same time according to the nature of the wisdom receiving that
          love in the husbands.

          6. Married partners are also joined together by assimilations
          of the husbands’ powers by the wives.

          7. From this it is apparent that something of the husband is
          constantly being transfused into the wife and infused in her as
          though it were hers.

          It follows from all this that an image of the husband is formed
          in the wife, and that because of this image a wife perceives, sees
          and feels in herself the things that are in her husband, and
          herself therefore as being in him. She perceives from their
          communication; she sees from looking at him; and she feels from
          touching him. She feels the reception of her love by her husband
          from the touch of her hands upon his cheeks, arms, hands and
          breast – something that was revealed to me by the three wives in
          the hall, and by seven wives in a rose garden, spoken of in the
          narrative accounts.[*1]

          [*1] See nos. 155[r] and 208;
          293 and 294.

      • (16) A husband has duties appropriate to
        him, and a wife duties appropriate to her, and a wife cannot enter
        into duties appropriate to her husband or a husband into duties
        appropriate to his wife and perform them properly.

          • 174. [Duties for each]
            174. (16) A husband has duties appropriate to him, and a wife
            duties appropriate to her, and a wife cannot enter into duties
            appropriate to her husband or a husband into duties appropriate to
            his wife and perform them properly. There is no need to illustrate
            by recounting them that there are duties appropriate to a husband
            and duties appropriate to a wife, for these are many and various
            in nature. Moreover, everyone knows how to divide them into their
            categories according to their general and specific kinds, provided
            he directs his mind to seeing the difference between them. Duties
            by which wives especially unite themselves with their husbands are
            duties involved in the upbringing of little children of both
            sexes, and of girls to the age when they are given in marriage.

        • 175. [They cannot do the other’s duties]
          175. We say that a wife cannot enter into duties appropriate to
          her husband or conversely a husband into duties appropriate to his
          wife, because they differ, like wisdom and its accompanying love,
          or like thought and its accompanying affection, or like the
          intellect and its accompanying will. In duties appropriate to
          husbands, understanding, thought and wisdom play the primary role,
          whereas in duties appropriate to wives, will, affection and love
          play the primary role. A wife also performs her duties out of
          will, affection and love, while her husband performs his out of
          understanding, thought and wisdom. Consequently, their duties are
          by nature different; but still they are progressively conjunctive
          as time goes on.

          [2] Many people believe that women can perform the duties of
          men if only they are introduced into them from early age in the
          way that boys are. However, women can be introduced into the
          exercise of these duties, but not into the judgment on which the
          proper performance of these duties inwardly depends. Therefore,
          those women who are introduced into the duties of men, in matters
          of judgment are bound to go to men for advice; and then, from the
          men’s recommendations, if they are their own mistresses, they
          choose what accords with their love.

          [3] Some people also suppose that women can raise the sight of
          their understanding into the same realm of light that men can and
          see things on the same high level. They have been persuaded of
          this opinion by what some educated female poets have written. But
          when the works of these female poets were examined in their
          presence in the spiritual world, they were found to be works, not
          of judgment and wisdom, but of cleverness and a facility in the
          use of language. And works which result from these two gifts,
          because of the elegance and skill in the way the words are put
          together, appear as though they were lofty and intelligent – but
          only to people who take any kind of cleverness and call it wisdom.

          [4] We also say that men cannot enter into duties appropriate
          to women and perform them properly, because they cannot enter into
          the affections of women, which are completely different from the
          affections of men. Since the affections and perceptions of the
          male sex, from creation and thus by nature, have been made so
          different, therefore the laws among the children of Israel also
          included the following decree:

          A woman shall not have on the garment of a man, nor a man the
          garment of a woman, for it is an abomination…. (Deuteronomy
          22:5)

          The reason for this was that all in the spiritual world are
          clothed according to their affections, and the two affections –
          the affection of a woman and the affection of a man – cannot
          become one except between the two sexes, and never is this
          possible in one person.

      • (17) These duties also join the two into
        one, and at the same time make a single household, depending on the
        assistance they render each other.

        • 176. [These duties join the two into one]
          176. (17) These duties also join the two into one, and at the
          same time make a single household, depending on the assistance
          they render each other. One of the things people know in the world
          is that a husband’s duties are in some way joined together with
          the duties of his wife, and that a wife’s duties are connected to
          the duties of her husband, and that these conjunctions and
          connections are the assistance they give each other and depend on
          that assistance.

          But the primary duties which confederate, affiliate, and bring
          the souls and lives of two married partners together into one are
          those which involve their joint concern in bringing up children.
          In this concern a husband’s duties and a wife’s duties differ and
          at the same time are joined together. They differ, because the
          responsibility of suckling and bringing up little children of both
          sexes, and also of educating girls to the age when they are handed
          over to the custody of men and associate with them – this is a
          responsibility having to do with the distinctive duty of a wife.
          On the other hand, the responsibility of educating boys after
          early childhood to the time of adolescence, and after that until
          they become independent – this is a responsibility having to do
          with the distinctive duty of a husband. Nevertheless, these duties
          are joined together through the counsel, support, and many other
          kinds of assistance that the two partners give each other.

          People know that these duties bind the hearts of two partners
          together into one – both those duties which are joined together
          and those which are different in nature, or those which are mutual
          duties and those which are distinctive ones – and that this is
          owing to the love called storg [*1] (the natural affection of
          parents for their offspring). People also know that these duties,
          viewed in respect to their difference and conjunction, make a
          single household.

          [*1] From the Greek storg, pronounced stor”gee (like
          psyche), in use in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries to mean
          natural or instinctive affection, usually that of parents for
          their offspring, but no longer current.

      • (18) According as the aforementioned
        conjunctions are formed, married partners become more and more one
        person.

        • 177. [Married partners become more and more
          one person]

          177. (18) According as the aforementioned conjunctions are
          formed, married partners become more and more one person. This
          accords with the observations contained in point (6), where we
          explained that the union takes place gradually from the first days
          of marriage, and that in people who are in a state of true married
          love, it becomes deeper and deeper to eternity. See what was said
          there. Married partners become proportionately one person in the
          measure that their married love grows. And because, in heaven,
          this love is genuine, owing to the celestial and spiritual life of
          the angels, therefore two married partners there are called two
          when they are referred to as husband and wife, but one when they
          are referred to as angels.

      • (19) Partners who are in a state of true
        married love feel themselves to be a united person and as though one
        flesh.

        • 178. [People in true married love feel like
          one flesh]

          178. (19) Partners who are in a state of true married love feel
          themselves to be a united person and as though one flesh. We can
          confirm that this is so only from the declarations of people in
          heaven, and not from the testimony of people on earth, since among
          people on earth true married love does not presently exist. In
          addition, people on earth are also enveloped in a coarse body,
          which dulls and swallows up the sensation that the two partners
          are a united person and virtually one flesh. And besides, people
          in the world who love their partners only outwardly and not
          inwardly do not wish to hear this. They think lasciviously
          concerning it, too, in terms of the flesh. Not so in the case of
          angels in heaven, because the married love they possess is
          spiritual and celestial, and they are not clothed in as coarse a
          body as people on earth.

          I have listened to angels who have lived with their partners in
          heaven for centuries, and I have heard it attested by them that
          they feel themselves to be united in this way, a husband with his
          wife and a wife with her husband, and to be each in the other
          mutually and reciprocally, seemingly, even, in respect to the
          flesh, even if they are apart.

          [2] The reason for this phenomenon, rarely experienced on
          earth, that the union of their souls and minds is felt in their
          flesh – the reason for it, the angels said, is that the soul not
          only forms the inmost elements in the head, but also the inmost
          elements in the body. The same is true of the mind, which is
          intermediate between the soul and the body. Although the mind
          appears to be in the head, it nevertheless is actually in the
          whole body as well. And that, the angels said, is why actions
          which the soul and mind intend, instantaneously spring forth from
          the body. It is also because of this, they said, that after the
          body is cast off in the previous world, people themselves are
          still whole and complete human beings. Now, because the soul and
          mind are closely connected to the flesh of the body, in order that
          they may act and produce their effects, it follows that a union of
          the soul and mind with one’s married partner is felt even in the
          body, as though they were one flesh.

          At the time the angels said this, there were some spirits
          standing near, and I heard them comment that these were matters of
          angelic wisdom that were beyond them. But these spirits were
          intellectually natural, and not intellectually spiritual.

      • (20) True married love regarded in itself is
        a union of souls, a conjunction of minds, an effort to conjunction
        in breasts, and a consequent effort to conjunction in body.

        • 179. [Union of souls]
          179. (20) True married love regarded in itself is a union of
          souls, a conjunction of minds, an effort to conjunction in
          breasts, and a consequent effort to conjunction in body. That it
          is a union of souls and conjunction of minds may be seen above in
          no. 158. That it is an effort to conjunction in
          breasts is because the breast is like a city’s town hall, and like
          a royal court, and the body like the teeming city surrounding it.
          The breast is like a city’s town hall because all decisions
          delivered from the soul and mind to the body flow first into the
          breast. It is like a royal court because it is the seat of
          government over all things of the body; for that is where the
          heart and lungs are, and the heart reigns through the blood in
          every part of the body, and the lungs through the respiration. It
          is apparent that the body is then like the teeming city
          surrounding such places.

          Consequently, when the souls and minds of married partners are
          united, and united by true married love, it follows that this
          lovely union flows into their breasts, and through these into
          their bodies, and causes an effort to conjunction. This is also
          all the more so, because married love directs the effort to its
          ultimate expressions, in order to bring its blissful pleasures to
          fulfillment. And because the breast is at the midpoint, it is
          apparent why married love has found the seat of its exquisite
          sensation there.

      • (21) The states produced by this love are
        innocence, peace, tranquillity, inmost friendship, complete trust,
        and a mutual desire in mind and heart to do the other every good;
        also, as a result of all these, bliss, felicity, delight, pleasure,
        and, owing to an eternal enjoyment of states like this, the
        happiness of heaven.

        • 180. [States of true married love]
          180. (21) The states produced by this love are innocence,
          peace, tranquillity, inmost friendship, complete trust, a mutual
          desire of the mind and heart to do the other every good; also, as
          a result of all these, bliss, felicity, delight, pleasure, and,
          owing to an eternal enjoyment of states like this, the happiness
          of heaven. All of these states are inherent in married love and
          consequently spring from it, and the reason is that married love
          originates from the marriage between goodness and truth, and this
          marriage comes from the Lord. Moreover, it is the nature of love
          to will to share with another, indeed, to confer joys upon another
          whom it loves from the heart, and to seek its own joys in return
          from doing so; and this being the case, infinitely more,
          therefore, does the Divine love in the Lord will to confer joys
          upon mankind, whom He created to be recipients of both the love
          and the wisdom emanating from Him. Because He created them to
          receive these attributes – men to receive wisdom, women to receive
          love for the wisdom of men – therefore on the deepest levels He
          infused into people married love, to which he could impart all
          kinds of bliss, felicity, delight and pleasure, states which,
          together with life, emanate and flow in solely from the Lord’s
          Divine love through His Divine wisdom. Consequently they flow into
          people who are in a state of true married love, because they alone
          are receptive of them.

          We list these states as innocence, peace, tranquillity, inmost
          friendship, complete trust, and a mutual desire of the mind and
          heart to do the other every good, since innocence and peace have
          to do with the soul, tranquillity has to do with the mind, inmost
          friendship has to do with the breast, complete trust has to do
          with the heart, and a mutual desire of the mind and heart to do
          the other every good has to do with the body as a result of these.

      • (22) These blessings are not at all possible
        except in a marriage of one man with one wife.

        • 181. [One man with one wife]
          181. (22) These blessings are not at all possible except in a
          marriage of one man with one wife. This follows as a conclusion
          from everything that has been said previously, and it will also
          follow as a conclusion from everything that remains to be said
          hereafter. Consequently there is no need to support it with its
          own special discussion.


      • Some sages of olden times in Greece on
        people’s life after death (no. 182).

        • 182. [Ancient Greek sages]
          182. To this I will append two narrative accounts. Here is the
          first:

          Several weeks later[*1] I heard a voice from heaven saying,
          “Behold, another assembly is convening on Parnassium hill.
          Come, we will show you the way.”

          I went, and as I drew near, I saw on the hill Heliconeum
          someone with a trumpet, with which he announced and proclaimed the
          assembly. I also saw people from the city Athenaeum and its
          bordering regions ascending as before, and in the midst of them
          three newcomers from the world. The three were Christians, one a
          priest, the second a politician, and the third a philosopher. On
          the way the people entertained them with various kinds of
          conversation, especially concerning the ancient wise men, whom
          they mentioned by name. The visitors asked whether they would see
          these wise men. The people said that they would, and that if they
          wished, they would meet them, since they are friendly and cordial.

          The visitors asked about Demosthenes, Diogenes and Epicurus.

          “Demosthenes is not here,” the people said, “but
          with Plato.[*2] Diogenes stays with his disciples at the foot of
          the hill Heliconeum, because he regards worldly matters as of no
          importance and occupies his mind solely with heavenly ones.
          Epicurus lives at the border to the west, and he does not come in
          to join us either, because we draw a distinction between good
          affections and evil ones, saying that good affections accompany
          wisdom and that evil affections are opposed to wisdom.”

          [2] When they had ascended the hill Parnassium, some of the
          keepers of the place brought crystal goblets containing water from
          a spring there; and they said, “The water comes from a spring
          which the people of old told stories about, saying that it was
          broken open by the hoof of the horse Pegasus and afterwards became
          sacred to the nine Muses.[*3] But by the winged horse Pegasus they
          meant an understanding of truth which leads to wisdom. By its
          hooves they meant empirical observations which lead to natural
          intelligence. And by the nine Muses they meant learning and
          knowledge of every kind. These stories today are called myths, but
          they were allegories which the earliest people used to express
          their ideas.”

          “Do not be surprised,” the people accompanying the
          three visitors said to them. “The keepers have been told to
          speak as they did, to explain that what we mean by drinking water
          from the spring is to be taught about truths and through truths
          about goods, and thus to become wise.”

          [3] After this they entered the Palladium, and with them went
          the three newcomers from the world, the priest, the politician,
          and the philosopher. Then the people with the laurel wreaths who
          sat at the tables[*4] asked, “What news do you have from
          earth?”

          So the newcomers replied, “We have this news. There is
          someone who maintains that he speaks with angels, having had his
          sight opened into the spiritual world, as open as the sight he has
          into the natural world; and he reports from that world many novel
          ideas, which include, among other things, the following: A person
          lives, he says, as a person after death, the way he did before in
          the world. He sees, hears, and speaks as he did before in the
          world. He dresses and adorns himself as before in the world. He
          becomes hungry and thirsty, and eats and drinks, as before in the
          world. He experiences the delight of marriage as before in the
          world. He goes to sleep and wakes up as before in the world. The
          spiritual world has lands and lakes, mountains and hills, plains
          and valleys, springs and rivers, gardens and groves. One finds
          there palaces and houses, too, and cities and towns, just as in
          the natural world. They have written documents and books as well,
          and occupations and businesses, also precious stones, gold and
          silver. In a word, one finds in that world each and every thing
          that one finds on earth – things which are infinitely more perfect
          in heaven. The only difference is that everything in the spiritual
          world comes from a spiritual origin, and consequently is
          spiritual, because it originates from the sun there, which is pure
          love; while everything in the natural world comes from a natural
          origin, and consequently is natural and material, because it comes
          from the sun there, which is nothing but fire.

          “This person reports, in short, that a person after death
          is perfectly human, indeed, more perfectly human than before in
          the world. For before in the world he was clothed in a material
          body, while here in this world he is clothed in a spiritual one.”

          [4] When the newcomers had thus spoken, the ancient wise men
          asked what people on earth thought of these reports.

          The three visitors said, “We know that they are true,
          because we are here and have seen and investigated them all. We
          will tell you, therefore, what people said and judged concerning
          them on earth.”

          At that the priest then said, “When those who are members
          of our order first heard these reports, they called them
          hallucinations, then fabrications; later they said he saw ghosts;
          and finally they threw up their hands and said, believe if you
          will. We have always taught that a person will not be clothed in a
          body after death before the day of the Last Judgment.”

          The ancient wise men then asked, “Are there not any
          intelligent ones among them who can show them and convince them of
          the truth that a person lives as a person after death?”

          [5] The priest said that there were some who showed it to them,
          but without convincing them. “The ones who show it say that
          it is contrary to sound reason to believe that a person does not
          live as a person until the day of the Last Judgment and meanwhile
          is a soul without a body.

          “What is a person’s soul, they ask, and where is it in the
          meantime? Is it an exhalation or a bit of wind flitting about in
          the air, or some entity hidden away at the center of the earth
          where its nether world is located? The souls of Adam and Eve, and
          of all the people after them, for six thousand years or sixty
          centuries now – are they still flitting about the universe or
          still being kept shut up in the bowels of the earth, waiting for
          the Last Judgment? What could be more distressing or more
          miserable than having to wait like that? May their fate not be
          likened to the fate of captives held chained and fettered in
          prison? If that is to be what a person’s fate is like after death,
          would it not be better to be born a donkey than a human being?

          “Moreover, is it not contrary to reason to suppose that a
          soul can be clothed again with its body? Does the body not get
          eaten away by worms, mice and fish? And this new body – can it
          serve to cover a bony skeleton that has been charred by the sun or
          has fallen into dust? How can these decomposed and foul-smelling
          elements be gathered together and joined to souls?

          “But when people hear arguments like these, they do not
          use reason to respond to them, but hold to their belief, saying,
          “We keep reason in obedience to faith.” As for all
          people being gathered together from their graves on the day of the
          Last Judgment, this, they say, is a work of omnipotence. And when
          they use the terms omnipotence and faith, reason is banished; and
          I can tell you that sound reason is as nothing then, and to some
          of them, a kind of hallucination. Indeed, it is possible for them
          to say in reply to sound reason, “You are crazy.””

          [6] When the wise men of Greece heard this, they said, “Are
          logical inconsistencies like that not dispelled of themselves as
          mutually contradictory? And yet sound reason cannot dispel them in
          the world today. What can be more logically inconsistent than to
          believe what they say about the Last Judgment, that the universe
          will then come to an end and that at the same time the stars of
          heaven will fall down on to the earth, which is smaller than the
          stars; and that people’s bodies, being then either cadavers, or
          embalmed corpses other people may have eaten,[*5] or particles of
          dust, will come together with their souls?

          “When we were in the world, we believed in the immortality
          of human souls on the basis of inductive arguments which reason
          supplied us, and we also determined places for the blessed, which
          we called the Elysian Fields. And we believed these souls to be
          human forms or likenesses, but ethereal since they were
          spiritual.”

          [7] After they said this, they turned to the second visitor,
          who in the world had been a politician. He confessed that he had
          not believed in a life after death, and had thought concerning the
          new reports he began to hear about it that they were fictions and
          fabrications. “Thinking about it I said, how can souls be
          corporeal beings? Does not every remnant of a person lie dead in
          the grave? Is the eye not there? How can he see? Is the ear not
          there? How can he hear? Where does he get a mouth with which to
          speak? If anything of a person should live after death, would it
          be anything other than something ghostlike? How can a ghost eat
          and drink? And how can it experience the delight of marriage?
          Where does it get its clothing, housing, food, and so on? Besides,
          being airy apparitions, ghosts only appear as though they exist,
          and yet do not.

          “These and others like them are the thoughts I had in the
          world concerning the life of people after death. But now that I
          have seen it all and touched it all with my hands, I have been
          convinced by my very senses that I am as much a person as I was in
          the world, so much so that I have no other awareness than that I
          am living as I did then, with the difference that I now reason
          more sensibly. I have sometimes been ashamed of the thoughts I had
          before.”

          [8] The philosopher had a similar story to tell about himself,
          with the difference, however, that he had classed these new
          reports he heard regarding life after death with other opinions
          and conjectures he had gathered from ancient and modern sources.

          The sages were dumbfounded at hearing this; and those who were
          of the Socratic school said they perceived from this news from
          earth that the inner faculties of human minds had become gradually
          closed, with faith in falsity now shining like truth in the world,
          and clever foolishness like wisdom. Since our times, they said,
          the light of wisdom has descended from the inner regions of the
          brain to the mouth beneath the nose, where it appears to view as a
          brilliance of the lips, and the speech of the mouth therefore as
          wisdom.

          Listening to this, one of the novices there said, “Yes,
          and how stupid the minds of earth’s inhabitants are today! If only
          we had here the disciples of Heraclitus who weep over everything
          and the disciples of Democritus who laugh at everything. What
          great weeping and laughing we would hear then!”

          At the conclusion of this assembly, they gave the three
          newcomers from earth emblems of their district, which were copper
          plaques on which some hieroglyphic symbols were engraved. With
          these the visitors then departed.

          [*1] I.e., several weeks after the occurrence related in nos.
          151[r]154[r].

          [*2] See no. 151[r]:1.

          [*3] Cf., in Greek mythology, the spring Hippocrene on Mount
          Helicon, and perhaps also the spring Castalia on Mount Parnassus.

          [*4] See no. 151[r]:2.

          [*5] As late as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the
          substances of embalmed corpses, particularly of Egyptian mummies,
          were used in the preparation of potions and powders prescribed and
          taken for a variety of supposed medicinal purposes. Cf. True
          Christian Religion no. 160:5; also nos. 693:6,
          770.

      • A wedding garden called Adramandoni, where a
        conversation took place on the influx of married love (no. 183).

        • 183. [A wedding garden]
          183. The second account:

          A grove of palms and laurels appeared to me in the eastern
          zone, with the trees planted in rings in the form of spirals.
          Going over, I entered and walked along paths that curved around
          through several of the rings, and at the end of the paths I saw a
          garden, which formed the heart of the grove. Between the grove and
          the garden stood a small bridge, having a gate on the grove side
          and another gate on the garden side. I approached, and a keeper
          opened the gates. When I asked him what the name of the garden
          was, he said, “Adramandoni, which means the delight of
          married love.”

          I went in, and behold, I found olive trees, with vines running
          and hanging down from one tree to another, and with bushes in
          flower beneath the trees and between them. In the middle of the
          garden there was a grassy circle, on which husbands and wives and
          young men and women were sitting, paired off in couples; and at
          the center of the circle was an elevated piece of ground, where a
          little fountain of water spurted up into the air owing to the
          force of its stream.

          When I moved closer to the circle, I saw two angels in purple
          and scarlet, who were speaking with the people sitting on the
          grass and talking about married love, its origin and its delights.
          And because this love was the subject of their conversation, the
          people were listening with eager attention and full receptivity,
          producing in them a feeling of exaltation as though from the fire
          of love in the speech of the angels.

          [2] I have condensed into summary form the following excerpts
          from their conversation:

          The angels began by remarking how difficult it is to
          investigate and discern the origin of married love, since it has a
          Divine origin in heaven; for the origin is Divine love, Divine
          wisdom, and Divine application to useful purpose. These three
          emanate as one from the Lord, and they flow as one from Him into
          people’s souls, and through their souls into their minds; and
          there they flow into the inner affections and thoughts, through
          these into desires nearer the body, and from these through the
          breast into the reproductive region. Here all the forces derived
          from the first origin exist concurrently, and together with
          successive elements, result in married love.

          After this the angels said, “Let the interchange in our
          discussion be by questions and answers, because although a
          perception of something does indeed flow in when gained solely
          from listening, still it does not remain unless the listener also
          thinks about it for himself and asks questions regarding it.”

          [3] Then some of the married group said to the angels, “We
          have heard that married love has a Divine origin in heaven,
          because it comes from an influx from the Lord into people’s souls;
          and that being from the Lord, its origin is love, wisdom, and
          application to useful purpose – these being the three essential
          attributes which together make up the one Divine essence. We have
          also heard that nothing but what is of the Divine essence can
          emanate from the Lord and flow into the inmost being of a person,
          which is called his soul; and that these three essential
          attributes of it are transformed into analogous and corresponding
          qualities as they descend into the body. So now, the first
          question we ask is what is meant by the third essential Divine
          emanation, which is called application to useful purpose.”

          The angels replied that love and wisdom without application to
          useful purpose are only abstract and theoretical ideas, which,
          even after being entertained for a time in the mind, eventually
          pass away like the winds. “But love and wisdom are brought
          together in application to useful purpose,” they said, “and
          in this they become a single entity which is called actual. Love
          cannot rest unless it acts, for love is the active force in life;
          nor can wisdom exist and endure unless it does so from love and
          together with love whenever love acts, and to act is application
          to useful purpose. Therefore we define application to useful
          purpose as the doing of good from love through wisdom. Application
          to useful purpose is what good is.

          [4] “Since these three elements – love, wisdom, and
          application to useful purpose – flow into people’s souls, we can
          see why it is said that all good is from God. For all action from
          love through wisdom is called good, and action includes also
          application to useful purpose.

          “Love without wisdom – what is it but a kind of foolish
          infatuation? And love accompanied by wisdom, but without
          application to a useful end – what is it but an airy affectation
          of the mind? On the other hand, love and wisdom together with
          application to a useful end – these not only make a person what he
          is, but they also are the person. Indeed, what may perhaps
          surprise you, they produce the person. For a man’s seed contains
          his soul in perfect human form, clothed with substances from the
          finest elements of nature, out of which the body is formed in the
          womb of the mother. This useful end is the supreme and final end
          of Divine love acting through Divine wisdom.”

          [5] Finally the angels said, “We reach the inevitable
          conclusion that all reproduction, all propagation, and all
          procreation stem in origin from an influx of love, wisdom, and
          application to useful purpose flowing in from the Lord – from a
          direct influx from the Lord into the souls of human beings, from
          an indirect influx into the souls of animals, and from a still
          more indirect influx into the inmost elements in plants. All these
          processes, moreover, take place in things that are last in order
          as a result of things that are first in order.

          “Processes of reproduction, propagation and procreation
          are clearly continuations of creation; for creation can have no
          other source than Divine love acting through Divine wisdom in
          Divine application to useful purpose. Everything in the universe
          is therefore generated and formed as a result of useful purpose,
          in fulfillment of useful purpose, and to serve a useful purpose.”

          [6] Afterwards the people sitting on the banks of grass asked
          the angels, “What is the source of the delights of married
          love, delights which are beyond number and description?”

          The angels replied that these delights arise from the useful
          applications of love and wisdom, and that this could be seen from
          considering that to the extent anyone loves to become wise for the
          sake of some genuinely useful purpose, to the same extent he is in
          the stream and vigor of married love, and to the extent he is in
          this stream and vigor, to the same extent he enjoys their
          delights.

          “Application to useful purpose produces this result,”
          they said, “because love [finds expression in useful purpose]
          through wisdom [and they] take delight in each other, and play
          with each other, so to speak, like little children. And as they
          mature, they congenially unite together, which is accomplished as
          though through stages of betrothal, wedding, marriage and the
          bearing of offspring, and this continually and with variety to
          eternity.

          “These conjunctions between love and wisdom take place
          inwardly in application to useful purpose. In their beginnings,
          however, the delights are imperceptible, but they become more and
          more perceptible as they descend by degrees from their beginnings
          and enter the body. They enter by degrees from the soul into the
          interior regions of a person’s mind, and from there into its outer
          regions, and from there to within the breast, and 7from there into
          the reproductive region. And though a person does not perceive
          anything of these conjugal and heavenly interplays in the soul,
          from the soul they insinuate themselves into the inner regions of
          the mind in the form of peace and innocence, and into the outer
          regions of the mind in the form of bliss, felicity and delight,
          while within the breast they appear in the form of the delights of
          inmost friendship, and in the reproductive region as the delight
          of delights owing to the continual influx all the way from the
          soul, bringing with it an actual sensation of married love.

          “Such conjugal interplays of love and wisdom in
          application to useful purpose in the soul become lasting as they
          proceed towards their place within the breast, and there within
          the breast they manifest themselves perceptibly in an infinite
          variety of delights. And because of the marvelous communication of
          the interior of the breast with the reproductive region, in that
          region the delights become the delights of married love – delights
          which are heightened over all other delights that exist in heaven
          and in the world, because the use served by married love is the
          most excellent use of all; for it results in the propagation of
          the human race, and from the human race comes the angelic heaven.”

          [8] To this the angels added that people know nothing about the
          variety of the countless delights connected with true married love
          if they do not have from the Lord a love of growing wise for the
          sake of some useful purpose. “For,” they said, “people
          who do not love to become wise in accord with genuine truths, but
          prefer to be irrational in accord with falsities, and who through
          this irrationality of theirs are motivated by some love to serve
          evil purposes – in their case the way to the soul is closed. As a
          result the conjugal and heavenly interplays of love and wisdom in
          the soul become more and more cut off, and together with them,
          married love with its flow, vigor, and delights.”

          The people who were listening said in response that they
          perceived that married love depends on a love from the Lord of
          growing wise for the sake of useful purposes. The angels replied
          that this was so. And then on the heads of some of the listeners
          appeared little wreaths of flowers.

          So they asked, “Why is this?”

          The angels said, “Because you understood more deeply.”
          And then the angels departed from the garden, with these people in
          the midst of them.

    • 184. THE CHANGE IN THE STATE OF LIFE IN MEN
      AND WOMEN MADE BY MARRIAGE

        • 184. [LIFE CHANGES]
          What is meant by states of life and their changes is well known
          to people who are educated and wise, but unknown to those who are
          uneducated and simple. Therefore we need to make some preliminary
          statement about the subject.

          The state of a person’s life is its character. Further, because
          every person has in him two faculties which form his life,
          faculties which are called intellect and will, the state of a
          person’s life is its character in relation to his intellect and
          will. It is apparent from this that changes in one’s state of life
          mean changes in its character in respect to elements having to do
          with the intellect and elements having to do with the will.

          In this chapter we undertake to show that every person is
          continually changing in these two respects, but with a difference
          in the kinds of changes before marriage and those after marriage.
          We will do this in the following order:

          (1) From infancy to the end of life, and afterwards to eternity,
          a person’s state of life is continually changing.

          (2) So, too, the internal form, which is the form of his spirit.

          (3) These changes are of one kind in men and of another kind in
          women, since from creation men are forms of knowledge, intelligence
          and wisdom, and women forms of love for these things in men.

          (4) In men the mind is elevated into a higher light, and in
          women the mind is elevated into a higher warmth; moreover, a woman
          feels the delights of her warmth in the light of a man.

          (5) The states of life in men and women before marriage and
          their states of life after marriage are different.

          (6) After marriage, the states of life in married partners
          change and progress according to the bonds formed between their
          minds by married love.

          (7) Marriage even induces different forms on the souls and minds
          of the partners.

          (8) A woman is actually transformed into a man’s wife according
          to the description in the book of creation.

          (9) This transformation is accomplished by the wife in secret
          ways, which is what is meant by woman’s having been created while
          the man slept.

          (10) This transformation is accomplished by the wife by a union
          of her will with the inner will of her husband.

          (11) This to the end that the will of the one and the will of
          the other may become one will, and the two partners thus one
          person.

          (12) This transformation is accomplished by the wife by an
          adoption of her husband’s affections.

          (13) This transformation is accomplished by the wife by her
          reception of the propagations of her husband’s soul with delight –
          a delight arising from her willing to be an embodiment of love for
          her husband’s wisdom.

          (14) A maiden is thus transformed into a wife, and a youth into
          a husband.

          (15) In a marriage of one man with one wife, in which there is a
          true married love between them, the wife becomes more and more a
          wife, and the husband more and more a husband.

          (16) Their forms are also thus progressively perfected and
          ennobled from within.

          (17) The offspring born of couples who are in a state of true
          married love derive from their parents a conjugal connection
          between good and truth, from which they have an inclination and
          faculty, if a son, to perceive matters having do to with wisdom, if
          a daughter, to love the things that wisdom teaches.

          (18) This occurs because the soul of the offspring comes from
          its father, and its clothing from its mother.

          Explanation of these statements now follows.

      • (1) From infancy to the end of life, and
        afterwards to eternity, a person’s state of life is continually
        changing.

        • 185. [Life is always changing]
          185. (1) From infancy to the end of life, and afterwards to
          eternity, a person’s state of life is continually changing. The
          general states of a person’s life are called infancy, childhood,
          adolescence, adulthood, and old age. People know that every person
          who continues to live in the world passes in turn from one age to
          the next, and so progresses from the first one to the last. A
          person’s passing from one age to another is not apparent until a
          period of time has intervened; nevertheless, reason sees that the
          transitions are progressive from moment to moment, thus that they
          are advancing continually. For the case is similar with a person
          as with a tree, which from the time the seed is cast into the
          ground keeps on developing and growing every little instant, even
          the very briefest. These moment-to-moment progressions are also
          changes of state, for a later progression adds something to the
          preceding one which perfects the state.

          [2] Changes that take place in a person’s inner qualities are
          more perfectly continuous than those that take place in his
          outward ones. The reason is that a person’s inner qualities – by
          which we mean those that belong to his mind or spirit – are raised
          up on a higher level than the outward ones; and in things that are
          on a higher level, thousands of changes occur in the same moment
          that only one does in the outer elements. The changes that take
          place in the inner qualities are changes in the state of the will
          in respect to its affections, and changes in the state of the
          intellect in respect to its thoughts. Progressive changes in the
          state of these affections and thoughts are what are particularly
          meant under this heading.

          [3] Changes in the state of these two life forces or faculties
          in a person are unceasing, continuing from infancy to the end of
          his life, and afterwards to eternity; and the reason is that there
          is no limit to knowledge, even less to intelligence, and still
          less to wisdom. For there is an infinity and eternity in the range
          of these, arising from the Infinite and Eternal who is their
          source. Hence the ancient philosophical tenet, that everything is
          capable of being divided to infinity; to which should be added
          that everything is similarly capable of being multiplied. The
          angels assert that they are perfected in wisdom by the Lord to
          eternity, which means also to infinity, since eternity is an
          infinity of time.

      • (2) So, too, the internal form, which is the
        form of his spirit.

        • 186. [We change on the inside, too.]
          186. (2) So, too, the person’s internal form, which is the form
          of his spirit. This form is continually changing as the state of a
          person’s life changes, because nothing exists without being in
          some form, and its state is what induces the form. It amounts to
          the same thing, therefore, whether one says that the state of a
          person’s life changes or that his form does. A person’s affections
          and thoughts all exist in forms, and so depend on forms, for forms
          are their vessels. If they did not exist in vessels that have
          form, affections and thoughts might be found even in skulls from
          which the brain has been removed. It would be like having sight
          without an eye, hearing without an ear, or taste without a tongue.
          People know that the vessels of these senses exist and that the
          vessels are forms.

          [2] We say that the state of life, and therefore the form in a
          person, is continually changing, because it is a truth – which the
          wise have taught and still teach – that no two things are ever the
          same or absolutely identical, still less a number of things. So,
          for example, no two human faces are ever identical, still less
          several of them. It is similar in the case of successive states,
          that no later state of life is ever the same as one gone by. It
          follows from this that there is a perpetual change in the state of
          life in a person, consequently also a perpetual change in his
          form, especially in the form of his inner qualities.

          Since these observations, however, do not teach anything about
          marriage, but only prepare the way for concepts connected with it,
          and since they are no more than philosophical and intellectual
          analyses, which some people find difficult to grasp, having made
          these few comments we therefore pass on.

      • (3) These changes are of one kind in men and
        of another kind in women, since from creation men are forms of
        knowledge, intelligence and wisdom, and women forms of love for
        these things in men.

        • 187. [Men and women change differently]
          187. (3) These changes are of one kind in men and of another
          kind in women, since from creation men are forms of knowledge,
          intelligence and wisdom, and women forms of love for these things
          in men. We have already shown that men were created to be forms of
          understanding and that women were created to be forms of love for
          the understanding of men, as may be seen above in nos. 90,
          91. It follows that the changes of state which
          take place successively in him and in her from infancy to maturity
          are for the sake of perfecting their forms – an intellect-oriented
          form in men, and a will-oriented form in women. That is why we say
          that the changes are of one kind in men and of another kind in
          women.

          In both men and women, however, the outer form that has to do
          with the body is perfected according to the perfection of the
          inner form which has to do with the mind; for the mind acts upon
          the body, and not the reverse. This is the reason children in
          heaven grow up with a stature and comeliness in accordance with
          the growth of intelligence in them – differently from children on
          earth, because children on earth are clothed in a material body,
          as animals are.

          Nevertheless, children in heaven and children on earth are
          alike in this, that in their development they are attracted at
          first to such things as appeal to their physical senses, then
          little by little to such things as affect their inner
          contemplative sense, and by degrees to such things as infuse their
          will with affection. Then, when they reach an age midway between
          immaturity and maturity, they develop an attraction towards
          marriage, which in a young woman is an attraction towards a young
          man, and in a young man, towards a young woman.

          But because young women in heaven, just as on earth, from an
          innate discretion conceal their inclinations towards marriage, the
          young men there do not know otherwise than that they inspire
          feelings of love in the young women, and this also appears to them
          to be so because of their masculine urge. However, even this urge
          in them is caused by an influx of love emanating from the fair
          sex, an influx which we will take up expressly elsewhere.[*1]

          From this appears the truth of the argument: that changes of
          state are of one kind in men and of another kind in women, since
          from creation men are forms of knowledge, intelligence and wisdom,
          and women forms of love for these things in men.

          [*1] See no. 223. Cf. also no. 161.

      • (4) In men the mind is elevated into a
        higher light, and in women the mind is elevated into a higher
        warmth; moreover, a woman feels the delights of her warmth in the
        light of a man.

          • 188. [Men find higher light and women higher
            warmth]

            188. (4) In men the mind is elevated into a higher light, and
            in women the mind is elevated into a higher warmth; moreover, a
            woman feels the delights of her warmth in the light of a man. By
            the light into which men are elevated we mean intelligence and
            wisdom, because spiritual light, which emanates from the sun of
            the spiritual world (a sun which in its essence is love), goes
            together with these two as one and the same thing. Moreover, by
            the warmth into which women are elevated we mean married love,
            because spiritual warmth, which emanates from the sun of that
            world, in its essence is love, and in women is love that unites
            itself with the intelligence and wisdom in men. Taken in its
            broadest terms, this is the definition of married love, and when
            given a specific focus it becomes married love.

            [2] We call it an elevation into a higher light and warmth,
            because it is an elevation into the light and warmth in which
            angels of the higher heavens are. It is also an actual ascent, as
            though from a mist into open air, and from a lower region of the
            air into a higher one, and from this into the upper atmosphere.
            Therefore the elevation into a higher light in men is an elevation
            into higher intelligence and from this into wisdom, in which there
            is possible a still higher and higher ascent. And on the other
            hand, the elevation into a higher warmth in women is an elevation
            into a more and more chaste and pure married love, and this
            continually towards the married ideal which from creation is
            innate in their inmost beings.

            [3] Regarded in themselves, these elevations are openings of
            the mind; for the human mind is divided into regions, as the world
            is in respect to its atmospheres (the lowest of which is the
            aqueous one, the next higher the aerial one, the next higher still
            the ethereal one, above which there is also a highest one). A
            person’s mind is elevated into similar regions as it is opened –
            as it is opened in men by wisdom, and in women by true married
            love.

        • 189. [The interplay of light and warmth is in
          organic forms]

          189. We say that a woman feels the delights of her warmth in
          the light of a man; but what we mean is that a woman feels the
          delights of her warmth in the wisdom of a man, because wisdom is
          what receives it, and love has its pleasures and delights when it
          finds this reception in something corresponding to itself. This
          does not mean, however, that warmth has pleasure with its light
          apart from forms, but in them. And all the more does spiritual
          warmth have pleasure with spiritual light in them, because it is
          from wisdom and love that these forms are alive and thus
          responsive.

          This can be illustrated to some extent by the so-called
          interplays of warmth with light in plants. Apart from these forms
          there is only a simple conjunction of warmth and light, but in
          them there is an interplay, so to speak, between the two, because
          there they are in forms or recipient vessels. For they penetrate
          the plant forms through marvelous little winding ways, and in the
          inmost parts work to produce fruits of use, and they also give off
          their pleasant exhalations into the surrounding air, which they
          fill with fragrance.

          Even more striking still is the delightful interplay of
          spiritual warmth with spiritual light in human forms, where the
          warmth is married love and the light is wisdom.

      • (5) The states of life in men and women
        before marriage and their states of life after marriage are
        different.

        • 190. [Marriage changes people]
          190. (5) The states of life in men and women before marriage
          and their states of life after marriage are different. Before
          marriage each sex goes through two states, one state preceding the
          inclination towards marriage, the other following it. Changes in
          these two states and the resulting transformations of their minds
          develop in a progressive sequence according to continual growths
          in these states. We do not have the space, however, to describe
          these changes here, for they are various and diverse in the people
          who undergo them.

          Essentially, inclinations towards marriage prior to marriage
          are only something that can be imagined in the mind, which then
          become more and more something that can be felt in the body. On
          the other hand, the states these inclinations lead to after
          marriage are states of union and also of procreation. Clearly,
          these latter states differ from the former ones as realizations do
          from intentions.

      • (6) After marriage, the states of life in
        married partners change and progress according to the bonds formed
        between their minds by married love.

        • 191. [The changes depend on their attachment]
          191. (6) After marriage, the states of life in married partners
          change and progress according to the bonds formed between their
          minds by married love. In each partner, man and wife, the changes
          of state and progressions of state after marriage depend on the
          kind of married love they have, being thus changes and
          progressions that tend either to join or to estrange their minds;
          and the reason is that married love not only varies but also
          swings back and forth in the partners. It varies in partners who
          inwardly love each other, for although it goes through cycles in
          which it is interrupted in them, nevertheless it constantly
          retains its warmth within. This love swings back and forth,
          however, in partners who love each other only outwardly; in them
          this love goes through cycles in which it is interrupted, not
          owing to the same causes, but as a result of 2alternating states
          of warmth and coldness. The reason for these differences is that
          in the latter case the body plays the leading part, and its state
          of heat wells up and forcibly carries off the lower parts of the
          mind into confederation with it. But in the case of people who
          love each other inwardly, the mind plays the leading part, and it
          brings the body into a confederation with it.

          It seems as though love ascends from the body into the soul,
          because as soon as the body lights on attractions, these enter
          through the doors of the eyes, so to speak, into the mind, thus
          through the entryway of the sight into the thoughts and there
          immediately into the love. But nevertheless, love descends from
          the mind and acts on the lower parts according to the way they are
          directed. A lascivious mind acts lasciviously, therefore, and a
          chaste mind chastely; and in the latter case the mind directs and
          governs the body, whereas in the preceding case it is directed and
          governed by the body.

      • (7) Marriage even induces different forms on
        the souls and minds of the partners.

        • 192. [Marriage changes their souls and minds]
          192. (7) Marriage even induces different forms on their souls
          and minds. In the natural world one cannot observe that marriage
          induces different forms on their souls and minds, because souls
          and minds are there enveloped in a material body, and the mind is
          rarely visible through this. In today’s world, moreover, more than
          in ancient times, people also learn from early childhood to assume
          expressions on their faces which completely conceal the affections
          of their minds.

          For this reason, one cannot see the difference between what the
          forms of their minds are like before marriage and what they are
          like afterwards. Nevertheless, it is clearly apparent from souls
          and minds in the spiritual world that the forms of these after
          marriage are different from what they had been before; for people
          are then spirits and angels, who are nothing else than minds and
          souls in human form, divested of the integuments they had had,
          which were composed of elements found in waters and earths and of
          exhalations from these diffused in the air. When these coverings
          have been cast off, the forms of their minds, and what these forms
          had been like within their bodies, become visible; and it is
          clearly seen then that the forms in people who are married are
          different from the forms in people who are not.

          In general, the faces of married partners possess an inner
          beauty, the husband receiving from his wife the lovely blush of
          her love, and the wife receiving from her husband the shining
          splendor of his wisdom. For a married couple there is united in
          respect to their souls; and one also sees in the two a full
          expression of what it is to be human. This is the case in heaven,
          because marriages do not exist elsewhere. Beneath heaven one finds
          instead only temporary alliances which are formed and broken.

      • (8) A woman is actually transformed into a
        man’s wife according to the description in the book of creation.

        • 193. [This follows the creation of Eve from
          Adam]

          193. (8) A woman is actually transformed into a wife according
          to the description in the book of creation. We are told in this
          book that woman was created from the rib of a man, and that when
          she was brought to him, the man said,

          She…is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be
          called “Ishshah (Woman) because she was taken from “Ish
          (Man). (Genesis 2:22-24)

          In the Word, a rib from the breast symbolically means, in its
          spiritual sense, not a rib but natural truth. This is the
          symbolism of the ribs which the bear carried between its teeth in
          Daniel 7:5; for bears symbolize people who read the Word in its
          natural sense and see truths there without understanding. The
          breast of a man symbolizes that essential and distinctive quality
          which makes it different in character from the breast of a woman.
          This quality is wisdom, as may be seen above in no. 187;
          for truth supports wisdom, as a rib supports the breast. These
          distinctive qualities are symbolized, because the breast is where
          all the qualities of a person are, so to speak, at their center.

          [2] It follows from this that woman was created from man by a
          transmission and replication of his distinctive wisdom, which is
          formed from natural truth, and that man’s love for this wisdom was
          transferred to woman so as to become married love; moreover, that
          the purpose of this was to replace love of self in man with love
          for his wife, who, from a nature innate in her, cannot help but
          turn the love of self in man to his love for her. I have been
          told, too, that this comes about as a result of the wife’s love,
          without either the man or the wife being conscious of it. It is
          because of this that no one is ever able to love his partner with
          a true married love so long as he is possessed of a conceit in his
          own intelligence from a love of self.

          [3] Once this secret of the creation of woman from man has been
          understood, it can be seen that in marriage a woman is similarly
          created or formed, so to speak, from her husband, and that this
          transformation is brought about by the wife – or rather, through
          the wife by the Lord, who infuses into women the inclination to
          achieve it. For a wife receives into her an image of her husband
          by assimilating his affections into her (see above, no. 173);
          by uniting the internal will of her husband with hers (concerning
          which below); and also by incorporating into her the propagations
          of his soul (of which also below).

          It is apparent from this that a woman is transformed into a
          wife according to the description in the book of creation
          understood in respect to its inner meaning, and that she is
          transformed through the qualities she takes from her husband and
          his “breast” and implants in herself.

      • (9) This transformation is accomplished by
        the wife in secret ways, which is what is meant by woman’s having
        been created while the man slept.

        • 194. [The wife does this in secret]
          194. (9) This transformation is accomplished by the wife in
          secret ways, which is what is meant by woman’s having been created
          while the man slept. We read in the book of creation that Jehovah
          God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam so that he slept, and that
          He then took one of the man’s ribs and fashioned it into a woman
          (Genesis 2:21,22). This sleep and the man’s sleeping symbolize a
          man’s complete ignorance that his wife is transformed and, so to
          speak, created from him. This is apparent from observations made
          in the preceding chapter, and also in this one, respecting wives’
          innate discretion and prudence not to divulge anything of their
          love, not even of their adopting their husband’s life’s affections
          and of their thus transfusing his wisdom into them. It is clear
          from what we presented before in nos. 166-168ff
          that a wife does this without her husband’s knowing and while he
          is, so to speak, asleep, thus that she does it in secret ways. We
          also showed in the same numbers that the prudence needed to
          accomplish it is instinctive in women from creation, thus from
          birth, for reasons that are necessary in building married love,
          friendship and trust, so that the two may have bliss in living
          together and happiness of life.

          In order that this may come about as it should, therefore, it
          was enjoined on man that he leave father and mother and cling to
          his wife(Genesis 2:24, Matthew 19:4,5). [2] The father and mother
          a man is to leave mean, in a spiritual sense, the inherent nature
          of his will and the inherent nature of his intellect (the inherent
          nature of a person’s will being to love itself, and the inherent
          nature of a person’s intellect being to love its own wisdom). And
          to cling means to commit himself to love of his wife. These two
          inherent natures are evil and deadly to a man if they remain in
          him, but the love arising from the two is turned into married love
          as a man clings to his wife, that is, as he acquires a love for
          her, as may be seen just above in no. 193, and
          elsewhere.

          (It can be amply demonstrated from passages elsewhere in the
          Word that to be asleep symbolically means to be unaware or
          oblivious; that father and mother symbolically mean the two
          inherent natures of a person, one of the will and one of the
          intellect; and that to cling symbolically means to commit oneself
          to love for something. But it would be out of place to do it
          here.)

      • (10) This transformation is accomplished by
        the wife by a union of her will with the inner will of her husband.

        • 195. [The wife unites with her husband’s
          inner will]

          195. (10) This transformation is accomplished by the wife by a
          union of her will with the inner will of her husband. It may be
          seen above in nos. 163-165 that a man has an
          intellectual wisdom and a moral wisdom, and that a wife unites
          herself with those qualities in her husband that have to do with
          his moral wisdom. Qualities that are matters of intellectual
          wisdom form a man’s understanding, and qualities that are matters
          of moral wisdom form his will. A wife unites herself with those
          qualities which form her husband’s will. (Whether one says that a
          wife unites herself, or that she unites her will, with the will of
          her husband, it amounts to the same thing, because a wife is born
          will-oriented, and therefore she does what she does in accord with
          her will.)

          We say that it is a union with her husband’s inner will,
          because a man’s will has its seat in his intellect, and the
          intellectual quality of man is the inmost quality in woman, in
          accordance with observations we have made before, in no. 32
          and several times since, regarding the formation of woman from
          man. Men also have an outward will, but this very frequently comes
          of pretense or concealment. A wife sees it, but she does not unite
          herself with it, except perhaps in a feigned or playful way.

      • (11) This to the end that the will of the
        one and the will of the other may become one will, and the two
        partners thus one person.

        • 196. [Two become one]
          196. (11) This to the end that the will of the one and the will
          of the other may become one will, and the two partners thus one
          person. This is the goal, for anyone who joins the will of another
          to himself also joins to himself the other’s intellect. Indeed,
          regarded in itself, the intellect is only a servant and agent of
          the will. The fact of this is clearly apparent from the way an
          affection arising from love impels the intellect to think as it
          bids. Every affection arising from love is a property of the will,
          for what a person loves, this he also wills.

          It follows from this that anyone who joins the will of another
          person to himself, joins to himself the whole person. That is why
          it is instinctive in a wife’s love to unite her husband’s will to
          her own, for in this way the wife becomes one who belongs to her
          husband, and the husband one who belongs to his wife. Thus the two
          become one person.

      • (12) This transformation is accomplished by
        the wife by an adoption of her husband’s affections.

        • 197. [Adopting her husband’s affections]
          197. (12) This transformation is accomplished by an adoption of
          the husband’s affections. This point goes along with the two
          preceding discussions, since affections are matters of the will.
          For affections are simply the offspring of love, and they form the
          will, molding it and composing it. In men, however, these
          affections reside in the intellect, whereas in women they reside
          in the will.

      • (13) This transformation is accomplished by
        the wife by her reception of the propagations of her husband’s soul
        with delight – a delight arising from her willing to be an
        embodiment of love for her husband’s wisdom.

        • 198. [Receiving her husband’s soul]
          198. (13) This transformation is accomplished by the wife by
          her reception of the propagations of her husband’s soul with
          delight – a delight arising from her willing to be an embodiment
          of love for her husband’s wisdom. Since this accords with points
          already explained before in nos. 172, 173,
          further explanation is omitted here.

          In wives, conjugal delights take their rise from no other
          source than their willing to be united with their husbands, as
          good is united with truth in a marriage of these on the plane of
          the spirit. We separately showed in its own chapter that married
          love descends from this marriage.[*1] It can be seen in
          consequence, as though in a mirror, that a wife joins her husband
          to her as good joins truth to it; also that a husband joins
          himself to his wife in return according to his reception of her
          love in him, as truth joins itself to good in return, according to
          its reception of good in it. Thus it can be seen that a wife’s
          love takes form through the wisdom of her husband, as good takes
          form through truth; for truth is what gives form to good.

          It is apparent from this as well, then, that conjugal delights
          in a wife come principally from her willing to be united with her
          husband, consequently from her willing to be an embodiment of love
          for her husband’s wisdom. For she then feels the delights of her
          warmth in the light of her husband, as explained under heading
          (4), nos. 188, 189.

          [*1] See “The Origin of married love from the Marriage
          between Good and Truth,” nos. 83ff.

      • (14) A maiden is thus transformed into a
        wife, and a youth into a husband.

        • 199. [Becoming a wife or husband]
          199. (14) A maiden is thus transformed into a wife, and a youth
          into a husband. This follows as a consequence from what we have
          already said in this and the previous chapter respecting the union
          of married partners into one flesh. A maiden turns or is turned
          into a wife because a wife has elements in her taken from her
          husband, thus elements acquired which did not exist in her before
          as an unmarried woman. A youth turns or is turned into a husband
          because a husband has elements in him taken from his wife, which
          heighten the capacity in him for receiving love and wisdom,
          elements which did not exist in him before as an unmarried man.
          However, this is the case with people who are in a state of true
          married love. Among them are some who feel as though they are a
          united person and virtually one flesh (as may be seen in the
          preceding chapter, no. 178).

          It is apparent from this that a maidenly state is transformed
          into a wifely one in women, and a youthful state into a husbandly
          one in men.

          [2] I was convinced of the fact of this from the following
          experience in the spiritual world:

          Some men said that the relationship a man has with a woman
          before marriage and the relationship he has with his wife after
          marriage are similar. When they heard this, their wives became
          very offended and said, “They are not at all alike! The
          difference is as the difference between fantasy and reality.”

          To this the men retorted, “Are you not women as before?”
          To which their wives responded with rising voice, “We are not
          “women” but wives! The love you feel is a fantasy love
          and not a real one; therefore you speak in fantasy terms.”

          The men then said, “If you are not “women,”
          still you are married women.” But they replied, “In the
          early days of marriage we were married women; now, however, we are
          wives.”

      • (15) In a marriage of one man with one wife,
        in which there is a true married love between them, the wife becomes
        more and more a wife, and the husband more and more a husband.

        • 200. [More and more a wife or husband]
          200. (15) In a marriage of one man with one wife, in which
          there is a true married love between them, the wife becomes more
          and more a wife, and the husband more and more a husband. It may
          be seen above in nos. 177, 178,
          that true married love joins two partners more and more into one
          person. So, because a wife becomes a wife by union with her
          husband and according to that union, likewise a husband a husband
          by union with his wife and according to it, and because true
          married love lasts to eternity, it follows that a wife becomes
          more and more a wife, and a husband more and more a husband.

          The fundamental reason for this is that in a marriage of true
          married love, each partner becomes more and more deeply human, for
          that love opens the deeper aspects of their minds, and as these
          are opened, a person becomes more and more human. To become more
          human is, on the part of a wife, to become more a wife; and on the
          part of a husband, to become more a husband.

          I have heard from angels that a wife becomes more and more a
          wife as her husband becomes more and more a husband; however, not
          so much the reverse. The reason, they said, is that a chaste wife
          rarely if ever fails to love her husband, but what fails is her
          being loved by her husband in return. They also said that this
          failure is attributable to a lack of elevation in his wisdom,
          which alone receives the love of a wife. (Respecting this wisdom,
          see nos. 130, 163-165.) But
          this they said in reference to marriages on earth.

      • (16) Their forms are also thus progressively
        perfected and ennobled from within.

        • 201. [Ennobled from within]
          201. (16) Their forms are also thus progressively perfected and
          ennobled from within. The human form is most perfect and most
          noble when by marriage two forms become one form, thus when the
          flesh of two becomes one flesh, in accordance with the story of
          their creation. The husband’s mind is then elevated into a higher
          light, and the wife’s mind into a higher warmth, and they then
          burgeon, blossom and bear fruit, like trees in springtime (as may
          be seen above in nos. 188, 189).

          We will see in the discussion that follows next that the
          ennobling of this form results in the birth of noble fruits –
          spiritual fruits in heaven, natural fruits on earth.

      • (17) The offspring born of couples who are
        in a state of true married love derive from their parents a conjugal
        connection between good and truth, from which they have an
        inclination and faculty, if a son, to perceive matters having do to
        with wisdom, if a daughter, to love the things that wisdom teaches.

          • 202. [Inclinations are inherited]
            202. (17) The offspring born of couples who are in a state of
            true married love derive from their parents a conjugal connection
            between good and truth, from which they have an inclination and
            faculty, if a son, to perceive matters having do to with wisdom,
            if a daughter, to love the things that wisdom teaches. Everyone
            knows from historical accounts in general and their own
            observations in particular that children inherit from their
            parents tendencies to the same kinds of things as had been
            connected with their parents’ love and mode of life. However, they
            do not inherit or have transmitted to them the parents’ actual
            affections or resulting modes of life, but only tendencies to
            these and also capacities for them (a point convincingly shown by
            some of the wise in the spiritual world, as reported in two
            narrative accounts presented above[*1]).

            [2] Evidence that descendants are drawn by hereditary
            inclinations into affections, thoughts, ways of speaking, and
            modes of life similar to those of their parents – if they do not
            break themselves of those inclinations – is clearly apparent from
            the Jewish nation today and its close similarity to that nation’s
            ancestors in Egypt, in the desert, in the land of Canaan, and at
            the time of the Lord. It is apparent, moreover, not only from the
            close similarity in their minds, but also in their faces. Who does
            not recognize a Jew by his looks?

            It is the same with other lines of descent. One may
            legitimately conclude from this that people are born with
            inclinations to similar things as their parents and that these
            inclinations are hereditary.

            However, to keep actual thoughts and deeds from ensuing, it is
            Divinely provided that corrupt inclinations may be rectified, and
            that a capacity for this is also implanted. Resulting from this
            capacity are an ability and power in people to mend their habits,
            under the direction of parents and teachers, and afterwards by
            themselves when they come into their own right and judgment.

            [*1] See nos. 132ff (esp. 133-134),
            and nos. 151[r]ff.

          • 203. [The conjugal connection]
            203. We say that offspring derive from their parents a conjugal
            connection between good and truth, because from creation a union
            of these two has been introduced into the soul of everyone; for
            this is the ingredient which flows into a human being from the
            Lord and causes his life to be human. However, this conjugal union
            passes from the soul into subsequent elements until it reaches the
            final constituents of the body, and as it passes, on one level or
            another it is changed by the person himself in many ways, and
            sometimes into the opposite, which we call the conjugal or
            connubial connection between evil and falsity. When this occurs,
            the mind is closed up from below, and sometimes is twisted around
            like a spiral coil into the opposite direction.

            Nevertheless, in some people the union is not closed up but
            remains partly open above, and in some cases all the way open. In
            either circumstance, this conjugal union is something from which
            offspring derive inclinations from their parents, a son in one way
            and a daughter in another. The conjugal union has this effect,
            because married love is the fundamental love of all loves (as we
            showed above in no. 65).

          • 204. [Positive inclinations in children]
            204. As said, the offspring born of people who are in a state
            of true married love inherit inclinations and faculties, if a son,
            to perceive matters having do to with wisdom, if a daughter, to
            love the things that wisdom teaches; and the reason is that from
            creation a conjugal union between good and truth has been
            implanted in the soul of everyone, and also from the soul in
            subsequent elements. Indeed, as we have shown before,[*1] this
            conjugal relationship fills the universe from the firsts to the
            lasts of it, from human beings all the way down to worms.
            Moreover, as we have also indicated previously,[*2] every person
            from creation has implanted in him a capacity to open the lower
            regions of his mind to the point of union with its higher ones,
            which are in the light and warmth of heaven.

            It is clear from this that offspring who are born of a marriage
            in which this has been the case, from birth inherit a greater
            ability and readiness to join good to truth and truth to good,
            thus to become wise, than others. Consequently they also inherit a
            greater ability and readiness to absorb matters that have to do
            with the church and heaven. That married love is tied together
            with these is something we have already demonstrated many times.

            This makes plainly evident to the sight of reason the purpose
            for which the Lord the Creator has provided and continues to
            provide marriages of true married love.

            [*1] See no. 92.

            [*2] See no. 188.

        • 205. [family by family]
          205. I have heard from angels that people who used to live in
          very ancient times, today in heaven continue to live household by
          household, family by family, and nation by nation, similarly to
          the way they had lived on earth, and that scarcely anyone is
          missing from any household. The reason, they said, is that true
          married love existed among them; and their children consequently
          inherited inclinations toward the conjugal connection between good
          and truth, into which they were easily introduced more and more
          deeply by their parents through their upbringing and education,
          and into which they were afterwards led by the Lord as though on
          their own when they came into their own right and judgment.

      • (18) This occurs because the soul of the
        offspring comes from its father, and its clothing from its mother.

        • 206. [Soul from father, clothing from mother]
          206. (18) This occurs because the soul of the offspring comes
          from its father, and its clothing from its mother. No one who is
          wise calls into question the idea that the soul comes from the
          father. Moreover, it is clearly visible in later generations which
          descend from fathers of families in a true line of descent, from
          their qualities of mind, and, in addition, from their facial
          features (these being images of the qualities of mind). Indeed,
          the father reappears, as though in effigy, if not in his children,
          nevertheless in his grandchildren and great-grandchildren. The
          reason is that the soul forms the inmost element in a person, and
          though this may be covered over in the immediate offspring, still
          it emerges and displays itself in generations after that.

          The fact that the soul comes from the father and the clothing
          from the mother may be illustrated by analogous parallels in the
          vegetable kingdom. Here the earth or ground is the common mother.
          It admits seeds into it as though in a womb, and clothes them.
          Indeed, in a way it conceives, carries, gives birth to and rears
          the seedlings, as a mother does her offspring from a father.


      • Some sages of olden times in Greece on
        occupations in heaven (no. 207).

        • 207. [Occupations in heaven]
          207. To this I will append two narrative accounts. Here is the
          first:

          Some time later[*1] I looked in the direction of the city
          Athenaeum, which I said something about in an earlier account,[*2]
          and I heard an unusual clamor. In the clamor I heard an element of
          laughter, in the laughter an element of displeasure, and in the
          displeasure an element of sorrow. However, the clamor was not
          therefore inharmonious, but harmonious, because the elements did
          not mix with each other, but one was contained within another. (In
          the spiritual world, one distinctly perceives the variety and
          combination of affections in a sound.)

          From a distance I asked, “What is the matter?”

          They then said, “A messenger came from the place where
          newcomers from the Christian world first appear, saying he had
          heard from three of them there that in the world they had come
          from, they had believed like everyone else that the blessed and
          happy after death would have complete rest from their labors, and
          that since positions of responsibility, occupations and
          employments are labors, they would have rest from these.

          “An emissary of ours has now brought these three here, and
          they are standing at the gate and waiting. A commotion broke out
          because of this, and after deliberating, the people have decided
          not to bring them into the Palladium on Parnassium hill, as they
          have done with visitors before, but to bring them into the great
          hall there, to disclose the news they have from the Christian
          world. Several delegates have been sent to formally usher them
          in.”

          [2] Since I was in the spirit – and since distances for spirits
          depend on the states of their affections, and I was then affected
          with a wish to see and hear these people – I found myself present
          there and saw them brought in and heard them speak.

          The people in the hall who were older or wiser sat towards the
          sides, with the rest in the middle, and in front of them was a
          raised dais. In formal procession through the middle of the hall,
          some of the younger people conducted the three newcomers and the
          messenger to it. Then, after waiting for silence, one of the older
          ones there greeted them and asked, “What news do you have
          from earth?”

          They said, “We have much that is new, but tell us, please,
          on what subject?”

          So the older man replied, “What news do you have from
          earth regarding our world and heaven?”

          They then answered, “When we first came into this world,
          we learned that here and in heaven there are positions of
          responsibility, ministries, occupations, business dealings,
          scholarly studies in every field of learning, and wonderful kinds
          of employment. Yet we had believed that upon our departure or
          passage from the natural world into this spiritual one, we would
          come into everlasting rest from our labors. What are occupations
          but labors?”

          [3] To this the older man replied, “Did you think that
          eternal rest from labors meant eternal idleness, in which you
          would continually sit around or lie about, breathing in auras of
          delight with your breast and drinking in outpourings of joy with
          your mouth?”

          Laughing gently at this, the three newcomers said that they had
          supposed something of the sort.

          At that they then received this response: “What do joys
          and delights and thus happiness have in common with idleness?
          Idleness causes the mind to collapse rather than expand, or the
          person to become deader rather than more alive.

          “Picture someone sitting around in a state of complete
          idleness, with hands hanging down, his eyes downcast or shut, and
          imagine that he is at the same time surrounded with an aura of
          rapture. Would drowsiness not seize both his head and his body,
          and the lively swelling of his face drop? With every fiber
          loosened, would he not finally begin to sway back and forth and
          eventually fall to the ground? What keeps the whole system of the
          body expanded and taut but an intentness of mind? And what
          produces an intentness of mind but responsibilities and
          employments, when these are undertaken with delight?

          “So, then, I will tell you some news from heaven, that
          they have there positions of responsibility, ministries, higher
          and lower courts of law, and also trades and employments.”

          [4] When the three newcomers heard that in heaven they have
          higher and lower courts of law, they began to say, “What is
          the purpose of these? Are not all in heaven inspired and led by
          God, and do they not all therefore know what is just and right?
          What need is there then for judges?”

          But the older man replied, “In this world we are
          instructed and taught what is good and true, also what is just and
          right, the same as in the natural world. Moreover, we learn these
          things not directly from God but indirectly through others. Every
          angel, too, like every man, thinks truth and does good as though
          of himself, and this is not pure but mixed in character, depending
          on the angel’s state. In addition, among angels also, some are
          simple and some wise, and the wise have to make judgments when the
          simple ones among them, owing to their simpleness or ignorance,
          are uncertain about what is just or deviate from it.

          “But,” he said to them, “since you are still
          newcomers in this world, follow me into our city, if you wish, and
          we will show you all.”

          [5] So they left the hall, with some of the older people
          accompanying them as well. And they went first to a great library,
          which had been divided into a number of smaller collections
          according to subject fields.

          The three newcomers were dumbfounded at seeing so many books,
          and they said, “You have books in this world too! Where do
          you get the parchment and paper? Where you get the pens and ink?”

          The older men said in reply, “We perceive that you
          believed in the previous world that because this world is
          spiritual, it would be barren. Moreover, that you believed this
          because you harbored an idea of spiritual existence that was
          abstracted from a material one, and anything abstracted from
          material existence seemed to you to be nothing, consequently as
          something barren. Yet we have a full array of everything here. It
          is just that everything here is essential in nature rather than
          material, and material objects take their origin from essential
          ones. Those of us who live here are spiritual beings because we
          are essential beings rather than material ones. So it is that
          everything found in the material world exists here in its perfect
          form, even books and manuscripts, and many other things.”

          When the three newcomers heard the term essential used, they
          thought it must be so, both because they saw the books that had
          been written, and because they had heard it said that material
          objects have their origin from essential forms.

          To convince them further with respect to this, the men took the
          newcomers down to the quarters of copyists who were making copies
          of drafts written by some of the wise people of the city; and when
          the newcomers looked at the manuscripts, they marveled at how neat
          and polished they were.

          [6] After this they escorted the newcomers to professional
          academies, gymnasia and colleges, also to places where their
          scholarly forums were held, some of which they called forums of
          the Daughters of Heliconeum, some forums of the Daughters of
          Parnassium, some forums of the Daughters of Athenaeum, and some
          forums of the Muses of the Spring.[*3] They said they gave them
          these names because daughters or maidens symbolize affections for
          various kinds of knowledge, and everyone’s intelligence depends on
          his affection for various kinds of knowledge. The forums so called
          were spiritual exercises and debates.

          Next they took the newcomers around the city to its directors
          and managers and their officials, and these in turn introduced
          them to marvelous works, which their craftsmen create in a
          spiritual manner.

          [7] After the newcomers had seen these things, the older man
          spoke with them again concerning eternal rest from labors, into
          which the blessed and happy come after death.

          “Eternal rest does not mean idleness,” he said,
          “because idleness affects the mind and consequently the whole
          body with listlessness, lethargy, insensibility and slumber, and
          these are conditions of deadness, not life, much less the eternal
          life experienced by angels of heaven. Eternal rest, therefore, is
          rest that dispels these states and vitalizes a person, and this
          must be something which rouses the mind. Thus it is some pursuit
          or employment by which the mind is awakened, animated, and
          afforded delight, which in turn depends on some useful service for
          the sake of which, in which, and towards which it is working. So
          it is that the whole of heaven is viewed by the Lord as a world of
          useful service, and each angel is an angel according to the
          service he renders. The pleasure in being useful carries him
          along, like a boat in a favoring current, bringing him into a
          state of eternal peace and the rest that comes with peace. This is
          what is meant by eternal rest from labors.

          “An angel’s vitality depends on an application of his mind
          to some pursuit for the sake of being useful, and confirmation of
          this is clearly seen from the fact that they each possess married
          love with its vigor, potency and delights in the measure that they
          are engaged in a pursuit of genuine use.”

          [8] When the three newcomers had been convinced that eternal
          rest does not mean idleness but the pleasure in some employment
          that is of use, some young women came with articles of needlework
          and sewing, works of their own hands, which they presented to
          them. Then, as these newly introduced spirits were departing, the
          young women sang a song whose angelic melody expressed an
          affection for employments of use and its accompanying
          satisfactions.

          [*1] I.e., some time after the occurrence related in no. 182.

          [*2] See no. 182; also nos. 151[r]-154[r].

          [*3] In reference to these names, cf., in previous accounts of
          this city, the topographical features mentioned in nos. 151[r]:1,
          182:1,2.

      • The golden rain and hall, where some wives
        spoke again on the subject of married love (no. 208).

        • 208. [Wives’ secrets]
          208. The second account:

          When I was once thinking about the secrets of married love that
          wives hide and keep to themselves, I again saw the golden rain
          that I mentioned before;[*1] and I remembered that it fell like
          mist upon a hall in the east, where three pictures of married love
          lived, that is, three married couples who loved each other
          tenderly. On seeing it, I hastened in that direction, as though
          bidden by the sweetness of my reflection on that love; and as I
          approached, the rain turned from gold to purple, then scarlet, and
          when I was almost there, it became opalescent like dew.

          I knocked and the door was opened. So I said to the attendant,
          “Convey to the husbands that one who was here before with an
          angel is present again, seeking permission to come in and speak
          with them.”

          When the attendant returned, he indicated the husbands’ assent
          and I entered. The three husbands and their wives were together in
          a courtyard, and they returned my greeting warmly.

          I then asked the wives whether the white dove had ever appeared
          at the window again. They said it had appeared that very day, and
          also had spread its wings. “We therefore anticipated your
          coming,” they said, “to entreat us to reveal one more
          secret of married love.”

          “But why do you say one,” I asked, “when I have
          come here to learn many more?”

          [2] “They are secrets,” they replied, “and some
          of them so transcend the wisdom of you men that the comprehension
          of your intellect cannot grasp them. You men vaunt yourselves over
          us on account of your wisdom, but we do not vaunt ourselves over
          you on account of ours – even though our wisdom is superior to
          yours because it enters into your inclinations and affections and
          sees, perceives and feels them.

          “You know nothing at all about the inclinations and
          affections of your love, and this despite the fact that it is
          because of them and in accordance with them that your intellect
          thinks, consequently that it is because of them and in accordance
          with them that you have your wisdom. Yet wives know these things
          in their husbands so well that they see them in their husbands’s
          faces and hear them in the intonations of the speech of their
          mouth – indeed so well that they feel them with the touch of their
          hands on their husbands’ breasts, arms and cheeks. But from a
          zealous love for your happiness and at the same time our own, we
          pretend as if we do not know these things, while at the same time
          moderating them so discreetly that whatever our husbands’ wish,
          pleasure or will, we accede to it by allowing and enduring it, and
          only redirecting it when possible, but never compelling.”

          [3] “How is it that you have this wisdom?” I asked.

          They replied, “It is implanted in us from creation and so
          from birth. Our husbands liken it to an instinct, but we say it
          comes of Divine providence, in order that men may be made happy
          through their wives. Our husbands have told us that it is the
          Lord’s will that the masculine sex act in freedom in accord with
          reason; and since a man’s freedom involves his inclinations and
          affections, therefore the Lord Himself moderates his freedom from
          within, and through his wife from without, and so forms the man
          and his wife together into an angel of heaven. Besides, if love is
          compelled, its fundamental nature changes and it becomes no longer
          the same love.

          “But we will explain it more frankly. We are moved to this
          – that is, to a discreet moderation of the inclinations and
          affections of our husbands, so discreet that it seems to them that
          they act in freedom in accord with their own reason – because we
          feel delight from their love, and we love nothing more than for
          them to feel delight from our feelings of delight. But if these
          feelings become matters of indifference in them, they also begin
          to fade in us.”

          [4] When they had said this, one of the wives went into her
          bedroom, and returning said, “My dove is still fluttering its
          wings – a sign that we may divulge more.”

          So they said, “We have observed changes in the
          inclinations and affections of men in a variety of cases. For
          instance, husbands are cold to their wives whenever they entertain
          vain thoughts against the Lord and the church. They are cold
          whenever they pride themselves because of their own intelligence.
          They are cold whenever they look upon other women with lust. They
          are cold whenever they are admonished by their wives on the
          subject of love. We could mention a number of other instances as
          well, including the fact that the coldness they feel varies in
          each case. We notice this from the withdrawal of feeling from
          their eyes, ears and body when their senses meet ours.

          “From these few illustrations you can see that we know
          better than men whether all is well with them or not. If they are
          cold to their wives, all is not well with them, but if they are
          warm to their wives it is. Wives are therefore continually turning
          over in their minds ways of inducing their men to be warm to them
          and not cold, and they do this with a keenness of perception
          incomprehensible to men.”

          [5] As they said this, we heard what seemed to be the sound of
          a dove moaning; and at that point the wives said, “That is a
          signal to us that although we are eager to divulge still deeper
          secrets, we may not. Perhaps you will expose to men the secrets
          you have heard.”

          “That is my intention,” I replied. “What harm
          will it do?”

          After conferring with each other about this, the wives then
          said, “Disclose them if you wish. We are not unacquainted
          with the power of persuasion possessed by wives. Indeed, they will
          say to their husbands, “The man is fooling. They are
          fictions. He is trying to amuse with appearances and the usual
          nonsense typical of men. Do not believe him; believe us. We know
          that you are the lovers and we your humble servants.”

          “So,” they said, “disclose them if you wish; but
          the husbands’ attention will not hang on your lips, but on the
          lips of their wives which they kiss.”

          [*1] See no. 155[r].

    • 209. UNIVERSAL MATTERS RELATING TO MARRIAGES
        • 209. [UNIVERSAL MATTERS]
          There are very many points in regard to marriage which, if
          presented in detail, would swell this book into an immense volume.
          For we could present a detailed treatment of various particulars
          relating to similarities and dissimilarities between partners; to
          the elevation of natural married love into spiritual married love,
          and the conjunction of the two; to the gradual growth of the one
          and the gradual decline of the other; to the varieties and
          diversities in each; to the intelligence in wives; to the universal
          conjugal atmosphere emanating from heaven, and the one opposite to
          it from hell; to the way these flow in and are received; and many
          other topics besides, which, if they were set out point by point,
          would expand this work into so large a tome it would weary the
          reader.

          For this reason, and to avoid useless prolixities, we
          consolidate these items into this chapter on “Universal
          Matters Relating to Marriages.” As in previous chapters,
          however, we will divide them into discussions under their own
          headings, as follows:

          (1) The special sense of married love is the sense of touch.

          (2) In the case of people who are in a state of true married
          love, their capacity for growing wise increases, but with those who
          are not in a state of married love, it decreases.

          (3) In the case of people who are in a state of true married
          love, their happiness in living together increases, but with those
          who are not in a state of married love, it decreases.

          (4) In the case of people who are in a state of true married
          love, their union of minds increases, and with it, their
          friendship, but with those who are not in a state of married love,
          these both decrease.

          (5) People who are in a state of true married love continually
          wish to be one person, but those who are not in a state of married
          love want to be two separate individuals.

          (6) People who are in a state of true married love look to
          eternity in their marriage, while the opposite is the case with
          those who are not in a state of married love.

          (7) Married love has its seat in chaste wives, but still their
          love depends on their husbands.

          (8) Wives love the bonds of marriage, provided that their
          husbands love them too.

          (9) The intelligence of women is by nature modest, gracious,
          peaceable, compliant, soft and gentle, whereas the intelligence of
          men is by nature critical, rough, resistant, argumentative, and
          given to intemperance.

          (10) Wives do not experience a state of arousal as their
          husbands do, but theirs is a state of readiness to receive.

          (11) The sexual abundance men have is according to their love of
          propagating the truths of their wisdom and according to their love
          of performing useful services.

          (12) Determinations to intercourse are at the good pleasure of
          the husband.

          (13) There is a conjugal atmosphere which flows in from the Lord
          through heaven into each and every thing of the universe, extending
          even to its lowest forms.

          (14) This atmosphere is received by the female sex and
          communicated through it to the male sex, and not the other way
          around.

          (15) Where a true married love exists, this atmosphere is
          received by the wife, and by the husband solely through his wife.

          (16) Where the love is not married love, this atmosphere is
          indeed received by the wife, but not by the husband through her.

          (17) True married love can be present in one of the partners and
          not at the same time in the other.

          (18) Married partners bring with them [various similarities
          and][*1] various dissimilarities, both internal and external.

          (19) Various similar qualities can be joined together, but not
          with dissimilar ones.

          (20) For people who desire true married love, the Lord provides
          a similar partner, and if one is not found on earth, He provides
          one in heaven.

          (21) To the degree that a person’s married love wanes and is
          lost, his character approaches that of an animal.

          Explanation of these statements now follows.

          [*1] See no. 227 below.

      • (1) The special sense of married love is the
        sense of touch.

        • 210. [The sense of touch]
          210. (1) The special sense of married love is the sense of
          touch. Every love has its own special sense. The love of seeing,
          arising from a love of understanding, has the sense of sight; and
          the things that give it pleasure are symmetries and qualities of
          beauty. The love of hearing, arising from a love of listening and
          complying, has the sense of hearing; and the things that give it
          pleasure are harmonies. The love of identifying odors floating
          about in the air, arising from a love of perceiving, has the sense
          of smell; and the things that give it pleasure are fragrances. The
          love of nourishing oneself, arising from a love of filling oneself
          with good qualities and truths, has the sense of taste; and the
          things that give it pleasure are fine foods. The love of
          identifying objects, arising from a love of looking out and
          protecting oneself, has the sense of touch; and the things that
          give it pleasure are sensations that tickle and tingle.

          The love of joining oneself with one’s partner, arising from a
          love of uniting goodness and truth, also has the sense of touch,
          and that is because this sense is the common one of all the senses
          and so draws contributions from the rest. People know that this
          love brings all the aforementioned senses into confederation with
          it and appropriates their pleasures to itself.

          The fact that the sense of touch is dedicated to married love
          and is special to it is apparent from its every sport, and from
          the exaltation of its subtle sensations to the most highly
          exquisite. But to extend this discussion further is left to
          lovers.

      • (2) In the case of people who are in a state
        of true married love, their capacity for growing wise increases, but
        with those who are not in a state of married love, it decreases.

          • 211. [Wisdom increases]
            211. (2) In the case of people who are in a state of true
            married love, their capacity for growing wise increases, but with
            those who are not in a state of married love, it decreases. A
            capacity for growing wise increases with those who are in a state
            of true married love, because it is as a result of wisdom and in
            accordance with it that this love exists in married couples, as we
            have shown and fully demonstrated in preceding chapters. It also
            increases because the special sense of this love is the sense of
            touch, and since this sense has something in common with all the
            senses, and is moreover full of delights, it therefore opens the
            inner perceptions of their minds as it opens the inner perceptions
            of their senses and together with these the organic substances of
            the whole body.

            It follows from this that people who are possessed of this love
            love nothing better than to become wise. For a person becomes wise
            as the inner perceptions of his mind are opened, because by their
            opening the thoughts of his understanding are raised into a higher
            light and the affections of his will into a higher warmth – the
            higher light being wisdom, and the higher warmth a love for
            wisdom. Spiritual delights joined to natural delights – as is the
            case in people in a state of true married love – bring about an
            amenability to and therefore a capacity for becoming wise.

            Because of this, angels possess married love in accordance with
            their wisdom, and increases in that love and its accompanying
            delights come about as a result of increases in their wisdom.
            Because of this, too, the spiritual offspring which are born of
            their marriages are, from the father, such things as have to with
            wisdom, and, from the mother, such things as have to do with love;
            and they love these offspring with a spiritual storg [*1] (the
            natural affection of parents for their offspring). This latter
            love attaches itself to their married love and continually
            elevates it, and at the same time unites the partners.

            [*1] From the Greek storg, pronounced stor”gee (like
            psyche), in use in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries to mean
            natural or instinctive affection, usually that of parents for
            their offspring, but no longer current.

        • 212. [Insanity increases]
          212. The opposite happens in the case of people who are not in
          any state of married love owing to a lack of any love of wisdom in
          them. People like this do not enter into marriages except with the
          purpose of indulging their lascivious lusts, and this purpose has
          in it a love of thinking insanely. For every purpose regarded in
          its essence is love, and lasciviousness in its spiritual origin is
          a form of insanity. By insanity we mean a derangement of the mind
          resulting from falsities, and the derangement is pronounced when
          it is a derangement of mind resulting from falsifications of
          truths, even to the point that the falsifications are believed to
          be matters of wisdom.

          Clear confirmation and proof that people like this are opposed
          to married love appears in the spiritual world. There, at the
          first scent of married love, they flee into caverns and shut the
          doors; and if these are opened, they go insane like madmen in the
          world.

      • (3) In the case of people who are in a state
        of true married love, their happiness in living together increases,
        but with those who are not in a state of married love, it decreases.

        • 213. [Happiness increases]
          213. (3) In the case of people who are in a state of true
          married love, their happiness in living together increases, but
          with those who are not in a state of married love, it decreases.
          Their happiness in living together increases in the case of those
          who are in a state of true married love, because they love each
          other with their every power of sensation. The wife sees nothing
          more lovable than her husband, and the husband nothing more
          lovable than her. Indeed, neither do they hear, smell or touch
          anything more lovable than each other. From this comes their
          happiness in living together and sharing house, bedroom, and bed.

          You who are married men can confirm for yourselves that this is
          so from the first delights of marriage, which are then felt in
          their fullness; because at that time, of all the opposite sex, a
          husband loves his wife alone.

          Everyone knows that the reverse is the case with those who do
          not possess any married love.

      • (4) In the case of people who are in a state
        of true married love, their union of minds increases, and with it,
        their friendship, but with those who are not in a state of married
        love, these both decrease.

        • 214. [Unity increases]
          214. (4) In the case of people who are in a state of true
          married love, their union of minds increases, and with it, their
          friendship, but with those who are not in a state of married love,
          these both decrease. We have already shown that a union of minds
          increases in the case of those who are in a state of true married
          love, in the chapter in which we took up “The Conjunction of
          Souls and Minds by Marriage, Meant by the Lord’s Saying that They
          are No Longer Two But One Flesh” (see nos. 156[r]-181).
          [2] This union grows, moreover, as friendship is joined to love,
          because friendship is, so to speak, the face of that love and also
          its garment; for friendship both attaches itself to love like a
          garment and combines itself with it like a face.

          Love prior to friendship is similar to love for any of the
          opposite sex, and after the wedding it gradually fades. But love
          combined with friendship continues on after the wedding and is
          also strengthened. It enters as well more deeply into the breast.
          Friendship introduces the love and causes it to be truly married;
          and then the love in turn causes this, its friendship, to become
          also married – a friendship which differs greatly from that of any
          other love, because it is a full one.

          [3] People know that the opposite happens in the case of those
          who do not have married love. In their case the first friendship
          that was inspired in them at the time of their betrothal and later
          during the first days after their wedding, more and more ebbs from
          the inner recesses of their minds and gradually subsides from
          there until it finally departs to the surface coverings of the
          skin. And in the case of those who contemplate separation, it
          entirely disappears. With those who do not contemplate separation,
          however, love remains in outward appearances, but inwardly it is
          cold.

      • (5) People who are in a state of true
        married love continually wish to be one person, but those who are
        not in a state of married love want to be two separate individuals.

        • 215. [They wish to be one]
          215. (5) People who are in a state of true married love
          continually wish to be one person, but those who are not in a
          state of married love want to be two separate individuals. Married
          love in its essence is nothing else but the wish of two to be one,
          or, in other words, a will on their part that their two lives
          become one life. To carry out that will is the constant endeavor
          of this love, and all that it does flows from it. It has been
          established from the investigations of philosophers, and it is
          also evident to people of educated reason who reflect, that effort
          is the very essence of motion, and that will in the human being is
          a living effort. It follows from this that people who are in a
          state of true married love continually have within them an effort,
          or will, to be one person.

          That the opposite is the case with those who are not in a state
          of married love, they themselves very well know. For they
          constantly think of themselves as two separate individuals, owing
          to a lack of union between their souls and minds, and they
          therefore do not see what is meant by the Lord’s words, that “they
          are no longer two but one flesh” (Matthew 19:6).

      • (6) People who are in a state of true
        married love look to eternity in their marriage, while the opposite
        is the case with those who are not in a state of married love.

        • 216. [They look to eternity]
          216. (6) People who are in a state of true married love look to
          eternity in their marriage, while the opposite is the case with
          those who are not in a state of married love. People who are in a
          state of true married love look to eternity in their marriage
          because eternity is inherent in this love. Its eternity is owing
          to the fact that this love in the wife and wisdom in the husband
          grow to eternity, and as these grow or progress, the partners
          enter more and more deeply into the blessings of heaven –
          blessings which their wisdom and love of wisdom at the same time
          carry concealed within them. If one were to snatch away an idea of
          eternity, therefore, or if by some chance it should slip from
          their minds, it would be as though they were cast down from
          heaven.

          [2] What the state of married partners in heaven is like when
          thought of eternity leaves their minds and an idea of marriage as
          something temporary occurs instead, for me came to light from the
          following experience:

          A married couple from heaven was once granted permission to be
          with me, and some clever-talking scoundrel then managed to take
          away their thought of eternity in regard to marriage. On being
          deprived of this thought they began to lament, saying that they
          could not go on living and that they felt a sense of distress as
          never before. When their fellow angels in heaven perceived this,
          the scoundrel was sent away and cast down. As soon as this
          happened, immediately their thought of eternity returned to them,
          and rejoicing with a heartfelt joy on account of it, they tenderly
          embraced each other.

          [3] On another occasion I listened to two partners who one
          moment entertained a thought of eternity in respect to their
          marriage, and the next moment a thought of it as something
          temporary. The reason was that an internal dissimilarity existed
          between them. As long as they had the thought of eternity, they
          were happy together; but when they began to think of their
          marriage as something temporary, they said it was no longer a
          marriage – the wife declaring that she was no longer a wife but a
          mistress, and the husband that he was no longer a husband but a
          lecher. When their internal dissimilarity was revealed to them,
          therefore, the man left the woman and the woman left the man.
          Afterwards, however, because they each had an idea of eternity in
          respect to marriage, they were matched with partners of a
          character similar to their own.

          [4] From these observations it can be clearly seen that
          partners who are in a state of true married love look to eternity,
          and that if this idea slips from the inmost recesses of their
          thought, they are estranged from each other in respect to married
          love, however much they may not be estranged at the same time in
          respect to friendship. For friendship has its abode in outward
          ties, while married love has its abode in inward ones.

          It is the same in the case of marriages on earth. When married
          partners there love each other tenderly, they think of eternity in
          regard to the marriage covenant, and not at all of its being
          terminated by death. Or if they do think about this, they grieve,
          until strengthened again with hope by the thought of its
          continuing in the life to come.

      • (7) Married love has its seat in chaste
        wives, but still their love depends on their husbands.

        • 216r. [Love is in wives
          but depends on husbands]

          216r. [repeated] (7) Married love has its seat in chaste wives,
          but their love depends on their husbands. The reason is that wives
          are born forms of love, and it is therefore innate in them to wish
          to be one with their husbands. They also continue to feed their
          love with this thought of their will. Consequently to turn away
          from their effort to unite themselves with their husbands would be
          to turn away from their very natures.

          It is different with husbands. Because they are not born forms
          of love, but are receivers of that love from their wives,
          therefore to the degree that they receive it, to that degree their
          wives enter into them with their love. But to the degree they do
          not receive it, their wives stand outside with their love and
          wait.

          This is what happens, however, in the case of chaste wives. It
          is otherwise in the case of unchaste ones.

          It follows from this that married love has its seat in chaste
          wives, but that their love depends on their husbands.

      • (8) Wives love the bonds of marriage,
        provided that their husbands love them too.

        • 217. [Wives love marriage if husbands do]
          217. (8) Wives love the bonds of marriage, provided that their
          husbands love them too. This follows from what was said under the
          preceding heading. We add here the further observation that, from
          their inborn nature, wives wish to be wives and to be called
          wives. To them it is a title of respectability and honor.
          Consequently they love the bonds of marriage. Moreover, since
          chaste wives wish to be wives not just in name but in fact, and
          because this is achieved by a closer and closer tie with their
          husbands, they therefore love the bonds of marriage from the time
          its covenant is established, and this the more as they are loved
          in return by their husbands, or in other words, the more their
          husbands love these bonds.

      • (9) The intelligence of women is by nature
        modest, gracious, peaceable, compliant, soft and gentle, whereas the
        intelligence of men is by nature critical, rough, resistant,
        argumentative, and given to intemperance.

        • 218. [Intelligence of women and men]
          218. (9) The intelligence of women is by nature modest,
          gracious, peaceable, compliant, soft and gentle, while the
          intelligence of men is by nature critical, rough, resistant,
          argumentative, and given to intemperance. Evidence that this is
          the nature of women and the nature of men is clearly apparent from
          the body, face, tone of voice, speech, bearing and behavior of
          each sex.

          With respect to the body, men are firm in skin and flesh, while
          women are soft. With respect to the face, men’s are harder, more
          defiant, rougher, darker in color, also whiskered, thus less
          beautiful, whereas women’s are softer, more compliant, gentler,
          lighter in color, and so pictures of beauty. With respect to tone
          of voice, men have a stern one, while women have a gentle one.
          With respect to their speech, men’s is given to intemperance and
          argumentativeness, while women’s is modest and peaceable. With
          respect to their bearing, men’s is bolder and more forceful,
          whereas women’s is meeker and more delicate. With respect to their
          behavior, men’s is more unruly, while women’s is more civilized.

          [2] The nature of men and the nature of women are different
          even from the time they are born, and it became clearly apparent
          to me how much they differ from seeing boys and girls together in
          groups. Several times in a great city I looked through my window
          and saw gatherings of them on the street, where over twenty of
          them would congregate every day. There the boys would play
          together in accordance with the temperament inborn in them –
          raising a commotion, shouting, fighting, striking blows, throwing
          stones at each other. In contrast, the girls would sit peacefully
          at the doors of the houses, some playing with little children,
          some dressing dolls, some sewing on bits of linen, some giving
          each other kisses. And yet I was surprised to see that they
          regarded the boys the way they were with friendly eyes.

          From this I could clearly see that a man is born a form of the
          intellect, and a woman a form of love. I could also see what the
          nature of the intellect is and what the nature of love is in their
          beginnings, and thus what a man’s intellect in its development
          would be like without conjunction with feminine love and
          eventually married love.

      • (10) Wives do not experience a state of
        arousal as their husbands do, but theirs is a state of readiness to
        receive.

        • 219. [Women do not get aroused]
          219. (10) Wives do not experience a state of arousal as their
          husbands do, but theirs is a state of readiness to receive. It is
          apparent that men have the power of insemination and because of it
          experience a state of arousal, and that women do not experience
          this arousal because they do not have that power. Nevertheless, I
          can relate from what I have been told that women experience a
          state of readiness to receive and thus to conceive. I am not
          permitted, however, to describe what this state in women is like,
          and it is also something known only to them. Nor have they
          divulged whether their love feels its delight when they are in
          that state or whether they find it something distasteful, as some
          of them say. This only is commonly known, that a husband may not
          say to his wife that he has the ability but does not want to; for
          this injures considerably her state of reception, which becomes
          ready in the measure that her husband is able.

      • (11) The sexual abundance men have is
        according to their love of propagating the truths of their wisdom
        and according to their love of performing useful services.

        • 220. [Potency according to love of wisdom and
          use]

          220. (11) The sexual abundance men have is according to their
          love of propagating the truths of their wisdom and according to
          their love of performing useful services. That this is the case is
          one of the secrets known to people of ancient times and which
          today have been lost. In ancient times people knew that each and
          every activity that takes place in the body does so from a
          spiritual origin. They knew, for example, that actions flow from
          the will, which in itself is spiritual; that speech flows from
          thought, which likewise is spiritual; also that natural sight
          results from spiritual sight, which is one of the intellect; that
          natural hearing results from spiritual hearing, which is an
          attention of the intellect and at the same time a conformity of
          the will; and that the natural sense of smell results from a
          spiritual one, which is perception; and so on.

          In similar manner the ancients saw that a man’s power of
          insemination stems from a spiritual origin; and from many
          evidences of both reason and experience they concluded that it
          results from the truths of which the intellect consists. Moreover,
          they said that from the spiritual marriage that exists between
          goodness and truth, which flows into each and every thing in the
          universe, nothing else is received by members of the male sex but
          truth and what relates to truth; and that this, in its descent
          into the body, is formed into seed or sperm (which is why seeds,
          spiritually interpreted, mean truths).

          [2] Regarding the process, they said that the male soul, being
          intellectual in nature, is therefore truth; for anything
          intellectual in nature is nothing else. Consequently as the soul
          descends, truth also descends. This is so, they said, because the
          soul is the inmost element in man and in every animal, and in its
          essence is spiritual; and from an inherent effort towards its
          propagation, in its descent it seeks and endeavors to reproduce
          itself. Then, when this happens, the whole soul forms itself and
          clothes itself and becomes seed or sperm. Moreover, this can take
          place thousands and thousands of times, they said, because the
          soul is a spiritual essence, which does not have dimension but
          repleteness, and from which there is no taking away a part, but
          instead a reproducing of the whole without any loss to it. As a
          result, the soul is as fully present in its tiniest vessels, which
          are the seeds or sperm, as it is in its largest one, which is the
          body.

          [3] So then, since truth in the soul is the origin of the seed
          or sperm, it follows that the sexual abundance men have is
          according to their love of propagating the truths of their wisdom.
          It is also according to their love of performing useful services,
          because useful services are the good effects which truths produce.
          Some people know in the world as well that the diligent have an
          abundance, and not the lazy.

          I once asked how something female can be generated from the
          soul of a man. The answer I received was that it originates from
          good in the intellect, because this in its essence is truth; for
          the intellect can think that something is good, thus thinking as
          true that this something is good. It is different with the will.
          This does not think about goodness and truth but loves them and
          does them. Therefore, in the Word, sons symbolize truths, and
          daughters, qualities of goodness (as may be seen above in no.
          120); and when seed is mentioned in the Word,
          it symbolizes truth (as may be seen in The Apocalypse Revealed,
          no. 565).

      • (12) Determinations to intercourse are at
        the good pleasure of the husband.

        • 221. [Husbands determine when]
          221. (12) Determinations to intercourse are at the good
          pleasure of the husband. The reason is that the sexual abundance
          referred to above is something that lies with men, and this varies
          in them in accordance with both their state of mind and the
          condition of their body. For the intellect is not as constant in
          its thoughts as the will is in its affections. Indeed, it is
          carried upward one moment and downward the next, being sometimes
          in a state of serenity and clarity, sometimes in a state of
          turmoil and confusion, at times engaged in pleasant subjects, at
          other times caught up in unpleasant ones. And because the mind in
          its workings is at the same time in the body, it follows that the
          body undergoes similar states. As a result, the husband sometimes
          draws away from married love, sometimes toward it, and in the one
          state the abundance he has is withdrawn and in the other state
          restored.

          For these reasons, determinations to intercourse must be left
          to the good pleasure of the husband. That is why wives, from the
          wisdom innate in them, never admonish their husbands in regard to
          these matters.

      • (13) There is a conjugal atmosphere which
        flows in from the Lord through heaven into each and every thing of
        the universe, extending even to its lowest forms.

        • 222. [The conjugal atmosphere]
          222. (13) There is a conjugal atmosphere which flows in from
          the Lord through heaven into each and every thing of the universe,
          extending even to its lowest forms. We showed above in its own
          chapter[*1] that love and wisdom, or to say the same thing, good
          and truth, emanate from the Lord. A marriage of these two elements
          continually emanates from the Lord, because they are Him, and from
          Him come all things. Moreover, whatever emanates from Him fills
          the universe; for without this, nothing that came into existence
          would continue to exist.

          [2] There are several atmospheres which emanate from the Lord.
          For example, an atmosphere of conservation for conserving the
          created universe; an atmosphere of protection for protecting good
          and truth against evil and falsity; an atmosphere of reformation
          and regeneration; an atmosphere of innocence and peace; an
          atmosphere of mercy and grace; besides others. But the universal
          one of all is a conjugal atmosphere, because it is at the same
          time an atmosphere of propagation and is thus the supreme
          atmosphere in conserving the created universe by successive
          generations.

          [3] This conjugal atmosphere fills the universe and pervades it
          from the firsts to the lasts of it. That this is so is apparent
          from observations made above,[*2] where we showed that there are
          marriages in heaven, and most perfect marriages in the third or
          highest heaven; also, that besides being in human beings, this
          atmosphere exists in all members of the animal kingdom on earth,
          extending even to worms, and furthermore in all members of the
          vegetable kingdom, from olive trees and palms to the smallest
          grasses.

          [4] This atmosphere is more universal than that of the heat and
          light which emanate from the sun of our world; and reason can be
          convinced of this from the fact that the conjugal atmosphere
          operates even when the sun’s warmth is absent, such as in winter,
          and when the sun’s light is absent, such as at night. Especially
          is this so in the case of human beings. It continues to operate
          because it originates from the sun of the angelic heaven, and that
          sun produces a constant balance of heat and light, that is, a
          constant union of good and truth. For heaven is in a state of
          perpetual spring. Variations in goodness and truth in heaven or in
          its warmth and light do not result from changes of the sun, as
          changes on earth do from variations in the heat and light coming
          from the sun there; but they occur as a result of the way
          recipient vessels receive them.

          [*1] I.e., “The Origin of married love from the Marriage
          between Good and Truth,” nos. 83ff. See
          also no. 60.

          [*2] See, for example, the chapter, “Marriages in Heaven,”
          nos. 27ff, including no. 42;
          also nos. 92, 183, 204.

      • (14) This atmosphere is received by the
        female sex and communicated through it to the male sex, and not the
        other way around.

        • 223. [Received through women]
          223. (14) This atmosphere is received by the female sex and
          communicated through it to the male sex. The male sex does not
          have any married love inherent in it, but married love is inherent
          only in the female sex and is transmitted to the male sex from it.
          This is something I have seen attested from an experience I had,
          related above in no. 161. It is supported also
          by the following argument, that the masculine form is an
          intellect-oriented one and the feminine form a will-oriented one;
          and an intellect-oriented form does not have the capacity to
          develop a marital warmth on its own, but can do so only from the
          associated warmth of another in whom this has been implanted from
          creation. Consequently the masculine form cannot receive married
          love except by having adjoined to it the will-oriented form of a
          woman, because this is at the same time a form of love.

          [2] The same point could be further confirmed from the marriage
          between good and truth, and, to the natural man, from the marriage
          between the heart and the lungs, because the heart corresponds to
          love and the lungs to the intellect. However, because most people
          are without knowledge of these, any confirmation on the basis of
          them would do more to obscure than enlighten.

          The communication of this atmosphere from the female sex to the
          male sex is what causes the masculine mind to be set on fire even
          at just the thought of the opposite sex. It follows that it is
          also what causes the formation of the procreative powers in him
          and thus his state of arousal. For unless warmth is added to light
          on earth, nothing flourishes or is aroused to produce any fruit
          there.

      • (15) Where a true married love exists, this
        atmosphere is received by the wife, and by the husband solely
        through his wife.

        • 224. [In true marriage, through the wife]
          224. (15) Where a true married love exists, this atmosphere is
          received by the wife, and by the husband solely through his wife.
          It is a secret unknown today that in the case of people who are in
          a state of true married love, this atmosphere is received by the
          husband solely through his wife. And yet it is not really a
          secret, because it is possible for a man about to be married or
          just recently married to be aware of it. Is he not then affected
          with a marital warmth by whatever emanates from his fiancé
          or new bride, and not at that time by anything emanating from
          others of her sex?

          It is the same with people who live together in a state of true
          married love. Moreover, because everyone has an atmosphere of life
          surrounding him, both man and woman, heavily around the breast and
          lightly around the back, it is apparent why husbands who really
          love their wives turn towards them and daily look upon them with
          kindly countenance, and conversely, why those who do not love
          their wives turn away from them and daily regard them with averted
          gaze.

          A husband’s receiving the conjugal atmosphere solely through
          his wife is the mark by which true married love is recognized and
          differentiated from married love that is illusory, feigned, or
          cold.

      • (16) Where the love is not married love,
        this atmosphere is indeed received by the wife, but not by the
        husband through her.

        • 225. [Where there is not true love the
          husband looks elsewhere]

          225. (16) Where the love is not married love, this atmosphere
          is indeed received by the wife, but not by the husband through
          her. This conjugal atmosphere that flows into the universe is, in
          its origin, Divine. As it descends, it becomes, with angels in
          heaven, celestial and spiritual; with people, natural; with beasts
          and birds, animal; with worms, merely carnal; and in the case of
          plant forms, mechanical. In addition, in individual recipients it
          is also modified according to their particular forms.

          Now because this atmosphere is received directly by the female
          sex and indirectly by the male sex, and because it is received in
          accordance with particular forms, it follows that, although in its
          origin this atmosphere is holy, in its recipients it can be turned
          into an atmosphere that is not holy, even indeed into one that is
          opposite in character. The atmosphere opposite to it in such
          recipients is called wanton in the case of women and licentious in
          the case of men; and since men and women like that are in hell,
          that is the atmosphere that emanates from there. At the same time,
          that atmosphere also exhibits considerable diversity, and there
          are consequently many varieties of it. However, a man attracts and
          admits the type that accords with him and which is compatible with
          and matches the kind of person he is.

          It can be seen in consequence that a man who does not love his
          wife receives this atmosphere from some other source than his
          wife. Still, it is possible for it to be inspired by the wife as
          well, but without his knowledge, and at times when he feels warmer
          towards her.

      • (17) True married love can be present in one
        of the partners and not at the same time in the other.

        • 226. []
          226. (17) Married love can be present in one of the partners
          and not at the same time in the other. Married love can exist in
          one and not in the other, for one may fervently vow for himself a
          chaste marriage, while the other does not know what chastity is.
          One may love matters that have to do with the church, while the
          other loves only matters that have to do with the world. One may
          be with his mind in a state of heaven, while the other is with his
          mind in a state of hell.

          As a result, married love may exist on the part of one and not
          on the part of the other. Because their minds are turned in
          opposite directions, they inwardly collide; and if this is not the
          case outwardly, still the one who is not in a state of married
          love regards his companion by covenant as an insufferable old
          nuisance, and other like things.

      • (18) Married partners bring with them
        [various similarities and][*1] various dissimilarities, both
        internal and external.

        • 227. [Similarities and dissimilarities]
          227. (18) Married partners bring with them various similarities
          and various dissimilarities, both internal and external. People
          know that there are similarities between married partners and
          dissimilarities; also that the outward ones are discernible,
          whereas the inner ones do not appear except to the partners
          themselves after they have lived together for some time, and to
          others through certain indications. It is not worth the effort to
          enumerate these for a conception of them, however, as one can fill
          many pages recounting and describing their various types. Some
          instances of similarity may be inferred and deduced in part from
          the dissimilarities considered in the next chapter,[*1] on whose
          account married love passes away into coldness.

          Similarities and dissimilarities arise in general from people’s
          native inclinations, varied by their upbringing, associations, and
          acquired persuasions.

          [*1] See “Reasons in Marriage for Cold States, Separations
          and Divorces,” nos. 234ff.

      • (19) Various similar qualities can be joined
        together, but not with dissimilar ones.

        • 228. [Similarities can be joined]
          228. (19) Various similar qualities can be joined together, but
          not with dissimilar ones. Instances of similarities are many and
          various, and some of them are further apart, some less so. Yet
          even those that are further apart can in time be joined by various
          means, especially by a couple’s accommodations to one another’s
          wishes, by their performance of mutual duties, by their courteous
          treatment of each other, by their refraining from things unchaste,
          by their joint love of little children and care for their
          children; but above all, by their conformity in matters connected
          with the church. For through matters connected with the church a
          joining of distant similarities is achieved inwardly, and only
          outwardly through other means.

          No conjunction, however, can be achieved with dissimilar
          qualities, because they are incompatible.

      • (20) For people who desire true married
        love, the Lord provides a similar partner, and if one is not found
        on earth, He provides one in heaven.

        • 229. [The Lord provides a partner]
          229. (20) For people who desire true married love, the Lord
          provides similar partners, and if they are not found on earth, He
          provides them in heaven. This results from the fact that all
          marriages of true married love are provided by the Lord. They come
          from Him, as may be seen above in nos. 130,
          131. But how they are provided in heaven, I
          once heard described by angels as follows:[*1]

          The Lord’s Divine providence is most specific and most
          universal in connection with marriages and in its operation in
          marriages, because all delights of heaven flow from the delights
          of married love, like sweet waters from a gushing spring. It is
          therefore provided that marital pairs be born, and they are raised
          and continually prepared for their marriages under the Lord’s
          guidance, neither the boy nor the girl being aware of it. Then,
          after a period of time, the girl – now a marriageable young woman
          – and the boy – now a young man ready to marry – meet somewhere,
          as though by fate, and notice each other. And they immediately
          recognize, as if by a kind of instinct, that they are a match,
          thinking to themselves as from a kind of inner dictate, the young
          man, “she is mine,” and the young woman, “he is
          mine.” Later, after this thought has for some time become
          settled in the minds of each, they deliberately talk about it
          together and pledge themselves to each other in marriage.

          We say as though by fate, by instinct and as from a kind of
          dictate, when we mean by Divine providence, because when one is
          unaware that it is Divine providence, that is how it appears. For
          the Lord unveils their inner similarities so that they notice each
          other.

          [*1] See the narrative account in no. 316
          below, which includes the same statement in almost the same words
          (316:3).

      • (21) To the degree that a person’s married
        love wanes and is lost, his character approaches that of an animal.

        • 230. [Loss of married love makes one like an
          animal]

          230. (21) To the degree that a person’s married love wanes and
          is lost, his character approaches that of an animal. The reason is
          that the more a person is in a state of married love, the more
          spiritual he is; and the more spiritual he is, the more human he
          is. For human beings are born for life after death, and they
          attain it because of their having in them a spiritual soul, to
          which they can be elevated through the faculty of their intellect.
          If, by the power likewise granted to it, a person’s will is then
          elevated at the same time, after death the person lives the life
          of heaven.

          The reverse is the case if one is in a state of love contrary
          to married love. For the more a person is in a state like that,
          the more natural in character he is; and a person who is merely
          natural is like an animal in his lusts, appetites and resulting
          delights, the only difference being that he still has the power to
          elevate his intellect into the light of wisdom and also the power
          to elevate his will into the warmth of heavenly love. No one loses
          these faculties. As a consequence, even though a merely natural
          person is like an animal in his lusts, appetites and resulting
          delights, still he lives after death, though in a state
          corresponding to the kind of life he led before.

          It can be seen from this that to the degree a person’s married
          love wanes, his character approaches that of an animal. This seems
          to be something that could be disputed, since it is possible for
          married love to wane and be lost in people whose character is
          nevertheless still human. But we are referring to people in the
          grip of licentious love, who do not care about married love
          therefore and for that reason experience its failure and loss.


      • The judges swayed by partiality, who were
        the subject of the cry, “Oh, how just!” (no. 231).

        • 231. [False judges]
          231. To this I will append three narrative accounts. Here is
          the first:

          I once heard some clamorings from below, which sounded as
          though they were gurgling up through water. I heard one clamor to
          the left crying, “Oh, how just!” Another to the right
          crying, “Oh, how learned!” And a third one behind me
          crying, “Oh, how wise!” Then, because it struck me to
          wonder whether there are any just, learned or wise people in hell,
          I began to feel a wish to see if people of this sort might be
          found there; and it was told me from heaven, “You will both
          see and hear.”

          So I left home in the spirit, and I saw in the ground before me
          an opening. I went over to it and looked down, and behold, it had
          a stairway in it. I went down this stairway, and when I reached
          the bottom, I saw fields covered with bushes intermixed with
          thorns and nettles. When I asked whether I was in hell, the people
          said it was a lower earth just above hell.

          I then proceeded in the direction of each of the clamors in
          turn. Going first to the place where they were crying, “Oh,
          how just!” I saw a gathering of people who in the world had
          been judges swayed by partiality and gifts. Going next to the
          place where they were crying, “Oh, how learned!” I saw a
          gathering of people who in the world had been reasoners. And going
          third to the place where they were crying, “Oh, how wise!”
          I saw a gathering of people who in the world had been confirmers.

          [2] I turned back from these, however, to the first place,
          where the judges were who were swayed by partiality and gifts and
          who were proclaimed as just. There, over to one side, I saw a kind
          of amphitheater, built out of bricks and having a roof of black
          tiles; and I was told that they called it the Tribunal. It had
          three entrances opening into it on the north side, and three more
          on the west side, but none on the south or east sides – an
          indication that their judgments were not judgments having to do
          with justice but arbitrary rulings.

          Inside I saw in the middle of the amphitheater a fireplace,
          into which the keepers of the hearth were throwing torches covered
          with sulfur and pitch. Shafts of light flickered out from these on
          to the plastered walls and formed silhouetted images of birds of
          the evening and night. At the same time, this fireplace, and the
          shafts of light flickering out into silhouettes of these images,
          were representations of their judgments, reflecting their ability
          to illumine the issues in any case with colored hues and to shape
          them as they pleased.

          [3] After a half-hour had passed, I saw some older and younger
          men entering in gowns and robes; and laying aside their caps, they
          seated themselves at tables, ready to sit in judgment. I then
          heard and observed how skillfully and cleverly they avoided any
          appearance of favoritism, turning their judgments into semblances
          of justice, and this to the point that they themselves viewed
          injustice as nothing other than just, and justice, conversely, as
          unjust. Their persuasions in regard to these matters were apparent
          to the eye from their faces and discernible to the ear from their
          comments.

          I was given at that point enlightenment from heaven, which
          enabled me to perceive in each case whether the rulings were in
          accordance with the law or not; and I saw to what lengths they
          went to camouflage injustice and give it the guise of justice,
          picking out from the laws some one that might support them and
          drawing the rest to their side through clever reasonings.

          After rendering their judgments, the judges would have their
          verdicts conveyed out to their clients, friends and supporters;
          and to repay them for their favor, these would cry out for some
          distance along the road, “Oh, how just! Oh, how just!”

          [4] I afterwards spoke with angels of heaven about these events
          and told them some of the things I had seen and heard. The angels
          said to me that judges like that appear to others as though
          endowed with an exceptional keenness of understanding, when in
          fact they do not have the least inkling of what is just and fair.

          “If you take away their partiality for one side or the
          other,” they said, “they sit on their benches as mute as
          statues, saying only, I agree, I go along with this person or I go
          along with that person. That is because all their judgments are
          prejudgments, and their prejudgment pursues each case from
          beginning to end with a biased one-sidedness. Consequently they
          see only the side which involves a friend. Every point that is
          against him they move to the periphery; and if they take it up
          again, they entangle it in reasonings, as a spider does its prey
          in the threads of its web – and so destroy it.

          “That is why, if they do not follow the web of some
          prejudgment of theirs, they do not have any inkling of the law.
          They have been examined to see whether they might have some
          inkling of it, and it was found that they did not. The inhabitants
          of your world will be surprised that such is the case, but tell
          them it is a truth investigated by angels of heaven.

          “Since these judges lack any sight of justice,” they
          continued, “in heaven we view them as being not human but
          monsters, whose heads are shaped by elements of partisanship,
          their breasts by elements of injustice, and their feet by matters
          of confirmation – with only the soles of their feet being formed
          by matters of justice, which they step on and trample into the
          ground if these do not favor some friend of theirs.

          “However, you will see for yourself how they look to us
          from heaven, for their end is near.”

          [5] And lo, suddenly then the ground opened, so that tables
          after tables went tumbling down, and they and their whole
          amphitheater were swallowed up. And they were cast into caverns
          and made prisoners there.

          Then the angels said to me, “Would you like to see them
          now?”

          And behold, in respect to their faces they appeared as though
          made of burnished steel. In respect to their bodies from the neck
          to the loins they looked like figures carved out of stone, dressed
          in leopard skins. And in respect to their feet they looked like
          serpents. I also saw the lawbooks, which they had had lying on
          their tables, turned into playing cards. And now, instead of
          judging, they were given the task of processing pigments into
          cosmetics with which to paint the faces of harlots and so turn
          them into beauties.

          [6] After seeing this, I was ready to go on to the other two
          gatherings, to the one where the people were merely reasoners, and
          to the other where they were merely confirmers. But at that point
          the angels said to me, “Rest a while. You will be given
          angels from the society just above those places to accompany you.
          Through them you will receive light from the Lord, and you will
          see some astonishing sights.”

      • The reasoners who were the subject of the
        cry, “Oh, how learned!” (no. 232).

        • 232. [Reasoners]
          232. The second account:

          Some time later, I again heard from the land below the same
          cries as before, “Oh, how learned!” and “Oh, how
          wise!” So I looked around to see what angels were then
          present, and lo, they were angels who lived in the heaven just
          above the people who were crying out, “Oh, how learned!”
          I therefore spoke to them about the clamor, and the angels said
          that the people acclaimed as learned there were the sort who only
          reason about whether a thing is so or not and rarely think that it
          is.

          “Consequently they are like gusts of wind,” they
          said, “which blow and pass away, or like coverings of bark
          around trees which have no core, or like shells around almonds
          without a kernel, or like rinds around fruits without any flesh.
          For their minds lack any inner judgment and are connected only
          with their physical senses. If the senses themselves are
          inadequate to form a judgment, therefore, they can reach no
          conclusion. In a word, they are merely sense-oriented, and by us
          are called reasoners.

          “We call them reasoners because they never reach any
          conclusion. Instead they take up whatever they hear and argue
          about whether it is so, constantly contradicting themselves. They
          like nothing more than to attack actual truths and thus tear them
          apart by turning them into matters of dispute. They are the sort
          of people who think they are more learned than all others in the
          world.”

          [2] When I heard this, I asked the angels to take me down to
          them. So they took me to a cave which had steps leading down to a
          lower earth. We then descended and followed in the direction of
          the clamor “Oh, how learned!” And suddenly we saw
          several hundred people standing in the same place, trampling the
          soil with their feet. Being astonished by this at first, I asked
          why they were standing together like that and stamping away at the
          soil. “At that rate they may use their feet to make a hole in
          the ground,” I said.

          The angels chuckled at this and said, “They appear as
          standing there like that because on any subject they regard
          nothing as being so, but only consider whether it is and make it a
          matter of debate. So, since their thought goes no further, they
          appear only to tread and wear away the same patch of ground
          without making any progress.”

          At that point I then went over to the gathering; and behold,
          they seemed to me to be people of not unhandsome appearance and
          dressed in elegant clothing. But the angels said, “That is
          how they seem in their own light; but if light from heaven flows
          in, their appearance changes, and also their clothing.” This,
          too, actually happened; and then they appeared with dark faces,
          clothed in black sacks. However, when the light from heaven was
          taken away, they looked as they had before.

          Shortly afterwards I spoke with some of them and said, “I
          heard the clamor of the crowd around you, crying “Oh, how
          learned!” Allow me to explore with you, therefore, some
          discussion on subjects which are matters of the highest learning.”

          [3] To which they replied, “Name any subject you please
          and we will give you an answer.”

          So I asked, “What must the nature of a person’s religion
          for him to be saved by it?”

          In answer they said, “We need to divide this question into
          several parts, and we cannot give a reply before we come to a
          conclusion in regard to these. The first consideration must be
          whether there is anything to religion. Second, whether there is
          any salvation or not. Third, whether one religion is of any more
          avail than another. Fourth, whether there is a heaven and a hell.
          Fifth, whether there is any eternal life after death. And many
          other considerations besides.”

          So I asked about the first, whether there is anything to
          religion. And they began to discuss it, advancing a number of
          arguments over whether there is any religion, and whether there is
          anything to what is called religion.

          I then asked them to refer the question to the whole gathering,
          which they did. And the collective response was that the question
          as put required so much investigation that they could not resolve
          it by the end of the evening.

          “Could you resolve it in a year?” I asked.

          And one of them said it could not be resolved in a hundred
          years.

          “But meanwhile,” I said, “you are without
          religion.”

          To which he replied, “Do we not have to show first whether
          there is any religion, and whether there is anything to what is
          called religion? If there is, religion must exist for the wise as
          well. If not, it must exist only for the common people. We all
          know that religion is said to be a tie that binds, but the
          question is, for whom? If only for the common people, then in
          essence there is nothing in it. If for the wise as well, then
          there is something in it.”

          [4] On hearing this I said to them, “You are not learned
          at all, because you can only speculate about whether a thing is so
          without settling it either way. Who can become learned without
          knowing anything for certain, and without making any progress
          towards it in the way that any person progresses, step by step,
          and so gradually into wisdom? Otherwise you do not lay so much as
          a fingernail on truths but remove them further and further out of
          sight.

          “If you reason only about whether a thing is so, is that
          not like reasoning about the fit of a hat which is never tried on,
          or about the fit of a shoe which no one wears? What other
          consequence results but your not knowing whether anything is
          anything – including, indeed, whether there is any salvation,
          whether there is any eternal life after death, whether one
          religion is of any more avail than another, whether there is a
          heaven and a hell. You cannot have any thought about such things
          so long as you remain stuck at the first step and keep pounding
          away at the same piece of ground there without putting one foot in
          front of the other and moving forward.

          “You had better take care that while your minds are
          standing outside the temple of judgment like that, they do not
          harden within and turn into pillars of salt, and you become the
          companions of Lot’s wife.”

          [5] So saying I turned and went, and in anger they hurled
          stones after me. And at that point they appeared to me like
          figures carved out of stone, having nothing of human reason in
          them.

          I then asked the angels about their fate; and the angels said,
          “Their fate is to be let down into an abyss, and there into a
          wilderness, where they are forced to carry packs. Moreover,
          because they are then unable to utter anything from their reason,
          they prattle and talk nonsense; and from a distance there they
          look like donkeys bearing burdens.”

      • The confirmers who were the subject of the
        cry, “Oh, how wise!” (no. 233).

        • 233. [Confirmers]
          233. The third account:

          After this, one of the angels said, “Follow me to the
          place where they are crying out, “Oh, how wise!””
          And he added, “You will see human monstrosities. The faces
          and bodies you see will be like those of a human being, and yet
          they are not human.”

          So I said, “Are they animals, then?”

          The angel replied, “No, they are not animals, but
          animal-like. For they are people who cannot see at all whether
          truth is true or not, and yet whatever they wish they can make to
          be true. Among us, people like that are called confirmers.”

          We then followed the clamor and came to the place. And lo, we
          found a group of men surrounded by a crowd of people, and in the
          crowd some people of noble lineage. The men were confirming
          whatever the latter said and agreeing with them with such manifest
          accord that when they heard it, they turned to each other and
          said, “Oh, how wise!”

          [2] However, the angel said to me, “Let us not go over to
          them but instead call one of them out of the group.”

          So we called one of them to us, and going aside with him, we
          talked about various matters. And he confirmed each point so
          thoroughly that they all appeared entirely as true.

          We then asked him whether he could also confirm the converse of
          these. He said that he could, just as well as he did the previous
          ones. At which point he said openly and from the heart, “What
          is truth? Is there any truth in the nature of things other than
          what a person makes true? Say to me anything you please and I will
          make it to be true.”

          So I said, “Make this true, that faith is everything in
          the church.” And he did so, so cleverly and skillfully that
          some learned bystanders looked on in admiration and applauded. I
          asked him next to make it true that charity is everything in the
          church, which he did, and afterwards that charity is nothing in
          the church. And he dressed up both propositions and arrayed them
          in such verisimilitudes that the bystanders looked at each other
          and said, “Isn’t he wise!”

          But I said, “Do you not know that to live rightly is
          charity, and to believe rightly is faith? If anyone lives rightly,
          does he not also believe rightly? Thus showing that faith is
          connected with charity, and charity with faith? Do you not see
          that this is true?”

          He replied, “I will make it true and then I will see.”
          And having done it he said, “Now I see.” But shortly he
          made the converse of it to be true, and then he said, “I see
          as well that this is true.”

          We chuckled at this and said, “But are these not
          contradictory conclusions? How can you see two contrary
          conclusions as true?”

          Nettled by our response, he replied, “You are wrong. Both
          conclusions are true, since truth is only what a person makes
          true.”

          [3] Standing nearby was someone who in the world had been an
          ambassador of the highest rank. He marveled at this and said, “I
          recognize that something of this sort goes on in the world, but
          still you are insane. Make it to be true, if you can, that light
          is darkness, and darkness light.”

          To which he replied, “I will do it easily. What are light
          and darkness but conditions of the eye? Does light not turn to
          darkness when the eye comes in out of bright sunshine? Or when it
          gazes intently at the sun? Who does not know that the state of the
          eye then changes and that light consequently appears as darkness?
          And conversely, that when the condition of the eye recovers, the
          darkness appears as light?

          “Does an owl not see the darkness of night as the light of
          day, and the light of day as the darkness of night? Does it not
          see the sun itself as a dark and shadowy orb? If a person had eyes
          like an owl’s, what would he call light and what would he call
          darkness?

          “What then is light but a condition of the eye? And if it
          is a condition of the eye, is not light darkness and darkness
          light? Consequently the one proposition is true and the other is
          true.”

          [4] After that the ambassador asked him to make it to be true
          that a raven is white and not black.

          To which he replied, “I will do this easily, too. Take a
          needle or razor,” he said, “and open up the feathers or
          quills of a raven. Are they not white inside? Then remove the
          feathers and quills and look at the raven’s skin. Is it not white?
          What is the blackness surrounding it but an opaqueness to light,
          which is hardly a basis on which to judge the raven’s color? If
          you do not know that blackness is only an absence of light, ask
          experts in the science of optics and they will tell you. Or grind
          a piece of black stone or black glass into a fine powder, and you
          will see that the powder is white.”

          “But,” said the ambassador, “does a raven look
          black to the eye?”

          “Perhaps,” replied this confirmer of ours, “but
          as a human being, are you willing to base what you think on an
          appearance? You may indeed speak in accordance with the appearance
          and say that a raven is black, but you cannot think it. As for
          example, you may speak in accordance with the appearance and say
          that the sun rises, travels and sets, but as a human being you
          cannot think it, because the sun stands still and it is the earth
          that moves. It is the same with the raven. An appearance is only
          an appearance. Say what you will, a raven is totally and utterly
          white. It even turns white when it grows old, as I have observed.”

          [5] We then asked him to tell us honestly whether he was joking
          or whether he really believed that there is no truth but what a
          person makes true. And he answered, “I swear that I believe
          it.”

          After that the ambassador asked him whether he could make it
          true that he was insane. To which he said, “I could, but I do
          not want to. Who is not insane?”

          This total confirmer was afterwards sent to some angels for
          them to examine and determine what sort of person he was. And
          having examined him, they said he possessed not even a grain of
          understanding, because everything that exists above the level of
          reason in him was closed up, and only that which is below the
          level of reason was open.

          “Above the level of reason,” they said, “is the
          light of heaven, and below the level of reason is the light of
          nature. And the light of nature is such that it can confirm
          whatever it pleases. However, if the light of heaven does not flow
          into the light of nature, a person does not see whether any truth
          is true, and so neither whether any falsity is false. An ability
          to see both what is true and what is false results from the
          presence of light from heaven in the light of nature, and the
          light of heaven comes from the God of heaven, who is the Lord.

          “This total confirmer is therefore neither human nor
          animal, but animal-like.”

          [6] I asked the angel with me about the fate of people like
          that and whether it was possible for them to be among the living,
          since a person has life from the light of heaven, and from it
          comes his intellect. And the angel said that when people of this
          sort are by themselves, they are incapable of thought and so have
          nothing to say, but stand as mute as machines, as though in a deep
          sleep; but as soon as something catches their ears, they awaken.
          He added also that people become like that who are inmostly evil.
          “The light of heaven cannot flow into them from above,”
          he said, “but only some spiritual element through the world,
          from which they have an ability to confirm.”

          [7] After he said this, I heard the voice of one of the angels
          who had examined the man, calling to me and saying, “From
          what you have heard draw an overall conclusion.”

          So I drew the following conclusion: An ability to confirm
          whatever one pleases is not the mark of an intelligent person;
          rather, the mark of an intelligent person is to be able to see
          that truth is true and falsity false, and to confirm that.

          I afterwards looked over at the gathering where the confirmers
          stood and where the crowd surrounding them was beginning to cry
          out, “Oh, how wise!” And suddenly a dusky cloud
          enveloped them, with screech owls and bats flitting about in the
          cloud.

          It was then explained to me, “The owls and bats flitting
          about in the dusky cloud are correspondent forms and thus
          manifestations of their thoughts. For in this world, confirmations
          of falsities to the point that they appear as truths are
          represented under the forms of birds of the night, whose eyes are
          lit up with an illusory light from within by which they see
          objects in darkness as though in light. This is the kind of
          illusory spiritual light had by those who confirm falsities to the
          point that they appear as truths, and who afterwards say and
          believe they are truths. They all possess a kind of after-sight
          and not any prior sight.”

    • 234. REASONS IN MARRIAGE FOR COLD STATES,
      SEPARATION AND DIVORCE

        • 234. [Cold, separation and divorce]
          In considering in this chapter reasons for cold states in
          marriage, we take up also at the same time grounds for separation
          and divorce. We do this because they are interconnected; for
          separations come about only as a result of cold states
          progressively developed after marriage, or as a result of factors
          discovered after marriage which in turn lead to coldness. Divorce,
          moreover, is impelled by acts of adultery, because these are
          completely opposed to marriage, and being opposed they induce
          coldness, if not in both partners, still in the one.

          That is why we put reasons for cold states, separation and
          divorce together into the same chapter. The interconnection between
          the reasons, however, is more clearly perceived from seeing them in
          sequence. A sequential arrangement of them is as follows:

          (1) People experience spiritual warmth and spiritual coldness;
          and spiritual warmth is love, while spiritual coldness is its
          absence and loss.

          (2) Spiritual coldness in marriage is a disunion of souls and
          disjunction of minds, resulting in indifference, discord, contempt,
          loathing, and aversion, and leading finally in many cases to
          separation from the bed, bedroom and house.

          (3) Reasons for cold states in their gradual progressions are
          many, some of them internal, some external, and some incidental.

          (4) Internal reasons for cold states stem from religion.

          (5) Of these reasons, the first is rejection of religion by both
          partners.

          (6) A second is one partner’s having religion and not the other.

          (7) A third is one partner’s having one religion and the other
          partner another.

          (8) A fourth is ingrained falsity of religion.

          (9) These are causes of an inward coldness, but in many cases
          not at the same time of an outward one.

          (10) External reasons for coldness are also many; and of these,
          the first is a dissimilarity of dispositions and manners.

          (11) A second is believing that married love is no different
          from licentious love, only that the latter is forbidden by law,
          while the former is allowed.

          (12) A third is competition between the partners for
          superiority.

          (13) A fourth is an absence of focus on any pursuit or business,
          resulting in promiscuous lust.

          (14) A fifth is inequality of station and condition in the
          partners’ outward circumstances.

          (15) There are also several reasons for separation.

          (16) Of these, the first is an impairment of the mind.

          (17) A second is an impairment of the body.

          (18) A third is impotence prior to marriage.

          (19) Adultery is ground for divorce.

          (20) Incidental reasons for coldness are also many; and of
          these, the first is ordinariness from being continually allowed.

          (21) A second is the sense that living with one’s partner is
          compelled by covenant and law and not free.

          (22) A third is declaration by the wife of her love and
          discourse by her about it.

          (23) A fourth is the man’s thinking of his wife day and night
          that she wants to, and conversely the wife’s thinking of her
          husband that he does not want to.

          (24) As coldness develops in the mind, so it also develops in
          the body; and in the measure that this coldness grows, the outward
          aspects of the body close up as well.

          Explanation of these statements now follows.

      • (1) People experience spiritual warmth and
        spiritual coldness; and spiritual warmth is love, while spiritual
        coldness is its absence and loss.

        • 235. [Spiritual warmth and cold]
          235. (1) People experience spiritual warmth and spiritual
          coldness; and spiritual warmth is love, while spiritual coldness
          is its absence and loss. Spiritual warmth originates from no other
          source than the sun of the spiritual world. For the sun there is
          an emanation from the Lord, who is in the midst of it; and being
          from the Lord, in its essence that sun is pure love. That sun
          appears to angels as a ball of fire, just as the sun of our world
          does to men. It appears as a ball of fire because love is
          spiritual fire. From that sun emanate both heat and light, but
          because that sun is pure love, the heat from it in its essence is
          love, and the light from it in its essence is wisdom.

          This makes clear the origin of spiritual warmth and the fact
          that it is love.

          [2] The origin of spiritual coldness, moreover, will also be
          briefly explained. It originates from the sun of the natural world
          and its heat and light.

          The sun of the natural world was created so that its heat and
          light might receive into them spiritual heat and light and by
          means of its atmospheres convey them even to the lowest elements
          in the world. Their purpose was to produce the effects of those
          ends which, being the Lord’s, exist in the spiritual sun, and also
          to clothe spiritual things with coverings or materials adequate to
          bring about final ends in nature. This is what happens when
          spiritual heat is joined to and contained in natural heat.

          The contrary happens, however, when natural heat is separated
          from spiritual heat, as is the case in people who love natural
          things and reject spiritual ones. In them spiritual warmth becomes
          coldness. These two kinds of heat, by creation in harmony, thus
          become opposed to each other, and the reason is that the master
          heat then becomes the servant heat, and the servant heat the
          master. So, to keep this from happening, spiritual heat withdraws,
          which by right of its origin is the master; and spiritual warmth
          in these recipient vessels then grows cold, because it becomes
          opposed.

          It is apparent from this what spiritual coldness is – that it
          is the 3absence and loss of spiritual heat. (In what we have just
          said, by heat we mean love, because spiritual heat in animate
          recipients is felt as love.)

          I have heard in the spiritual world that merely natural spirits
          experience an intense coldness whenever they attach themselves to
          the side of some angel who is feeling a state of love. Also that
          spirits in hell have the same experience whenever warmth from
          heaven flows in upon them – even though among themselves, when the
          warmth of heaven is shut off and withdrawn, they burn with great
          heat.

      • (2) Spiritual coldness in marriage is a
        disunion of souls and disjunction of minds, resulting in
        indifference, discord, contempt, loathing, and aversion, and leading
        finally in many cases to separation from the bed, bedroom and house.

        • 236. [Cold is disunion]
          236. (2) Spiritual coldness in marriage is a disunion of souls
          and disjunction of minds, resulting in indifference, discord,
          contempt, loathing, and aversion, and leading finally in many
          cases to separation from the bed, bedroom and house. It is too
          well known to require any comment that this is what happens
          between married partners when their original love fades and turns
          cold.

          These states occur because coldness in marriage is seated more
          deeply in human minds than any other feelings of coldness. For the
          essence of the married relationship is engraved on the soul, in
          order that one soul may be procreated from another and the
          father’s soul propagated into offspring. As a result, marital
          coldness starts there, and progressively descending into
          subsequent elements it infects these as well, and so turns the
          happy and delightful states of the earlier love into sad and
          unpleasant ones.

      • (3) Reasons for cold states in their gradual
        progressions are many, some of them internal, some external, and
        some incidental.

        • 237. [Many reasons for cold states]
          237. (3) Reasons for cold states in their gradual progressions
          are many, some of them internal, some external, and some
          incidental. People know in the world that there are many reasons
          for cold states in marriage, also that they arise as a result of a
          number of external factors. They do not know, however, that the
          origins of these factors lie hidden in the inmost recesses of a
          person, and that they develop from them into subsequent elements
          until they appear in their outward manifestations.

          Consequently, to make it known that external factors are not
          reasons in themselves, but stem from others that are the reasons
          in themselves, which – as we said – lie in the inmost recesses of
          a person, we therefore first distinguish these reasons generally
          into internal and external ones, and then explore them
          individually.

      • (4) Internal reasons for cold states stem
        from religion.

          • 238. [Inner cold is from religion]
            238. (4) Internal reasons for cold states stem from religion.
            The real origin of married love is seated in the inmost recesses
            in a person, that is to say, in his soul, and everyone is
            convinced of this simply from the following considerations:

            The soul of offspring comes from the father – a fact that is
            recognized from their similarity in inclinations and affections,
            and also from the commonality of their facial features, persisting
            from the father even in a much later generation. Secondly, the
            procreative ability was implanted from creation in souls. And in
            addition, one finds an analogous parallel in members of the
            vegetable kingdom, in that reproduction of the seed itself, and
            thus of the whole plant, lies within the inmost workings of their
            germinations, whether it be a tree, bush or shrub.

            [2] This reproductive or creative force in seeds in the
            vegetable kingdom, and in souls in the animal kingdom, originates
            from no other source than the conjugal atmosphere – the atmosphere
            of good and truth which continually emanates and flows in from the
            Lord, the Creator and Sustainer of the universe (concerning which
            above, nos. 222-225) – and from the effort of
            these two in it – good and truth – to join themselves into one.
            This conjugal effort inherent in souls is the motive force from
            which married love springs in the first place.

            The same marriage from which this universal atmosphere flows
            also forms the church in a person, as we have shown amply enough
            and more in the chapter on “The Marriage of the Lord and the
            Church”[*1] and in a number of other places.[*2]

            It is fully and plainly apparent to the sight of reason from
            this that the origin of the church and the origin of married love
            have the same seat in a person, and that they are locked in a
            continual embrace. For more on this subject, however, see no. 130
            above, where we showed that married love depends on the state of
            the church in a person, consequently that it stems from religion,
            because it is religion which forms that state.

            [3] Besides, people were created to be able to become more and
            more interior beings, thus to be introduced or elevated nearer and
            nearer to a marriage of good and truth and so into true married
            love, to the point that they feel its state of bliss. The only
            means by which they can be introduced or elevated is religion,
            which is clearly apparent from what we have already said, that the
            origin of the church and the origin of married love have the same
            seat in a person and are there locked in a continual embrace, so
            that they cannot help but be joined together.

            [*1] The original text reads “the marriage of good and
            truth,” as though in reference to the chapter, “The
            Origin of married love from the Marriage between Good and Truth,”
            nos. 83ff; but comparison of the contents of the
            chapters indicates that this is probably a slip of the pen for
            “The Marriage of the Lord and the Church,” nos. 116ff.
            See especially no. 122 there.

            [*2] See for example nos. 62, 72,
            76:5, 115:4.

        • 239. [If religion is lacking, so is love]
          239. From what we have now said, it follows that where religion
          is lacking, married love does not exist either; and where married
          love does not exist, coldness develops instead. It may be seen in
          no. 235 above that coldness in marriage is the
          absence and loss of that love. It follows by the same token that
          coldness in marriage is also the absence or loss of a state of the
          church or of religion in a person.

          Sufficiently corroborative evidence of this may be inferred
          from the general ignorance today regarding true married love. Who
          today knows that the origin of married love in a person stems from
          religion? Who today is even willing to acknowledge it, and who
          today would not be surprised by it? But this circumstance is owing
          altogether to the fact that although religion exists, its truths
          do not; and what is religion without truths? (We showed in full in
          The Apocalypse Revealed that these truths are lacking. See also
          the narrative accounts there in no. 566.)

      • (5) Of these reasons, the first is rejection
        of religion by both partners.

        • 240. [Both reject religion]
          240. (5) Of these internal reasons for cold states, the first
          is rejection of religion by both partners. No good love exists in
          people who reject the sanctities of the church and banish them
          from the front of their heads to the back, or from before their
          hearts to behind them. If any seemingly good love is manifested by
          the body, still none exists in the spirit. In people like this,
          good virtues surround evils and cover them up, like a garment
          glistening with gold but covering up a decayed and putrid body. In
          general, the evils which lie within and are covered up are
          feelings of hatred for and so internal battles against everything
          spiritual. For all matters having to do with the church, which
          they reject, are essentially spiritual.

          So, because true married love is the fundamental love of all
          spiritual loves (as we have shown previously),[*1] it is apparent
          that people like this have an inward hatred for it, and that they
          have an inward or inherent love for its opposite, which is a love
          of adultery. Consequently they, more than others, may be expected
          to ridicule this truth, that everyone possesses married love
          according to the state of the church in him. Indeed, they may
          guffaw perhaps at the mere mention of true married love. But let
          them laugh. Yet they must be pardoned, because it is as impossible
          for them to think of embraces in marriage as any different from
          embraces in licentious relationships, as it is for a camel to
          force its way through the eye of a needle.[*2]

          People who are of this character experience a greater coldness
          than others in respect to married love. If they remain faithful to
          their married partners, they do so only for some of the external
          reasons recounted above in no. 153, which hold
          them and keep them from straying. In their case, the inner
          faculties, which are faculties of the soul and from that of the
          mind, are more and more closed up, and in the body obstructed; and
          then even love for the opposite sex becomes a matter of
          indifference, or it smolders with an insane lasciviousness in the
          interior recesses of the body and so in the bottommost elements of
          their thought.

          People like this are also meant by the ones in the narrative
          account in no. 79. Let them read it if they
          like.

          [*1] See nos. 58, 65-67.

          [*2] Cf. Matthew 19:24, Mark 10:25, Luke 18:25.

      • (6) A second is one partner’s having
        religion and not the other.

        • 241. [Different religions]
          241. (6) Of these internal reasons for cold states, a second is
          one partner’s having religion and not the other. The reason is
          that their souls cannot help but be discordant. For the soul of
          one is open to receiving married love, while the soul of the other
          is closed to receiving it. It is closed in the one who is without
          religion, and open in the one who has religion. Consequently it is
          impossible for them to dwell together on that level; and when
          married love is banished there, coldness develops – though only in
          the partner without religion.

          This coldness is not dispelled except by that partner’s
          acceptance of religion in harmony with the religion of the other,
          if the other’s religion is true. Otherwise, in the partner who has
          no religion, coldness sets in, which descends from the soul into
          the body until it reaches the outer coverings of the skin. The
          result is that he finally cannot bear to look his partner directly
          in the face, or speak to her in such a manner as to breathe the
          same air, or address her in anything but a restrained tone of
          voice, or touch her with his hand, and scarcely even to feel her
          at his back. We refrain from mentioning in addition the insanities
          ensuing from that coldness which creep into the thoughts of people
          like this, insanities which they keep hidden.

          This is the reason that marriages of this sort naturally
          disintegrate.

          Besides, people know that an impious person has little regard
          for his married partner; and all who are without religion are
          impious.

      • (7) A third is one partner’s having one
        religion and the other partner another.

        • 242. [One has no religion]
          242. (7) Of these internal reasons for cold states, a third is
          one partner’s having one religion and the other partner another.
          The reason is that in their case good cannot be joined together
          with its corresponding truth – for a wife in form is the good of
          her husband’s truth, and he the truth of his wife’s goodness, as
          we have previously shown.[*1] Consequently, it is impossible in
          their case for their two souls to become one soul. The wellspring
          of married love is therefore shut off; and when this is shut off,
          they come into a married relationship that has its seat on a lower
          level. This relationship is one of good with another truth than
          its own, or of truth with another good than its own; and between
          the two there cannot be any concordant love. The result is that
          coldness develops in the partner who is caught up in falsities of
          religion, and this coldness increases as he grows apart from the
          other.

          (In a great city I once wandered the streets in order to find
          lodging, and I entered a house where partners of different
          religions were staying. I was unaware of it, but angels then spoke
          to me, saying, “We cannot remain with you in this house,
          because it has partners with discordant religions living in it.”
          This they perceived from the inward lack of union between their
          souls.)

          [*1] See, for example, nos. 21:2, 32,
          33, 44:9, 61,
          66, 75:5, 76:5,
          88, 89, 90,
          91, 100, 115:5,
          122, 159, 193.

      • (8) A fourth is ingrained falsity of
        religion.

        • 243. [False religion]
          243. (8) Of these internal reasons, a fourth is ingrained
          falsity of religion. The reason is that falsity in spiritual
          matters either does away with religion or corrupts it. It does
          away with religion in the case of people who have falsified
          genuine truths. It corrupts it in the case of people who have
          acquired falsities indeed, but not genuine truths, which they
          therefore could not falsify. In these latter people elements of
          good may exist with which their falsities can be joined by the
          Lord through adaptations of them; for these falsities are like
          various discordant tones which through skillful interpolations and
          insertions are drawn into a harmony, from which comes also the
          pleasantness of the harmony.

          In people like this some married love is possible; but it is
          not possible in people who have falsified genuine truths of the
          church in themselves. They are the cause of the prevailing
          ignorance concerning true married love or the skeptical doubt that
          it is possible. They are also the source of the insane belief
          residing in the minds of many that adulterous affairs are not
          evils against religion.

      • (9) These are causes of an inward coldness,
        but in many cases not at the same time of an outward one.

          • 244. [Outward warmth with inner cold]
            244. (9) The aforementioned reasons are causes of an inward
            coldness, but in many cases not at the same time of an outward
            one. The reasons enumerated and established so far are causes of
            coldness in inward states. If the same reasons were to produce a
            similar coldness in outward states, then as many separations would
            occur as there are instances of inward coldness – and there are as
            many instances of coldness as there are marriages of people who
            are caught up in falsities of religion, who have different
            religions, or who have no religion (which we have just discussed).
            Yet we know that many of them live together as though they loved
            each other and possessed a mutual friendship. Why this is so,
            however, in the case of people who are in state of inward
            coldness, will be told in the following chapter on the reasons for
            apparent love, friendship and favor between married partners.[*1]

            [2] Many circumstances occur which join minds together but do
            not at the same time join souls. Among the circumstances are some
            of those recounted above in no. 153. But still
            an inner coldness lies hidden within, and this coldness makes
            itself periodically noticed and felt. In such marriages, the
            partners depart from each other in their affections, and only draw
            together in their thoughts whenever these are manifested in their
            speech and behavior, in order to preserve an appearance of
            friendship and favor. In consequence they know nothing of the
            pleasantness and pleasure of true married love, and even less of
            its felicity and bliss. To them these are little more than fables.

            People like this are among those who imagine the origins of
            married love from the same causes as the nine companies of wise
            men assembled from the kingdoms of Europe, as reported in a
            narrative account earlier, nos. 103-114.

            [*1] See nos. 271ff.

        • 245. [Offspring of disunited souls]
          245. To what we have just affirmed, an objection may be raised
          on the ground that life is still procreated from the father’s life
          – even if his soul is not united with the soul of the mother –
          indeed, even if a deep-seated coldness there separates them. But
          souls or offspring are nevertheless still procreated for the
          reason that a man’s intellect is not so closed up that it cannot
          be elevated into the light that the soul is in (in contrast with
          love in his will, which is not elevated into a warmth
          corresponding to the light there except by his living a life which
          transforms his character from natural to spiritual).

          It is owing to this that life is still procreated, but during
          its descent, until it becomes seed or sperm, the soul is enveloped
          by elements of a type that have to do with the father’s natural
          love. This is the source from which hereditary evil springs.

          To this I will add a secret, which I have from heaven, that
          between two disunited souls, especially those of married partners,
          conjunction is accomplished in the area of some intermediary love.
          Otherwise conceptions would not occur among human beings.

          (For more on the subject of coldness in marriage and where it
          has its seat – namely, in the highest region of the mind – see the
          concluding narrative account at the end of this chapter, no. 270.)

      • (10) External reasons for coldness are also
        many; and of these, the first is a dissimilarity of dispositions and
        manners.

        • 246. [Dissimilar dispositions]
          246. (10) External reasons for coldness are also many; and of
          these, the first is a dissimilarity of dispositions and manners.
          Some similarities and dissimilarities are internal, and some are
          external. Internal ones trace their origin solely from religion;
          for religion is implanted in souls, and it is transmitted through
          souls from parents to offspring as a supreme predisposition. The
          reason is that every person’s soul draws its life from a marriage
          of good and truth, and from this marriage comes the church. Now
          because the church varies and differs throughout the regions of
          the entire globe, therefore the souls of all human beings also
          vary and differ. This is consequently the origin of people’s
          internal similarities and dissimilarities, and in accordance with
          them the marital conjunctions of which we have spoken.

          [2] In contrast, external similarities and dissimilarities are
          qualities not of souls but of dispositions. By dispositions we
          mean people’s outward affections and consequent inclinations which
          are implanted after birth chiefly through their upbringings,
          associations, and resulting habits. Indeed, people say, “I
          have a disposition to do this,” or “a disposition to do
          that,” and we comprehend by this an affection or inclination
          for it. Acquired persuasions respecting one kind of life or
          another usually shape these dispositions as well. They are what
          induce inclinations in some even to enter marriages with partners
          not their equals and also to refuse marriages with ones who are.
          Nevertheless, after the partners have lived together for a time,
          these marriages vary according to the similarities and
          dissimilarities which the partners have acquired both by heredity
          and their accompanying upbringing. Any dissimilarities then induce
          coldness.

          [3] It is the same with dissimilarities in manners. As for
          example, in the marriage of an uncouth man or woman with one who
          is refined; of a cleanly man or woman with one who is slovenly; of
          a quarrelsome man or woman with one who is peaceable – in short,
          in the marriage of an unmannerly man or woman with one who is
          well-mannered.

          Marriages exhibiting such dissimilarities are not unlike
          couplings of different animal species with each other – as, for
          example, of sheep and goats, deers and mules, chickens and geese,
          sparrows and more noble birds – indeed, of dogs and cats – which
          because of their dissimilarities do not naturally associate. In
          human beings, however, dissimilarities do not show in surface
          features but in habits of behavior. States of coldness therefore
          arise because of this.

      • (11) A second is believing that married love
        is no different from licentious love, only that the latter is
        forbidden by law, while the former is allowed.

        • 247. [Confusing lust and love]
          247. (11) Of these external reasons for coldness, a second is
          believing that married love is no different from licentious love,
          only that the latter is forbidden by law, while the former is
          allowed. Reason clearly sees that this leads to coldness when it
          considers that licentious love is diametrically opposed to married
          love. Consequently, when one believes that married love is no
          different from licentious love, so that the two loves are regarded
          as the same in idea, then the wife is looked upon as a whore, and
          the marriage as something unclean. The man, too, is himself an
          adulterer – if not in body, nevertheless in spirit.

          It inevitably follows that between the man and “his
          woman,” contempt, loathing, and aversion break out because of
          this, and thus intense coldness. For nothing harbors a coldness to
          marriage within it more than licentious love. And because it also
          goes off into coldness, it may not unjustifiably be called the
          very essence of coldness in marriage.

      • (12) A third is competition between the
        partners for superiority.

        • 248. [Struggle for superiority]
          248. (12) Of these external reasons, a third is competition
          between the partners for superiority. The reason is that among the
          first aspirations of married love is a union of wills and a
          consequent freedom of volition. Vying for superiority or control
          expels these two from the marriage, for it divides and separates
          the wills into two camps and turns freedom of volition into
          servitude.

          So long as this struggle persists, the spirit of one partner
          imagines acts of violence against the other. If their minds were
          to be laid open in this state and made visible to spiritual sight,
          they would appear as though battling with daggers. They would also
          be seen to look upon each other with alternating feelings of
          hatred and favor – with feelings of hatred when caught up in the
          heat of combat, and with feelings of favor whenever they achieve
          hope of supremacy or are prompted by lust.

          [2] Later, when one partner has gained victory over the other,
          although this conflict disappears from outward manifestations, it
          recedes into the inner recesses of the mind, where it remains in a
          concealed state of agitation. The result is coldness on the part
          of the one made subject or servant, and also on the part of the
          one who has become victor or master. Coldness develops on the part
          of the latter as well, because married love no longer exists, and
          the absence or loss of this love is coldness (no. 235).
          Instead of married love, the victor feels a warmth resulting from
          superiority; but this warmth is wholly incompatible with any
          marital warmth, however similar it may be outwardly when prompted
          by lust.

          After the partners come to a tacit agreement between them, it
          appears as though married love has turned into friendship. But the
          difference between marital friendship and a master-servant
          friendship in marriage is like the difference between light and
          dark, between a blazing fire and a cold phosphorescence – indeed,
          like the difference between a person fully fleshed and one
          consisting only of skin and bone.

      • (13) A fourth is an absence of focus on any
        pursuit or business, resulting in promiscuous lust.

        • 249. [Laziness]
          249. (13) Of these external reasons for coldness, a fourth is
          an absence of focus on any pursuit or business, resulting in
          promiscuous lust. Human beings were created to be useful, because
          useful service is the containing vessel of goodness and truth, and
          a marriage of good and truth is the origin both of creation and
          also of married love (as we showed in its own chapter).[*1]

          By pursuit or business we mean any effort to be useful. When as
          a result a person is engaged in some pursuit or business or other
          useful activity, his mind is fenced around and circumscribed as
          though with a circle, within whose bounds it is progressively
          ordered into truly human form. Then, from this vantage point, as
          though looking out from its house, it sees various impure passions
          lurking outside, and from the sanity of its reason within,
          banishes them, thus banishing as well the wild insanities of
          licentious lust. Because of this, marital warmth lasts better and
          longer in such people than it does in others.

          [2] The contrary happens in the case of people who surrender
          themselves to laziness and sloth. Their mind is not fenced around
          or set within bounds; a person like that consequently throws open
          the whole of it and lets in every sort of nonsense and foolishness
          which flows in from the world and the body and draws him into a
          love of them. It is apparent that married love is also then cast
          out and banished. For laziness and sloth dull the mind and numb
          the body, and the whole person becomes unresponsive to any
          vitalizing love – especially married love, from which, as from a
          fountain, spring active and energetic states of life.

          In such people, however, the coldness they feel in marriage is
          different from the same coldness in others. It is indeed an
          absence and loss of married love, but from a failure of ability.

          [*1] See “The Origin of married love from the Marriage
          between Good and Truth,” nos. 83ff.

      • (14) A fifth is inequality of station and
        condition in the partners’ outward circumstances.

        • 250. [Class differences]
          250. (14) Of these external reasons, a fifth is inequality of
          station and condition in the partners’ outward circumstances. Many
          inequalities in station and condition occur which during a
          couple’s life together sunder the initial married love they felt
          before their wedding. However, these can all be assigned to
          inequalities in their ages, in their positions in society, and in
          their possessions of wealth.

          With respect to age, it requires no argument to show that age
          differences induce coldness in marriages, as in the marriage of a
          boy with an old woman, or of an adolescent girl with a decrepit
          old man.

          With respect to position in society, it is also acknowledged
          without need for confirmation that class differences likewise
          induce coldness in marriages, as in the marriage of an upper-class
          man with a maidservant, or of a prominent lady with a manservant.

          With respect to possessions of wealth, it is apparent that
          differences in these induce coldness as well – unless the partners
          are kept together by a similarity in dispositions and manners and
          by an adaptation of each to the inclinations and native desires of
          the other.

          In none of these circumstances, however, does meek submission
          in deference to the superior station or condition of the other
          serve to unite the partners, except in the manner of a servant
          with its master. Yet a union like that is a cold one; for the
          marital bond in such cases is not a matter of the spirit and
          heart, but only of the mouth and name, of which the inferior
          boasts and which causes the superior to blush with shame.

          In contrast, in heaven one does not find a difference in
          partners’ ages, positions in society, or possessions of wealth.
          With respect to age, all there are in the flower of their youth,
          and they remain in it to eternity. With respect to position in
          society, all there regard others in accordance with the useful
          services they render, with the more eminent in position viewing
          those lower as comrades. Nor do they put status before the value
          of service, but the value of service before status. Besides, when
          girls there get married, they do not know from what family they
          have descended; for no one in heaven knows who his father was on
          earth, but the Lord is the father of all.

          It is similar with respect to possessions of wealth. Riches
          there are their gifts for becoming wise. In accordance with these
          gifts they are given a sufficiency of wealth. (For the way
          marriages have their start in heaven, see no. 229
          above.)

      • (15) There are also several reasons for
        separation.

        • 251. [Reasons for separation]
          251. (15) There are several reasons also for separation.
          Separations can be separations from the bed or separations from
          the house. Reasons for separations from the bed are many, likewise
          for separations from the house. We concern ourselves here,
          however, with legitimate ones.

          (Since reasons for separation coincide with grounds for taking
          a mistress, to which we devote a chapter in the second part of
          this work,[*1] the reader is therefore referred to that section to
          see the grounds in their own sequential development.)

          Legitimate reasons for separation are as follows:

          [*1] See “Taking a Mistress,” nos. 462ff.

      • (16) Of these, the first is an impairment of
        the mind.

        • 252. [Mental impairment]
          252. (16) The first reason for legitimate separation is an
          impairment of the mind. The reason for this is that married love
          is a union of minds. If the mind of one grows apart from that of
          the other, therefore, this union is broken, and love fades with
          it. It can be seen what sort of impairments lead to separation
          from an enumeration of them. They are, accordingly, in large part
          the following:

          Psychosis. Organic psychosis. Insanity. Actual idiocy or
          imbecility. Amnesia. Severe neurosis.

          Extreme simplemindedness so as to lack any perception of
          goodness and truth. Utmost stubbornness in not complying with what
          is just and fair.

          Taking the greatest pleasure in prattling and talking only
          about inconsequential and trivial matters.

          Having an uncontrollable urge to divulge secrets of the home.
          Having an uncontrollable urge to argue; to strike blows; to take
          revenge; to act maliciously; to steal; to lie; to deceive; to
          blaspheme.

          Neglect of the children. Intemperance. High living. Excessive
          extravagance. Drunkenness. Lack of cleanliness. Shamelessness.
          Resorting to sorceries and witchcraft. Impiety.

          Many other disorders could be listed as well.

          By legitimate reasons here we do not mean judicial ones, but
          ones legitimate to the other partner. Only rarely are separations
          from the house decreed by a judge.

      • (17) A second is an impairment of the body.
        • 253. [Physical impairment]
          253. (17) A second reason for legitimate separation is an
          impairment of the body. By impairments of the body we do not mean
          incidental illnesses which befall one or the other partner during
          their marriage and pass away. What we mean are persistent
          conditions which do not pass away.

          Pathology tells us what these are. Being of many types and
          kinds, some, for example, are diseases by which the whole body is
          so thoroughly infected as to raise the possibility of death by
          contagion. Conditions of this sort include: Malignant and
          pestilential fevers. Leprosies. Venereal diseases. Gangrenous
          infections. Cancerous sores. And other comparable conditions.

          Other afflictions are conditions by which the whole body
          becomes so thoroughly burdened as to make close companionship
          impossible, or which are accompanied by unhealthy exhalations and
          noxious vapors, either from the body’s surface or from its inner
          parts, particularly from the stomach and lungs.

          Conditions involving the surface of the body include: Malignant
          lesions. Warts. Pustules. Scurvy-like discoloration and swelling
          of the skin. Virulent scabies. (Especially if the face is
          disfigured by these afflictions.)

          [2] Exhalations emanating from the stomach: Offensive,
          foul-smelling, rank and crude eructations.

          Emanating from the lungs: Foul and rancid expirations, issuing
          from tubercles, ulcerations and abscesses, or from the presence of
          corrupted blood or corrupted lymphatic fluid collected there.

          In addition to these are also other conditions having various
          names. For example: Chronic faintness, marked by complete physical
          languor and loss of strength. Paralysis, which involves a
          loosening or slackening of the membranes and ligaments required
          for movement. Certain other chronic disorders arising from loss of
          flexibility or elasticity in the sinews, or from excessive
          thickness, viscosity or causticity of the body’s fluids. Epilepsy.
          Permanent disability due to strokes or apoplexies. Certain
          consumptive disorders which destroy the body. Intestinal
          obstruction and suffering (ileus). Chronic stomach disorder and
          diarrhea. Hernial protrusion. And other, comparable conditions.

      • (18) A third is impotence prior to marriage.
        • 254. [Impotence prior to marriage]
          254. (18) A third reason for legitimate separation is impotence
          prior to marriage. This is reason for separation, because the goal
          of marriage is the procreation of offspring, which the already
          impotent cannot provide. Moreover, because they know this
          beforehand, they deliberately deprive their partners of any hope
          of children, a hope which nevertheless nourishes and sustains the
          married love of women.

      • (19) Adultery is ground for divorce.
        • 255. [Adultery is ground for divorce]
          255. (19) Adultery is ground for divorce. There are many
          explanations for this which appear in the light of reason and yet
          today lie hidden. From the light of reason it may be seen that
          marriages are sacred and adulterous affairs profane; consequently
          that marriages and adulterous relationships are diametrically
          opposed to each other; and that when opposite acts upon opposite,
          one destroys the other even to the last spark of its life. This is
          what happens with married love when a married man deliberately and
          thus purposefully commits acts of adultery.

          These considerations come more clearly into the light of reason
          in the case of people who know something about heaven and hell.
          For they know that marriages have their origin in heaven and from
          heaven, whereas adulterous relationships have their origin in hell
          and from hell. Thus they know that the two cannot be combined, as
          heaven cannot be combined with hell; and that if they are combined
          in a person, immediately heaven withdraws and hell enters.

          [2] It is on account of this, then, that adultery is ground for
          divorce. Therefore the Lord says:

          …whoever divorces his wife, excepting for licentiousness, and
          marries another, commits adultery…. (Matthew 19:9)

          He says a person commits adultery if he divorces and marries
          another “excepting for licentiousness,” because divorce
          for this latter reason involves a full and complete separation of
          minds, which is properly called divorce. But all other cases of
          divorce on their own particular grounds are properly separations,
          which we have already discussed just above. If after such
          separations a person takes another wife, he commits adultery. Not,
          however, after divorce.

      • (20) Incidental reasons for coldness are
        also many; and of these, the first is ordinariness from being
        continually allowed.

        • 256. [ordinariness from being continually
          allowed]

          256. (20) Incidental reasons for coldness are also many; and of
          these, the first is ordinariness from being continually allowed.
          Ordinariness from being continually allowed is an incidental
          reason for coldness because it develops as an additional one in
          people who think of marriage and of their wives in a lascivious
          manner. Not, however, in those who think reverently of marriage
          and protectively of their wives.

          The fact that ordinariness from being continually allowed may
          cause even sources of enjoyment to become matters of indifference
          and also then boredom – this is something that is apparent in the
          case of plays and shows, musical concerts, dances, banquets, and
          other like pleasures – pleasures which in themselves are treats,
          because they are recreational.

          It is similar with the domestic relations and intimacies
          between married partners. Especially is it the case between
          partners who have not removed an unchaste love for the opposite
          sex from their love for each other, and when in the absence of
          ability they think nonsensically about its ordinariness from being
          continually allowed. It is evident in itself that for them this
          ordinariness is then reason for coldness. We call it an incidental
          reason, because it arises in addition to their intrinsic coldness
          as though it were the reason and lends support to it as an
          explanation. To turn aside coldness arising on this account as
          well, some wives are prompted by the prudence innate in them to
          make the allowable seem not allowable by various shows of
          resistance.

          It is altogether different, however, in the case of people who
          judge chastely of their wives. So it is that among angels,
          ordinariness from being continually allowed is the very delight of
          their soul and the containing medium of their married love. For
          they experience the delight of that love continually, and its
          ultimate delights according as their minds are ready,
          uninterrupted by cares, thus according to the prudent good
          pleasure of the husbands.

      • (21) A second is the sense that living with
        one’s partner is compelled by covenant and law and not free.

        • 257. [Forced cohabitation]
          257. (21) Of these incidental reasons for coldness, a second is
          the sense that living with one’s partner is compelled by covenant
          and law and not free. This is reason for coldness only in the case
          of people for whom married love is cold in their inmost parts; and
          because it arises in addition to their internal coldness, it
          becomes an added or incidental reason. In such people, love free
          of marriage, because of its consent and favor, inwardly burns in a
          state of heat (for the coldness of the one love means the warmth
          of the other), and if the heat is not felt, still it is there,
          even in the midst of coldness. If it were not present even then,
          revival of interest would be impossible.

          This heat is what creates the sense of compulsion, and the
          feeling increases in the measure that the other partner views the
          covenant by right of contract and the law by right of justice as
          bonds not to be violated. It is different if the bonds are broken
          on both sides.

          [2] The contrary is the case with people who have renounced
          love outside of marriage and think of married love as heavenly and
          as being heaven; and still more with those who perceive this to be
          so. In their case the covenant with its stipulations and the law
          with its requirements are engraved on their hearts, and these
          become continually more deeply engraved on them. To them the bond
          of married love is not an obligation established because of the
          written covenant or by the enacted law, but the very love they
          feel has these two implanted in it from creation. The covenant and
          law inherent in the love is the reason for the covenant and law
          established in the world, not the reverse. Consequently everything
          connected with that love is felt as free. There is no sense of
          freedom that is not connected with love. I have heard moreover
          from angels that the sense of freedom in true married love is the
          freest of all, because that love is the greatest of loves.

      • (22) A third is declaration by the wife of
        her love and discourse by her about it.

        • 258. [A smothering wife]
          258. (22) Of these incidental reasons for coldness, a third is
          declaration by the wife of her love and discourse by her about it.
          Among angels in heaven husbands do not encounter refusal or
          resistance on the part of their wives as happens in some cases on
          earth. Among angels in heaven one also finds discourse by wives
          about love and not the same silence that one finds in some cases
          on earth. I am not permitted to present the reasons for these
          differences, however, because it would not be appropriate for me
          to do so. Nevertheless, they may be seen from the testimony of the
          wives of angels who freely confide these reasons to their husbands
          – testimony presented in four of the narrative accounts following
          the chapters, by the three wives in the hall on which I saw what
          seemed to be golden rain,[*1] and by the seven who were sitting in
          a rose garden.[*2] I have included these accounts in order to
          disclose everything connected with married love, which is the
          subject we are considering here both in general and in particular.

          [*1] See nos. 155[r] and 208.

          [*2] See nos. 293 and 294.

      • (23) A fourth is the man’s thinking of his
        wife day and night that she wants to, and conversely the wife’s
        thinking of her husband that he does not want to.

        • 259. [Mixed expectations]
          259. (23) Of these incidental reasons for coldness, a fourth is
          the man’s thinking of his wife day and night that she wants to,
          and conversely the wife’s thinking of her husband that he does not
          want to. Except to observe that the first is a reason for coldness
          in men, and that the second is a reason for love’s ceasing in
          wives, we pass this by without discussion. For among the things
          known to husbands who explore secrets relating to married love is
          the fact that a man is chilled to the bone if, at the sight of his
          wife by day or at her side by night, he thinks of her that she has
          the desire or wants to, and conversely, that a wife loses her love
          for her husband if she thinks of him that he is able and does not
          want to.

          We include these observations as well in order to make this
          work complete and not omit anything from our treatment of the
          delights of wisdom relating to married love.

      • (24) As coldness develops in the mind, so it
        also develops in the body; and in the measure that this coldness
        grows, the outward aspects of the body close up as well.

        • 260. [Emotional coldness causes physical
          coldness]

          260. (24) As coldness develops in the mind, so it also develops
          in the body; and in the measure that this coldness grows, the
          outward aspects of the body close up as well. It is believed today
          that a person’s mind is in his head and nothing of it in his body.
          Yet both soul and mind are not only in the head but in the body;
          for the soul and mind are the person, it being these two that
          constitute the spirit which lives after death. (We have fully
          shown in other works that this spirit exists in perfect human
          form.) It is because of this that as soon as a person has a
          thought, he can in an instant express it with the mouth of the
          body and represent it simultaneously in gesture; and as soon as he
          wills something, he can in an instant do it and accomplish it by
          means of parts of the body. None of this would be possible if the
          soul and mind were not at the same time in the body, constituting
          the person’s spiritual self.

          This being the case, it can be seen that when married love
          exists in the mind, there is a reflection of it in the body. Also,
          that because love is a type of warmth, it descends from within and
          opens the outer parts of the body. Conversely, however, it can be
          seen that the absence of this love, which is coldness, descends
          from within and closes up the outer parts of the body.

          This makes clearly apparent the reason ability lasts to
          eternity in the case of angels, and the reason for its failure in
          men in a state of coldness.


      • On people who are motivated by a love of
        governing from love of self (nos. 261-266).

          • 261. [Spiritual polar region]
            261. To this I will append three narrative accounts. Here is
            the first:

            In the upper northern zone in the spiritual world, over to the
            east, there are places of instruction, some for boys, some for
            adolescents, some for men, and some also for older men. All who
            have died as little children and are being raised in heaven are
            sent to these places. So, too, are all those newly arrived from
            the world who wish to learn about heaven and hell.

            This district is over to the east in order that they may all be
            instructed by means of influx from the Lord. For the Lord is the
            east, since He is there in the sun, which is pure love emanating
            from Him. The warmth from that sun consequently in its essence is
            love, and the light from it in its essence is wisdom. These two
            are infused by the Lord into the people there from that sun, and
            they are infused in accordance with their reception of them, which
            in turn depends on their love of becoming wise.

            When their periods of instruction are over, those who have
            become intelligent are sent out from there and are called
            disciples of the Lord. They are sent first to the west, and if
            they do not remain there, to the south, and some through the south
            to the east. And so they are introduced into the societies where
            their dwellings are to be.

            [2] Once, when I was thinking about heaven and hell, I began to
            wish to have a universal concept of the state of each, knowing
            that a person who is acquainted with the universals of a thing can
            afterwards comprehend the particulars, since the particulars are
            contained in the universals, like the parts in a whole.

            With this wish I looked in the direction of that district in
            the northern zone over to the east, where the places of
            instruction were; and going there by a way then opened to me, I
            went into one of the colleges in which the students were young
            men. There I approached the senior teachers who were doing the
            instructing, and I asked them whether they knew any 3universal
            characteristics relating to heaven and hell. They replied that
            they knew a little something; “but,” they said, “if
            we look eastward to the Lord, we will be enlightened and then we
            will know.” They proceeded to do this, and then said:

            “The universal characteristics of [both heaven and] hell
            are three, but the universal characteristics of hell are
            diametrically opposite to the universal characteristics of heaven.
            The universal characteristics of hell are the following three
            loves: a love of governing stemming from a love of self; a love of
            possessing the goods of others stemming from a love of the world;
            and licentious love.

            “The universal characteristics of heaven opposite to these
            are the following three loves: a love of governing stemming from a
            love of being useful; a love of possessing the goods of the world
            stemming from a love of performing useful services by means of
            them; and true married love.”

            Their having said this, after wishing them peace, I departed
            and returned home.

            When I got home, I was told from heaven, “Examine these
            three universal characteristics, above and below, and afterwards
            we will see them on your hand.” They said, “on your
            hand,” because everything a person examines mentally appears
            to angels as though written on his hands.

          • 262. [love of governing from a love of self]
            262. After that I examined the first universal love of hell,
            which was a love of governing stemming from a love of self, and
            then the universal love of heaven corresponding to it, which was a
            love of governing stemming from a love of accomplishing useful
            ends. Indeed, I was not allowed to examine one love without the
            other, because the intellect does not comprehend one without the
            other, since they are opposites. In order to understand the two,
            therefore, they must be set in contrast, one against the other.
            For a beautiful and attractive face shines out by the contrast to
            it of a homely and ugly one.

            When I considered the love of governing stemming from a love of
            self, I was given to see that this love was supremely hellish, and
            so is found among those who are in the deepest hell; and that the
            love of governing from a love of accomplishing useful ends was
            supremely heavenly, and so is found among those who are in the
            highest heaven.

            [2] A love of governing from a love of self is supremely
            hellish because to govern from a love of self is to govern from
            self, and a person’s self from birth is the essence of evil, which
            is diametrically opposed to the Lord. The further people progress
            into this evil, therefore, the more they reject God and the
            sanctities of the church, worshiping themselves and nature. Let
            those who are caught up in this evil please examine it in
            themselves, and they will see.

            This love is also such that the more it is given free rein
            (which it is as long as some obstacle does not stand in the way),
            the more it rushes from rung to rung until it reaches the highest
            it can; nor does it stop 3there, but if no higher level is
            possible, it grieves and laments. In politicians this love mounts
            to the point that they wish to be kings and emperors, and if
            possible, to rule over all the world and be called kings of kings
            and emperors of emperors. The same love in clergymen, on the other
            hand, mounts to the point that they wish to be gods, and as far as
            possible, to rule over all of heaven and be called gods of gods.
            (It will be seen in what follows here that neither of these kinds
            of people acknowledge any god at heart.)

            In contrast, however, people who wish to govern from a love of
            accomplishing useful ends – these do not wish to govern from self
            but from the Lord, since a love of useful ends comes from the Lord
            and is the Lord Himself [in them]. People like this look upon
            positions of authority only as means to performing useful
            services. They rank the useful services as far more important than
            the positions, whereas the first people described rank the
            positions as far more important than the useful services.

          • 263. [An emperor from hell]
            263. As I was pondering these matters, I was told by the Lord
            through an angel, “Now you will see and be convinced by
            visual demonstration what that hellish love is like.”

            And suddenly then the earth to my left opened up, and I saw a
            devil ascending out of hell. He had on his head a square hat
            pulled down over his forehead to his eyes, a face full of pustules
            as though from a burning fever, savage eyes, and a chest swollen
            up into a drum. From his mouth he belched smoke like a furnace;
            his loins were completely on fire; instead of feet he had only
            bony ankles without any flesh; and from his body emanated a foul
            and unclean heat.

            [2] On seeing him I was terrified, and I cried out to him,
            “Don’t come any closer! Just say where you have come from.”

            So he replied, hoarsely, “I come from below, and I live
            there with two hundred others in a society which is the most
            preeminent society of all. We are all emperors of emperors, kings
            of kings, dukes of dukes, and princes of princes there. No one
            among us is merely an ordinary emperor, or an ordinary king, duke
            or prince. We sit there on our thrones of thrones, and send out
            decrees to all the world and beyond.”

            I then said to him, “Do you not see that your delusion of
            preeminence has made you insane?”

            But he replied, “How can you say that, seeing that we all
            appear to ourselves completely as I have described, and are
            acknowledged as such by our colleagues?”

            Hearing this, I did not want to say, “You are insane,”
            again, because he really was insane as a result of his delusion.

            It was then granted me to learn that when this devil lived in
            the world, he had been only the caretaker of someone else’s house,
            and that even then he had been so carried away in spirit that he
            looked down on all the rest of the human race in comparison with
            himself, indulging in the fantasy that he was worthier than any
            king, even worthier than any emperor. Because of this conceit, he
            had rejected God, regarding all the sanctities of the church as of
            no value to him but only something for the stupid masses.

            [3] Finally I asked him, “The two hundred in your society
            – how long will you go on vaunting yourselves like that with each
            other?”

            “To eternity,” he said. But he added, “Those of
            us who do injury to others for denying our preeminence, sink down.
            For we are allowed to vaunt ourselves to each other, but we may
            not inflict harm on anyone.”

            I inquired further, “Do you know what the fate is for
            those who sink down?”

            He said that they sink down into a certain prison, where they
            are called lower than the low or the very lowest and are made to
            labor.

            I then said to that devil, “You had better take care,
            therefore, lest you too sink down.”

          • 264. [A god from hell]
            264. After this the earth opened again, but this time to my
            right, and I saw another devil rising up. On his head he had a
            kind of miter, wrapped around with what seemed like the coils of a
            snake, with its head sticking up from the peak. His face was
            leprous, from forehead to chin, and so were both his hands. His
            loins were bare and black as soot, with fire glowing darkly
            through the blackness, as though from a hearth. And the ankles of
            his feet looked like a pair of vipers.

            Seeing him, the first devil fell on his knees and worshiped
            him. When I asked him why he did that, he said, “Because he
            is God of heaven and earth and is almighty.”

            So then I asked the second devil, “What do you say to
            that?”

            He replied, “What can I say? I have all power over heaven
            and hell. The fate of every soul is in my hand.”

            So I asked the same devil again, “How can he, who is
            emperor of emperors, submit himself in this way, and how can you
            accept his adoration?”

            He answered, “He is still my servant. What is an emperor
            before God? I hold in my right hand the thunderbolt of
            excommunicating.”

            [2] At that point I then said to him, “How can you be so
            insane? In the world you were only an ordinary member of a
            religious order; but because you labored under the delusion that
            you, too, had the keys and thus the power of binding and
            loosing,[*1] you have incited your spirit to such a degree of
            madness that you now believe you are God Himself!”

            Angered at this, he swore that he was God, and said that the
            Lord did not have any power in heaven – “because,” he
            said, “He transferred it all to us.[*2] We have only to
            command, and heaven and hell reverently obey. If we send anyone to
            hell, the devils immediately accept him. The angels likewise
            accept anyone we send to heaven.”

            I inquired further, “How many of you are there in your
            society?”

            “Three hundred,” he said, “and we are all gods
            there, but I am god of gods.”

            [3] After that the earth opened under the feet of the two
            devils, and they sank down into the depths to their hells. And I
            was granted to see that beneath their hells were workhouses, into
            which those would fall who inflict injuries on others. For
            everyone in hell is permitted to keep his delusion and even his
            exulting in it, but he may not do harm to anyone else. (People in
            hell are the way they are because every person is then in his
            spirit, and after the spirit is separated from the body, it comes
            into full freedom to behave in accordance with its affections and
            consequent thoughts.)

            [4] It was granted me next to look into the hells of the two
            devils, and the hell where the emperors of emperors and kings of
            kings were was full of every sort of filth. They themselves looked
            like various species of wild animals with fiercely savage eyes. I
            likewise looked into the other hell, where the gods and the god of
            gods were, and in that I saw frightful birds of the night flitting
            about them – birds which are called ochim[*3] and iyyim.[*4] That
            is how the fantasies of their delusion appeared to me.

            It was apparent from this experience what a politically
            oriented love of self is like, and what a church-oriented love of
            self is like. The first is such that its possessors want to be
            emperors, while the second is such that its possessors want to be
            gods. Moreover, this is what they wish to be and also aspire to be
            to the extent these loves are given free rein.

            [*1] Based on Matthew 16:13-19, Roman Catholics claim for the
            Pope the keys of heaven and the power of “binding and
            loosing,” giving him and his proper delegates (cf. Matthew
            18:18) all authority over the church and even over heaven.

            [*2] Based, again, on Matthew 16:18,19; 18:18.

            [*3] A Hebrew word (Oyi”), appearing only once in the Old
            Testament (Isaiah 13:21). It seems to refer to howling or
            screeching creatures, perhaps screech owls (cf. no. 233:7),
            but the actual identity is unknown. It may not be a precise term.

            [*4] Another Hebrew word (Oyii), appearing only three times in
            the Old Testament (Isaiah 13:22, 34:14; Jeremiah 50:39). Again,
            the term seems to refer to howling or screeching creatures,
            perhaps bats (cf. no. 233:7), but the actual
            identity is unknown. It, too, may not be a precise term.

          • 265. [Two popes in hell]
            265. Another hell was subsequently opened where I saw two men.
            One was sitting on a bench, with his feet in a basket full of
            snakes, and as I looked they were slithering up over his breast to
            his neck. The other man was sitting on a donkey on fire, and at
            each side of it crept serpents that were red in color, lifting
            their necks and heads and following the rider.

            I was told that the two had been popes who had deposed emperors
            from power and had treated them with vituperation and abuse when
            these came supplicating them and venerating them at Rome. The
            basket in which I saw the snakes, and the donkey on fire with the
            serpents on each side, were representations of their love of
            governing from a love of self. However, that is not how they
            appear to others unless they view them from a distance.

            Some members of a religious order were present, and I asked
            them whether the men were those same popes. They said they
            recognized them and knew that they were.

        • 266. [Angels who govern]
          266. After witnessing these sad and terrible scenes, I looked
          around and saw two angels standing and talking not far from me.
          One was dressed in a dazzling woolen gown of blazing purple, with
          a tunic of glistening silk underneath. The other was similarly
          dressed, in clothing of scarlet, with a miter in which some
          garnets had been set on the right side.

          Going over to them, I welcomed them and respectfully asked,
          “Why are you here below?”

          Answering they replied, “We have been sent here from
          heaven by the Lord’s command, to speak with you about the blessed
          lot of people who want to govern from a love of accomplishing
          useful ends. We are worshipers of the Lord. I am the prince of a
          society; this other is the high priest there.”

          The prince then said that he was a servant of his society,
          because he served it by rendering useful services. And the other
          said he was an attendant of the church there, because to serve the
          people he attended to its sanctities for the service of their
          souls. [2] Moreover, they said they both experienced continual
          joys from an eternal happiness which they had in them from the
          Lord; and that everything in their society was splendid and
          magnificent – splendid on account of its gold and precious stones,
          and magnificent on account of its palaces and paradise-like parks.

          “The reason for this,” they said, “is that our
          love of governing does not arise from a love of self, but from a
          love of accomplishing useful ends; and because a love of
          accomplishing useful ends comes from the Lord, therefore all good
          and useful things in heaven are splendid and radiant.

          “In our society we are all possessed of this love, and
          therefore its atmosphere appears golden, from the light which it
          draws there from the blaze of the sun – for the blaze of the sun
          corresponds to that love.”

          [3] When they said this, I saw as well a similar atmosphere
          appearing about them, and I sensed a fragrance emanating from it,
          which I also mentioned to them. And I asked them to add something
          further to what they had said about a love of being useful.

          So they continued, saying, “The positions we hold are
          positions we admittedly sought, but for no other purpose than to
          be able to perform useful services more fully and to extend them
          more widely. We are also surrounded with honor, and we accept it,
          yet not for our own sake, but for the good of the society. For our
          comrades and friends among the common people there scarcely know
          otherwise than that the honors of our positions are lodged in us,
          and consequently that the services we render come from ourselves.
          We, however, feel differently. We feel that the honors of our
          positions are outside us, and are like garments with which we are
          clothed, while the services we render come from a love of them
          within us from the Lord. This love, moreover, gains its bliss from
          its communication through useful service with others. We know,
          too, from experience, that the more we perform useful services
          from a love of them, the more this love increases, and with it the
          wisdom on which the communication depends. But the more we keep
          these services to ourselves and do not communicate them, the more
          the bliss dies away; and when this happens, useful service becomes
          like food retained in the belly, which is not distributed so as to
          nourish the body and its parts, but remains undigested and so
          produces nausea.

          “The whole of heaven, in short, is nothing but a world of
          useful service, from the firsts to the lasts of it. What is useful
          service but love of the neighbor in act? And what holds the
          heavens together except this love?”

          [4] Having listened to this, I inquired, “How can anyone
          know whether he performs useful services from a love of self or
          whether he does so from a love of accomplishing useful ends?
          Everyone, be he good or evil, performs some useful services, and
          he is prompted to do them because of some love. Suppose that there
          were in the world a society composed only of devils, and another
          society composed only of angels. Moved by the fire of their love
          of self and the splendor of their own glory, the devils would
          perform, I think, as many useful services in their society as the
          angels would in theirs. Who can know, therefore, from what love
          and from what origin these services flow?”

          [5] To this the two angels replied, “Devils perform useful
          services for the sake of themselves and their reputation, in order
          to be promoted to positions of honor or gain wealth. Angels, on
          the other hand, do not perform useful services on that account,
          but for the sake of the services, from a love of them. A person
          cannot distinguish the one and the other kinds of service, but the
          Lord sees the difference. Everyone who believes in the Lord and
          refrains from evils as sins performs useful services from the
          Lord. But everyone who does not believe in the Lord and does not
          refrain from evils as sins performs the services he does from
          himself and for the sake of himself.

          “That is the difference between services performed by
          devils and services performed by angels.”

          Having said this, the two angels departed. And watching from a
          distance, I saw them apparently carried off in a chariot of fire
          like Elijah and so taken up to their heaven.

      • On people who are motivated by a love of
        possessing all the goods of the world (nos. 267,
        268).

          • 267. [Craving for possessions]
            267. The second account:

            Some period of time later I entered a wooded area, where I
            walked engaged in thought concerning people who are caught up in a
            craving to possess those things which have to do with the world,
            and who fantasize on that account that they do. And I saw, then,
            two angels at some distance from me, talking together and now and
            then looking over at me. Consequently I drew nearer; and as I
            approached, they spoke to me, saying:

            “We perceive in ourselves that you are thinking about the
            same thing we are discussing, or that we are discussing the same
            thing you are thinking about, which comes from a reciprocal
            communication of our affections.”

            I asked them, therefore, what they were discussing.

            “Fantasy, lust, and intelligence,” they said, “and
            at the moment, people who find delight in picturing and imagining
            that they possess everything in the world.”

            [2] At that I then asked them to express their thought with
            respect to the first three points – lust, fantasy and
            intelligence.

            So, taking up the subject, they said that everyone is in a
            state of lust inwardly from birth, and in a state of intelligence
            outwardly from training; but that no one is in a state of
            intelligence inwardly, thus in spirit – still less in a state of
            wisdom – except from the Lord.

            “For everyone,” they said, “is withheld from the
            lust of evil and kept in a state of intelligence according as he
            looks to the Lord and is at the same time conjoined with Him.
            Apart from this a person is nothing but lust. Yet he is still in a
            state of intelligence in outward aspects, or as regards the body,
            from training. For though a person craves honors and riches, or
            prominence and wealth, these two are not attained unless he
            appears to be moral and spiritual in character, thus intelligent
            and wise; and he learns to appear such from the time he is a
            little child. That is why, as soon as he comes into the company of
            others or into gatherings of them, he turns his spirit about,
            withdraws it from lust, and speaks and acts in accordance with the
            becoming and honorable virtues he has learned from early childhood
            and still retains in his physical memory – doing his utmost to
            take care that nothing emerges of the insanity of lust which grips
            his spirit.

            [3] “Consequently everyone not inwardly led by the Lord is
            a faker, a phony and a hypocrite, and so is human in appearance
            but not in reality. Of such a person it may be said that his outer
            shell or body is wise, while his kernel or spirit is insane; or
            that his outward aspect is human and his inward one animal. People
            like that direct the back of their heads upward and the front
            downward, thus going about as though afflicted with heaviness,
            their heads hanging down and their faces turned to the ground.
            When they put off the body and become spirits, and are then set
            free, they become reflections of the insanities of their lust. For
            people who are caught up in love of self have a longing to rule
            over the universe, even to extend its limits in order to widen
            their dominion, never seeing an end; while people who are caught
            up in a love of the world have a longing to possess all its
            riches, and they grieve and are envious if any of its treasures
            are kept hidden from them in the possession of others.

            “To keep people like this from becoming nothing but
            reflections of their lusts, therefore, and so no longer human, it
            is given them in the natural[*1] world to think in accord with
            fear for the loss of their reputation, and so the loss of honor
            and gain, together with fear of the law and its penalties; and
            also to apply their minds to some pursuit or work, by which they
            are held in external concerns and thus in a state of intelligence,
            however irrational and insane they are inwardly.”

            [4] Following this description I asked whether all people who
            are caught up in the lust are at the same time caught up in the
            fantasy of it.

            They replied that those are caught up in the fantasy of their
            lust who think withdrawn into themselves and indulge their
            imagination excessively, talking to themselves; for they almost
            separate their spirit from its connection with the body,
            overwhelming their understanding with delusion and stupidly
            entertaining themselves with nonsense as though everything in the
            universe were theirs.

            This madness is what a person comes into after death if he has
            withdrawn his spirit from the body and has been unwilling to
            relinquish the pleasure of his madness, thinking little from
            religion about evils and falsities, and least of all about
            unbridled love of self as being destructive of love toward the
            Lord, or about unbridled love of the world as being destructive of
            love for the neighbor.

            [*1] The original text reads, “in the spiritual world,”
            but preceding and subsequent statements in the discussion, and the
            general doctrine delivered elsewhere concerning the nature of the
            two worlds, suggest that it is probably a slip of the pen for “the
            natural world.” (The same statement is repeated in True
            Christian Religion, no. 662:3, without
            correction, but so are several other, more obvious errors,
            indicating that the latter was simply set in type again from the
            text here, without careful review.)

        • 268. [Hoarding gold]
          268. After that the two angels were affected with a desire, as
          was I, to see some of those people who from a love of the world
          are caught up in a delusionary lust or fantasy that they possess
          all riches. And we perceived that this desire was inspired in us
          in order that we might learn something about them.

          Their abodes lay beneath the ground under our feet, but above
          hell. Consequently we looked at each other and said, “Let’s
          go.” Seeing then an opening with a stairway in it, we
          descended by it; and we were told to approach them from the east,
          in order not to enter into the mist of their fantasy, which would
          cloud our understanding and with it our vision.

          [2] Suddenly, then, we saw a house built of reeds, being thus
          full of cracks, standing in a cloud of mist, which continually
          poured out like smoke through the crevices in three of the walls.
          Going in, we saw a group of fifty people on one side and fifty on
          another, sitting on benches, with their backs to the east and
          south so that they faced toward the west and north. Each had a
          table in front of him, and on the table some bulging moneybags,
          surrounded by a quantity of gold coins.

          We inquired, “Is that the wealth of all the inhabitants of
          the world?”

          To which they replied, “Not of all the inhabitants of the
          world, but of all the inhabitants in our kingdom.”

          Their speech had a hissing sound; and they themselves had what
          appeared to be roundish faces, which glistened like snail shells.
          The pupils of their eyes also seemed to glitter in fields of
          green, an effect arising from the light of their fantasy.

          Standing now in the midst of them, we said, “You believe,
          then, that you possess all the wealth in your kingdom.”

          “Yes,” they said, “we do.”

          “Which of you does?” we asked then.

          “Each of us,” they said.

          So we asked, “How can each of you possess it when there
          are so many of you?”

          They replied, “We each know that all that is his is mine,
          nor is anyone permitted to think, still less say, “What is
          mine is not yours.” However, we may think and say, “What
          is yours is mine.””

          The coins on the tables looked as though they were made
          entirely of gold, even to us. But when we let in some light from
          the east, they turned out to be specks of gold which the people
          had magnified into coins by a united effort of their common
          fantasy. They said that everyone who entered had to bring with him
          some gold, which they would cut into bits, and the bits into
          specks; and by the combined force of their fantasy they would then
          enlarge these into grander-looking coins.

          [3] At that we then said, “Were you not born human beings
          capable of reason? What is the reason for this delusionary
          foolishness of yours?”

          “We know it is only imaginary nonsense,” they said,
          “but because it pleases the inner longings of our minds, we
          come in here and entertain ourselves with thinking as though
          everything were ours. We do not stay here, however, more than a
          few hours. After that we leave, and every time we do our minds
          recover their sanity. Nevertheless, from time to time our
          delusionary pleasure overcomes us, causing us periodically to
          return, and periodically to leave. Thus we are sometimes wise and
          sometimes mad.

          “Besides, we know that a hard fate awaits those who
          craftily steal the property of others.”

          “What fate is that?” we asked.

          “They are swallowed up,” they said, “and thrust
          naked into some prison in hell, where they are made to toil for
          food and clothing, and afterwards for a few pennies. They
          accumulate these pennies and set their heart’s delight in them.
          But if they do any mischief to their companions, they have to give
          them part of their pennies as a fine.”

      • “Lucifer” (no. 269).
        • 269. [Lucifer]
          269. We subsequently ascended from this underworld in a
          southerly direction to where we had been before; and there the
          angels recounted a number of other things worth mentioning,
          concerning lust that is not delusionary or given to fantasy – the
          kind everyone is possessed of from birth. Whenever people are
          caught up in this lust, they said, they are as fools, and yet
          appear to themselves as extremely wise. But they are by turns
          brought back from this foolish state into a rational one, which in
          them resides in their outward faculties; and in that state they
          see, recognize and acknowledge their insanity.

          “But still,” the angels continued, “they long to
          go from their rational state into their irrational one, and they
          also let themselves go into it, as from a compelled and unpleasant
          condition into a free and pleasant one. Thus it is lust that
          pleasures them inwardly, and not intelligence.

          [2] “Every human being is from creation a combination of
          three universal loves: love of the neighbor, which is also a love
          of performing useful services; love of the world, which is also a
          love of possessing riches; and love of self, which is also a love
          of exercising command over others.

          “Love of the neighbor, or a love of performing useful
          services, is a love of the spirit. Love of the world, on the other
          hand, or a love of possessing riches, is a love of material
          things. And love of self, or a love of exercising command over
          others, is a love of one’s own person.

          [3] “A person is a human being as long as love of the
          neighbor or a love of performing useful services forms the head,
          with love of the world forming the body, and love of self forming
          the feet. But if love of the world forms the head, a person is not
          a human being except in a kind of hunchbacked way. And when love
          of self forms the head, he is no longer a human being standing on
          his feet, but one standing on his hands with his head down and
          bottom up.

          “When love of the neighbor forms the head, and the other
          two loves form respectively the body and feet, the person appears,
          when viewed from heaven, to have an angelic face, with a beautiful
          rainbow-like halo about his head. But if love of the world forms
          the head, he appears when viewed from heaven to have a pallid
          face, like that of a dead man, with a yellow circle about his
          head. And if love of self forms the head, he appears from heaven
          to have a dark face, with a white circle about his head.”

          At that point I asked what the circles around the heads
          represented.

          “They represent intelligence,” they replied. “A
          white circle around a head with a dark face represents that the
          person’s intelligence lies in his outward faculties or round about
          him, while insanity resides in his inward faculties or within him.
          Even a person like that is wise so long as he is in a state of the
          body, but when he is in a state of the spirit he is insane. No one
          is ever wise in spirit except from the Lord, which comes about
          when he is being born again or created anew by Him.”

          [4] Following these words, the ground to my left opened, and
          through the opening I saw a devil rising, having a luminous white
          circle about his head. I asked him therefore, “Who are you?”

          “I am Lucifer,” he answered, “son of the dawn.
          And because I made myself like the Most High, I was cast
          down.”[*1]

          In fact he was not really Lucifer, but he thought he was. So I
          asked him, “Seeing that you were cast down, how is it that
          are you able to rise again from hell?”

          To which he replied, “In hell I am a devil, but here I am
          an angel of light. Do you not see the ring of light encircling my
          head? And if you wish, you will see, too, that with moral people I
          am more than moral; with rational people, more than rational;
          indeed, with spiritual people, more than spiritual. I can even
          preach, and moreover have preached.”

          “What have you preached?” I asked.

          “I have preached,” he said, “against swindlers,
          against adulterers, and against infernal loves of every kind.
          Indeed, at such times I have called myself – Lucifer – a devil,
          and have uttered falsehoods against myself as such; and for that I
          have been praised to the sky. That is why I have been called son
          of the dawn. Moreover – what has surprised me – whenever I was in
          the pulpit, I had no other thought than to speak uprightly and
          fittingly. However, I discovered in myself the reason, which is
          that I was caught up in external states, and these were then
          separate from my inward ones. Yet, having discovered this in
          myself, still I could not change, because my arrogance prevented
          me from having regard for God.”

          [5] I then inquired, “How were you able to speak as you
          did, seeing that you are a swindler, adulterer, and devil
          yourself?”

          He replied, “I am one sort of person when I am in external
          states or a state of the body, and another when I am in internal
          states or a state of the spirit. In a state of the body I am an
          angel, but in a state of the spirit a devil. For in a state of the
          body I am directed by my understanding, but in a state of the
          spirit by my will; and my understanding carries me upward, while
          my will carries me down. Furthermore, when I am directed by my
          understanding, a band of white encompasses my head; however, as
          soon as my understanding surrenders itself completely to my will
          and becomes its servant – which is our ultimate fate – then the
          band turns black and disappears. When that happens, we can no
          longer ascend into this light.”

          The devil afterwards talked about his dual states, one
          external, one internal, and he spoke of them more rationally than
          anybody else has. But suddenly, when he noticed the angels with
          me, he became inflamed in face and voice and turned black,
          including even the band about his head; and he sank back down to
          hell through the opening through which he had risen.

          There were some people standing by who witnessed these events,
          and they drew from them the following conclusion, that a person’s
          character is shaped by his will, and not by his intellect, since
          love easily carries away the understanding into seeing things its
          way and becoming its servant.

          [6] I then asked the angels, “How is it possible for
          devils to have such rationality?”

          And they said, “It comes from the glory of self-love; for
          love of self is wrapped in glory, and glory raises the
          understanding even into the light of heaven. Indeed, in every
          person the understanding is capable of being raised in accordance
          with his knowledge, in contrast to the will, which can be raised
          only by living in accordance with the truths of the church and of
          reason. That is why even atheists who from love of self are
          motivated by the glory of their reputation and by a resulting
          conceit in their own intelligence, may possess a higher degree of
          rationality than many others – but only when they are directed by
          the thought of their intellect, and not by the affection of their
          will. For the affection of the will governs a person’s inner self,
          while the thought of the intellect governs his outer one.”

          One of the angels further explained why human beings are a
          combination of the three loves referred to previously, namely, a
          love of being useful, a love of the world, and a love of self. The
          reason, he said, is to enable a person to think in accord with
          God, yet do so as though on his own. The highest elements in a
          person are directed upwards to God, the intermediate elements
          outwards to the world, and the lowest ones downwards to self. And
          because these last elements are directed downwards, a person
          thinks as though on his own, when in fact he does so from God.

          [*1] See Isaiah 14:12-15. The reference is a metaphor for the
          king of Babylon (Isaiah 14:3,4), but based on an erroneous
          connection with Luke 10:18 (cf. also Revelation 9:1, 12:7-10),
          since the 3rd century it has been applied to Satan, a mythical
          rebel angel cast down from heaven. Modern interpreters generally
          understand the reference as an allusion to the planet Venus,
          translating it usually as “day star” or “morning
          star.”

      • On coldness in marriage (no. 270).
        • 270. [A palace in heaven]
          270. The third account:

          Awakening one morning, I fell to thinking about some questions
          having to do with married love, coming finally to this one:

          In what region of the human mind is true married love seated,
          and in what region, therefore, coldness in marriage?

          I knew that the human mind is divided into three regions, one
          above the other, and that natural love resides in the lowest
          region, spiritual love in the next higher one, and celestial love
          in the highest. I knew also that in each region there is a
          marriage of good and truth, and because good has to do with love,
          and truth with wisdom, that in each region there is a marriage of
          love and wisdom; moreover, that this marriage is the same as a
          marriage of the will and understanding, since the will is the
          recipient vessel of love, and the understanding the recipient
          vessel of wisdom.

          [2] While I was deep in thought on this question, I suddenly
          saw two swans flying towards the north, and presently two birds of
          paradise flying towards the south, and then two turtledoves flying
          in the east. Following their flight with my eyes, I next saw the
          two swans veer their course from the north to the east, likewise
          the two birds of paradise from the south, until they met up with
          the pair of turtledoves in the east. Then together they flew
          towards a certain lofty palace there, rising in the midst of olive
          trees, palms and beeches. The palace had three rows of windows,
          one above another; and as I watched, I saw the birds fly into the
          palace – the swans through windows standing open in the lowest
          row, the birds of paradise through windows open in the middle row,
          and the turtledoves through windows open in the highest row.

          [3] After I witnessed this event, an angel stood beside me and
          said, “Do you understand the things you have seen?”

          “A little,” I replied.

          “The palace,” said the angel, “represents the
          abodes of married love as these exist in human minds. Its highest
          level – into which the turtledoves disappeared – represents the
          highest region of the mind, where married love resides in the
          goodness of love together with its wisdom. The middle level – into
          which the birds of paradise disappeared – represents the
          intermediate region, where married love resides in a love of truth
          together with its intelligence. And the lowest level – into which
          the swans disappeared – represents the lowest region of the mind,
          where married love resides in a love of what is just and right
          together with its knowledge.

          [4] “These degrees are also symbolized by the three pairs
          of birds – the two turtledoves symbolizing married love in the
          highest region, the two birds of paradise married love in the
          intermediate region, and the two swans married love in the lowest
          region. The three kinds of trees surrounding the palace – the
          olive trees, palms and beeches – symbolize the same.

          “In heaven we call the highest region of the mind
          celestial, the intermediate one spiritual, and the lowest one
          natural. And we conceive of them as being like apartments in a
          house, one above another, with steps going up from one to the
          next, like stairs. Moreover, on each level there are as it were
          two sets of rooms, one for love, one for wisdom, with a bedroom,
          so to speak, in front, where they come together in bed – love with
          its wisdom, or good with its truth, or to say the same thing, the
          will with its intellect. In such a palace, all the mysteries of
          married love become visible as though in effigy.”

          [5] Hearing this, being fired with a desire to see one, I asked
          whether a person might go in and look at the palace there, since
          it was a representational one.

          The angel replied that only angels in the third heaven could,
          because for them every representation of love and wisdom becomes
          real.

          “What I have related to you I have heard from them,”
          he said, “including as well the following, that true married
          love resides in the highest region, in the midst of mutual love in
          the chamber or apartment of the will, and at the same time in the
          midst of perceptions of wisdom in the chamber or apartment of the
          intellect; and these come together in bed in a bedroom that is
          located in front on the east side.”

          “Why,” I asked, “are there two chambers?”

          “Because,” he said, “a husband lives in the
          chamber of the intellect, and a wife lives in the chamber of the
          will.”

          [6] At that I inquired, “If that is where married love
          resides, where then does coldness in marriage reside?”

          “It, too, resides in the highest region,” he replied,
          “but only in the chamber of the intellect, with the chamber
          of the will on that level being closed off. For as often as it
          pleases, the understanding with its truths can ascend by a spiral
          stairway to its chamber in the highest region; but if the will
          with the goodness of its love does not ascend at the same time to
          its companion chamber, the latter remains closed, and coldness
          develops in the other, which is the coldness one finds in
          marriage.

          “As long as such coldness to one’s wife continues, the
          intellect looks down from the highest region to the lowest; and if
          fear does not hold it back, it also descends in order to warm
          itself there with an illicit fire.”

          Having said this, the angel wished to tell me still more about
          married love from the depictions of it in that palace; but he
          said, “Enough for now. First investigate whether these
          concepts are beyond people’s general comprehension. If they are,
          what is the use of saying more? On the other hand, if they are
          not, more will be disclosed another time.”[*1]

          [*1] We find, however, no report of any further disclosures.

    • 271. REASONS IN MARRIAGE FOR APPARENT LOVE,
      FRIENDSHIP AND FAVOR

        • 271. [APPARENT LOVE, FRIENDSHIP AND FAVOR]
          Now that we have considered reasons for cold states and
          separations, it follows in succession that we consider also reasons
          in marriage for apparent love, friendship and favor. For although
          states of coldness separate the minds of married partners in the
          world today, we know that they continue to live together and beget
          children. This would not be the case if there were not states of
          apparent love as well, which at times simulate or imitate the
          warmth of genuine love. We will see in the following discussions
          that these appearances are necessary and useful – that without them
          homes would not hold together, and so neither would organized
          societies.

          In addition to this, some conscientious persons may labor under
          the idea that disagreements of minds and resulting internal
          estrangements between them and their partner are attributable to
          some fault in themselves, so that they are to blame, on which
          account they grieve in heart. But because internal differences are
          not in their hands to remedy, it is enough for them to assuage
          distresses arising from conscience by shows of apparent love and
          favor. Friendship may even return as a result, which carries within
          it married love on the part of the one, if not on the part of the
          other.

          However, because this subject includes a number of different
          points to be considered, we will divide our treatment into sections
          as before. Their headings are as follows:

          (1) Nearly all people in the natural world can be associated
          together in respect to their outward affections, but not in respect
          to their inner ones if these differ and become apparent.

          (2) In the spiritual world, all are associated together in
          accord with their inner affections, and not in accord with their
          outward affections unless these are in harmony with their inner
          ones.

          (3) Marriages in the world are generally contracted on the basis
          of outward affections.

          (4) If inward affections are not present to join the partners’
          minds, however, the marriages come apart in the home.

          (5) Nevertheless, marriages in the world are to continue to the
          end of one or the other’s life.

          (6) In marriages in which inward affections do not join the
          partners, outward affections may exist which simulate inward ones
          and keep the two together.

          (7) The result is apparent love, or apparent friendship and
          favor, between the partners.

          (8) These appearances are simulations of married love, which are
          commendable because they are useful and necessary.

          (9) In a spiritual person joined to a natural one, these
          simulations of married love are a matter of justice and judgment.

          (10) In natural people, these simulations of married love are a
          matter of prudence for various reasons.

          (11) They are adopted as means of amendment and as means of
          accommodation.

          (12) They are adopted to preserve order in the couple’s domestic
          affairs and to maintain their assistance to each other.

          (13) They are adopted because of their shared involvement in the
          care of infants and concern for their children.

          (14) They are adopted for the sake of peace in the home.

          (15) They are adopted for the sake of their reputation outside
          the home.

          (16) They are adopted for the sake of various benefits expected
          from the partner or from the partner’s relatives, and thus because
          of a fear of losing them.

          (17) They are adopted in order to have one’s flaws excused, and
          thus to avoid disgrace.

          (18) They are adopted as means of reconciliation.

          (19) If favor does not cease on the wife’s part when ability
          ceases in the man, a friendship resembling a married one may
          develop as they grow older.

          (20) Various types of apparent love and friendship are possible
          between partners in cases where one has been subjugated and is thus
          subservient to the other.

          (21) There are hellish marriages in the world in which the
          partners are inwardly bitter enemies and yet outwardly seem like
          the closest of friends.

          Explanation of these statements now follows.

      • (1) Nearly all people in the natural world
        can be associated together in respect to their outward affections,
        but not in respect to their inner ones if these differ and become
        apparent.

        • 272. [Outward affections can associate people
          in the natural world]

          272. (1) Nearly all people in the natural world can be
          associated together in respect to their outward affections, but
          not in respect to their inner affections if these differ and
          become apparent. The reason is that in the world a person is
          invested with a material body, and this is filled with urges,
          which in it are like dregs that settle to the bottom when newly
          fermented wine is being clarified. From such elements come the
          materials of which the bodies of people in the world are composed.
          As a result, inward affections that belong to the mind do not
          appear, and in many cases scarcely a trace of them is visible. For
          either the body swallows them up and immerses them in its dregs,
          or from a habit of dissembling learned from early childhood, it
          hides them deep within and conceals them from the sight of others.
          This also enables it to enter into the state of some affection
          which it observes in someone else, and to attract the other’s
          affection to it, so that they form a relationship. They form a
          relationship, because every affection has its delight, and
          delights are what join hearts together.

          It would be different, however, if inward affections were like
          outward ones, visible in the expression of the face and gesture
          and audible in the sound of the speech, or if their delights were
          noticeable to the nose and smelled, as is the case in the
          spiritual world. If these affections were then dissimilar to the
          point of friction and conflict, they would separate their hearts
          from each other and part, removing themselves to a distance
          commensurate with their perception of antipathy.

          It is apparent from this that nearly all people in the natural
          world can be associated together in respect to outward affections,
          but not in respect to their inner affections, if these differ and
          become apparent.

      • (2) In the spiritual world, all are
        associated together in accord with their inner affections, and not
        in accord with their outward affections unless these are in harmony
        with their inner ones.

        • 273. [Inner affections associate people in
          the spiritual world]

          273. (2) In the spiritual world, all are associated together in
          accord with their inner affections, and not in accord with their
          outward affections unless these are in harmony with their inner
          ones. That is because they have then cast off the material body,
          which was able to assume and exhibit the features of all sorts of
          affections, as we said just above. And when a person is divested
          of that body, he is in a state of his inner affections, which his
          body previously concealed. With respect to similarities and
          dissimilarities of character or congenial and uncongenial feelings
          in the spiritual world, therefore, these are not only sensed
          there, but they also appear in their faces, words and gestures.
          Consequently people of like character in that world are associated
          together, and people of unlike character are apart. (It is because
          of this that the whole of heaven has been organized by the Lord in
          accordance with all varieties of affections having to do with a
          love of goodness and truth, and in opposition to it the whole of
          hell in accordance with all varieties of affections having to do
          with a love of evil and falsity.)

          [2] Since angels and spirits have inner and outer affections
          just as people in the world do, and since their inner affections
          cannot be hidden there by outward ones, so that the inner
          affections show through and make themselves evident, therefore the
          two sets of affections in them are brought into likeness and
          correspondence; and after that their inner affections are
          reflected through their outer ones, being imaged in their faces,
          perceived in the sounds of their speech, and also visible in the
          gestures of their comportment. (Angels and spirits have inner and
          outer affections, too, because they have a mind and a body, and
          their affections and consequent thoughts are matters of the mind,
          while their sensations and consequent pleasures are matters of the
          body.)

          [3] It frequently happens in the spiritual world that friends
          meet after death and remember their friendship in the previous
          world; and they then believe they will continue to share a life of
          friendship as before. But when their comradeship is perceived in
          heaven as being one based only on outward affections, a separation
          is effected in accordance with their inner affections. Then, from
          that place of meeting, some are sent away to the north, and some
          to the west, each of them being at some distance from the other,
          so that they never see each other again or recognize each other;
          for in the places where they stay, their faces change to become
          images of their inner affections.

          It is apparent from this that in the spiritual world, all are
          associated together in accord with their inner affections, and not
          in accord with their outer affections, unless these are in harmony
          with their inner ones.

      • (3) Marriages in the world are generally
        contracted on the basis of outward affections.

        • 274. [Marriages based on outward affections]
          274. (3) Marriages in the world are generally contracted on the
          basis of outward affections. This is because inward affections are
          rarely considered; and even if they are, still a reflection of
          them is not seen in the woman, for by native instinct she
          withdraws her inner affections into the secret chambers of her
          mind.

          There are many outward affections which induce men into
          marrying. A primary affection in today’s world is enlargement of
          the family fortune by wealth, either to become rich or to have the
          means. Another is aspiration to positions of honor, either to be
          held in high regard, or to enjoy an increased state of prosperity.

          Added to these are various enticements and lusts. These, too,
          do not allow opportunity for exploring congruences of inward
          affections.

          From these few observations it is apparent that marriages in
          the world are generally contracted on the basis of outward
          affections.

      • (4) If inward affections are not present to
        join the partners’ minds, however, the marriages come apart in the
        home.

        • 275. [Inward affections hold marriages
          together]

          275. (4) If inward affections that join the partners’ minds are
          not present, however, the marriages come apart in the home. We
          say, in the home, because it takes place in private between them.
          It happens with the disappearance of their initial feelings of
          warmth, ignited at the time of their engagement and burning at the
          approach of their wedding, as these afterwards gradually die down
          because of the difference in their inward affections and finally
          vanish into states of coldness. People know that the outward
          affections which once induced and enticed them into marrying are
          then cast aside, so as to no longer join the two.

          We already established in the previous chapter that cold states
          arise for a variety of internal, external and incidental reasons –
          all of which draw their origins from a dissimilarity in inward
          inclinations.

          This makes plain the truth, that unless outward affections have
          present in them inner affections that join the partners’ minds,
          marriages come apart in the home.

      • (5) Nevertheless, marriages in the world are
        to continue to the end of one or the other’s life.

        • 276. [Marriages are to continue]
          276. (5) Nevertheless, marriages in the world are to continue
          to the end of life. We cite this point to present more clearly to
          the sight of reason how necessary, useful and true it is that in
          marriages where married love is not genuine, it should still be
          affected or be made to appear as though it were. It would be
          different if marriages once entered into were not compacts to the
          end of life, but could be dissolved at will. Such was the case in
          the Israelite nation, which arrogated to itself the right to put
          away their wives for any reason, as is apparent from this account
          in Matthew:

          The Pharisees…came…, saying to (Jesus), “Is it lawful
          for a man to divorce his wife for any reason?”

          Then when Jesus answered that it was not lawful to divorce a
          wife and marry another excepting for licentiousness, they replied
          that Moses had nevertheless commanded them to give her a
          certificate of divorce and put her away. And the disciples said,

          “If such be the case of a man with his wife, it is better
          not to marry.” (Matthew 19:3-10)

          [2] Since the marriage covenant is accordingly a covenant for
          life, it follows that appearances of love and friendship between
          married partners are necessary.

          The principle that marriages once contracted are to continue on
          to the end of life in the world is based on Divine law, and being
          based on this, it is a matter also of rational law and therefore
          of civil law. It is based on the Divine law which says that it is
          not lawful to divorce a wife and marry another excepting on the
          grounds of licentiousness, as cited above. It is a matter of
          rational law, because rational law is founded on spiritual law,
          since the Divine law and rational law are the same. In the light
          of the one and the other together, or by considering the rational
          law in the light of the Divine law, it may appear to a great
          number of people what monstrous and destructive ruinations of
          society and dissolutions of marriages would result if divorcings
          of wives were at the good pleasure of husbands, prior to death.
          What monstrous and destructive ruinations of society would result
          may be seen in some measure in the narrative account in which the
          origin of married love was discussed by the people gathered from
          the nine kingdoms, nos. 103-114, to which it is
          unnecessary to add further arguments.

          However, these considerations do not prevent separations from
          being permitted for their own reasons, as discussed above in nos.
          252-254, and also the taking of a mistress,
          which we consider in Part Two.[*1]

          [*1] See “Taking a Mistress,” nos. 462ff.

      • (6) In marriages in which inward affections
        do not join the partners, outward affections may exist which
        simulate inward ones and keep the two together.

        • 277. [Simulated affections can keep the two
          together]

          277. (6) In marriages in which inward affections do not join
          the partners, outward affections may exist which simulate inward
          ones and keep the two together. By inward affections we mean
          mutual inclinations that exist in the mind of each from heaven,
          while by outward affections we mean inclinations that exist in the
          mind of each from the world. These latter affections or
          inclinations are indeed equally qualities of the mind, but they
          occupy its lower region, whereas inward affections occupy a higher
          one.

          Nevertheless, because both are accorded their seat in the mind,
          it may be believed that they are alike and congruent. Even if they
          are nevertheless not alike, still they can appear as though they
          were, although in some cases these appearances are adopted as
          expedients, and in some cases as gentle pretenses.

          [2] As a result of the initial marriage covenant, there is a
          certain community of life implanted in married partners, which
          still remains rooted in them even if they differ in disposition
          and character. They share, for example, a community of
          possessions, and in many cases a community of duties in the
          services they perform and in meeting the various demands of the
          home, leading in turn to a community of thoughts and certain
          shared secrets. They also have a community of life from sharing a
          bed and in the love they have for their offspring. Added to these
          are a number of other bonds which, being graven on the marriage
          covenant, are therefore also graven on their minds.

          These bonds give rise primarily to outward affections that
          resemble inward ones. Affections which only simulate inward ones,
          on the other hand, come partly from this origin and partly from
          another. However, these are each discussed in considerations that
          follow.

      • (7) The result is apparent love, or apparent
        friendship and favor, between the partners.

        • 278. [Apparent love and friendship]
          278. (7) The result is apparent love, or apparent friendship
          and favor, between the partners. Instances of apparent love,
          friendship and favor develop in consequence of the fact that the
          marriage covenant is a compact to the end of life, and in
          consequence of the marital community of life graven on the two
          thus pledged, which gives birth to outward affections resembling
          inward ones, as indicated just above. In addition, they develop
          also in consequence of considerations that are useful and matters
          of necessity. It is partly such considerations which give rise to
          outward affections either shared or simulated, which cause an
          outward love or an outward friendship to appear as though it were
          an inward one.

      • (8) These appearances are simulations of
        married love, which are commendable because they are useful and
        necessary.

        • 279. [Simulations are commendable]
          279. (8) These appearances are simulations of married love,
          which are commendable because they are useful and necessary. We
          call them simulations because they exist between partners who
          differ in mind, and who because of these differences are inwardly
          in a state of coldness. When the partners nevertheless in outward
          respects live a companionable life together as is fitting and
          proper, then their interrelations in living together may be called
          simulations, but marital simulations, which, being commendable
          because of the uses they serve, are altogether different from
          hypocritical ones; for by their means they provide for all those
          good ends which are enumerated in succession under headings (11)
          to (20) below. They are commendable as necessities, because
          otherwise those good ends would be cast aside; and yet their
          living together is enjoined by covenant and law, so that it is
          incumbent on them both as a duty.

      • (9) In a spiritual person joined to a
        natural one, these simulations of married love are a matter of
        justice and judgment.

        • 280. [Simulations are a matter of justice and
          judgment]

          280. (9) In a spiritual person joined to a natural one, these
          simulations of married love are a matter of justice and judgment.
          That is because a spiritual person does what he does in accordance
          with justice and judgment. Therefore he does not see these
          simulations as estranged from his inward affections but as coupled
          together with them. For he is serious in his actions and looks to
          amendment as the goal; and if this is not attained, he looks to
          accommodation, for the sake of order in the home, for the sake of
          maintaining their assistance to each other, for the sake of
          providing for the care of infants, for the sake of peace and
          tranquillity. He is led to these intentions by a sense of justice,
          and with judgment he carries them into practice.

          This is the way a spiritual person lives with a natural one,
          because a spiritual person behaves spiritually, even with one who
          is natural.

      • (10) In natural people, these simulations of
        married love are a matter of prudence for various reasons.

        • 281. [Simulations are a matter of prudence]
          281. (10) In natural people, these simulations of married love
          are a matter of prudence, for various reasons. It is impossible
          for an interior love to exist between two married partners, one of
          whom is spiritual, the other natural. By spiritual we mean one who
          loves spiritual things and who thus has his wisdom from the Lord;
          and by natural we mean one who loves only natural things and who
          thus has his wisdom from himself. When two people like this are
          joined in marriage, married love in the spiritual partner is warm
          and in the natural partner cold. It is plain that warmth and
          coldness cannot coexist, thus that warmth cannot ignite the one in
          a state of coldness unless the coldness is first dispelled, or
          coldness flow into the one in a state of warmth unless the warmth
          is first removed. That is why it is impossible for an interior
          love to exist between married partners when one of them is
          spiritual and the other natural, but that a love resembling an
          interior one may exist on the part of the spiritual partner, as we
          said under an earlier heading.[*1]

          [2] On the other hand, no interior love is possible between
          natural partners, because they are both cold. If they experience
          feelings of warmth, it is owing to an unchaste love. Nevertheless,
          partners like this can still live together in the same house
          despite their being divided in spirit, and they can also feign
          seeming expressions of love and friendship in their relations with
          each other, no matter how mutually discordant their minds. In
          their case outward affections may be set on fire, so to speak,
          which are concerned for the most part with wealth and possessions
          or with honor and positions of rank; and because this fire induces
          a fear of losing such things, simulations of married love are to
          them necessary, being adopted chiefly for the reasons cited under
          headings (15) to (17) below. They may also be adopted for the
          other reasons enumerated with these, in which case they may have
          something in common with the reasons of a spiritual person,
          mentioned in no. 280 above; but only if the
          prudence in the natural person includes a measure of intelligence.

          [*1] See no. 277.

      • (11) They are adopted as means of amendment
        and as means of accommodation.

        • 282. [Amendment and accommodation]
          282. (11) They are adopted as means of amendment and as means
          of accommodation. Simulations of married love are appearances of
          love and friendship between partners who differ in spirit; and
          they are adopted as means of amendment when a spiritual person is
          bound together by covenant of marriage with a natural one, because
          a spiritual person’s whole intention is to amend their life. This
          he accomplishes by wise and refined conversations and by favors
          appealing to the other’s nature. If these fall on deaf ears,
          however, and fail to affect the behavior of the other, he has as
          his intention to find means of accommodation, for the sake of
          preserving order in their domestic affairs, for the sake of
          maintaining the assistance they render each other, and for the
          sake of the infants and children, in addition to other, similar
          ends. For the words and deeds that issue from a spiritual person
          are inspired by justice and judgment, as we showed above in no.
          280.

          [2] By contrast, in the case of partners neither of whom is
          spiritual but both natural, a similar effort may be made, but for
          other ends. If one or the other looks to amendment or
          accommodation, either his purpose is to coerce the other into
          conduct similar to his own and to subordinate the other to his
          wishes, or it is to gain certain services and turn them to his
          benefit and advantage. Or it may be for the sake of peace within
          the home, or for the sake of their reputation outside the home. Or
          it may be for the sake of various benefits hoped for from the
          partner or from the partner’s relatives. Or it may be for the sake
          of other ends. However, in some people these ends are owing to a
          prudence born of reason, in some to a native civility, in some to
          a fear of losing the pleasures of lusts customary in them from
          birth, and other causes, the effect of which is to make their
          affectations of favor and seeming expressions of married love
          either more or less insincere.

          There are also cases in which displays of favor and seeming
          expressions of married love are adopted outside the home and none
          inside the home; but these are for the sake of their reputation,
          or if not for the sake of this, they are in the nature of a game.

      • (12) They are adopted to preserve order in
        the couple’s domestic affairs and to maintain their assistance to
        each other.

        • 283. [Domestic order]
          283. (12) They are adopted to preserve order in the couple’s
          domestic affairs and to maintain their assistance to each other.
          Every household that includes children, their tutors and other
          domestic help is a miniature society resembling the larger one.
          The larger one, indeed, consists of these smaller units, as a
          whole formed of its parts; and as the welfare of the larger
          society depends on the presence of order, so also does the welfare
          of this smaller society. Consequently, as it is important for
          civil officers to keep watch and see to it that order exists and
          is preserved in the collective society, so it is important for
          married partners to do the same in their individual society.

          This order, however, is not possible if husband and wife differ
          in spirit; for their offerings of mutual counsel and aid are drawn
          by these differences in divergent directions and become as divided
          as the partners are in spirit, on which account the form of a
          little society is rent asunder. To preserve order, therefore, and
          by this means to protect themselves and at the same time their
          household, or their household and at the same time themselves, so
          that they do not go to ruin and collapse in disaster, necessity
          requires that master and mistress agree and act in harmony. Even
          if they cannot do this owing to their difference of minds, still
          for all to be well it is both fitting and proper that they achieve
          it by a representative show of marital friendship. People know
          that agreements in household matters are thus patched together for
          reasons that are necessary and therefore useful.

      • (13) They are adopted because of their
        shared involvement in the care of infants and concern for their
        children.

        • 284. [For the sake of the children]
          284. (13) They are adopted because of their shared involvement
          in the care of infants and concern for their children. It is well
          known that simulations of married love spring up between married
          partners, or appearances of love and friendship that resemble
          truly marital ones, because of their infants and children. Their
          common love causes each partner to regard the other with kindness
          and favor.

          Love in the mother and love in the father for their infants and
          children are allied, like the heart and the lungs in the breast. A
          love of them in the mother is like the heart there, and a love for
          them in the father is like the lungs there. We make this
          comparison because the heart corresponds to love, and the lungs to
          understanding; and love arising from the will is what a mother
          feels, and love arising from the understanding is what a father
          feels.

          In the case of spiritual men a marital bond is formed by means
          of this love in accordance with justice and judgment: in
          accordance with justice, because the mother once carried them in
          her womb, in pain gave birth to them, and afterwards with
          unwearying care went on to nurse them, feed them, bathe them,
          clothe them and bring them up.

      • (14) They are adopted for the sake of peace
        in the home.

        • 285. [Peace in the home]
          285. (14) They are adopted for the sake of peace in the home.
          It is primarily men who adopt simulations of married love or
          outward shows of friendship for the sake of peace and tranquillity
          at home. This is owing to their natural characteristic of doing
          what they do by an exercise of the intellect. Because the
          intellect is a thinking faculty, it occupies itself with various
          matters which disturb, distract and trouble their spirit.
          Consequently, if they were to find no peace at home, eventually
          their vital forces would languish, their inner life would sink
          almost into a state of death, and thus the health of both mind and
          body would be ruined. Men’s minds would be assailed by the fears
          of these and many other dangers if they did not find havens of
          refuge at home with their wives to calm the turmoils of their
          intellect.

          [2] Besides, peace and tranquillity soothe their minds and
          dispose them to receive favorably kindnesses offered by their
          wives, who spend every effort to dispel from their minds the
          clouds which they keenly observe in their husbands. And this also
          makes their wives’ presence agreeable.

          It is apparent from this that a simulation and seeming display
          of true married love for the sake of peace and tranquillity at
          home is both necessary and useful.

          To this we add the further note that simulations on the part of
          wives are not the same as simulations on the part of men. Even if
          they appear similar to them, they are expressions of real love,
          because women are born forms of love for the understanding of men.
          They accept their husbands’ displays of favor graciously,
          therefore, if not in words, still in heart.

      • (15) They are adopted for the sake of their
        reputation outside the home.

        • 286. [Reputation outside the home]
          286. (15) They are adopted for the sake of their reputation
          outside the home. The fortunes of men depend for the most part on
          their reputation for being just, honest and upright; and this
          reputation in turn depends on the wife, who knows her husband’s
          private life. Consequently, if differences between their minds
          were to break out into open displays of enmity, quarreling and
          rancorous threats, and if these were to be made publicly known by
          the wife and her friends, or by the domestic help, they would
          easily be turned into reasons for condemnation that would bring
          dishonor and disgrace to his name. To avoid such eventualities, a
          man has no other recourse but to either simulate favor toward his
          wife or separate from her so that they no longer live in the same
          house.

      • (16) They are adopted for the sake of
        various benefits expected from the partner or from the partner’s
        relatives, and thus because of a fear of losing them.

        • 287. [Benefits from partner and in-laws]
          287. (16) They are adopted for the sake of various benefits
          expected from the partner or from the partner’s relatives, and
          thus because of a fear of losing them. This happens primarily in
          marriages in which the partners are of dissimilar station and
          condition, on which subject see no. 250 above.
          Such a circumstance exists, for example, when a man marries a
          wealthy wife, and she stashes away her money in moneybags or her
          valuables in securities; and still more if she boldly insists that
          it is the husband’s duty to maintain the household out of his
          income and earnings. It is common knowledge that semblances and
          seeming displays of married love are compelled as a result.

          Similar circumstances exist when a man marries a wife whose
          parents, relatives and friends are established in high positions,
          in profitable businesses or in commercial operations, who are able
          to exercise control over her more fortunate condition. It is
          common knowledge that simulations and seeming displays of married
          love are adopted on these accounts as well.

          In cases like this in which various benefits are expected, it
          is obvious that these semblances and simulations are adopted
          because of a fear of losing them.

      • (17) They are adopted in order to have one’s
        flaws excused, and thus to avoid disgrace.

        • 288. [Avoiding disgrace]
          288. (17) They are adopted in order to have one’s flaws
          excused, and thus to avoid disgrace. Flaws which cause married
          partners to fear disgrace are of many kinds, some serious, some
          not so serious. By flaws we mean flaws of the mind and flaws of
          the body of less consequence than the impairments listed as
          reasons for separation in the previous chapter (nos. 252,
          253). What we mean, therefore, are flaws which,
          because of their disgraceful nature, are kept quiet by the other
          partner. Besides these, in some cases there are inadvertent
          violations of the law, which would be subject to legal penalties
          if they were divulged. Also the loss of a man’s sexual readiness,
          which is something men ordinarily pride themselves on.

          It is apparent without need of further substantiation that to
          have flaws of this kind excused in order to avoid disgrace is
          reason for a person’s simulating love and friendship in his
          relations with his partner.

      • (18) They are adopted as means of
        reconciliation.

        • 289. [Reconcilation]
          289. (18) They are adopted as means of reconciliation. Between
          partners who for various reasons are discordant in mind,
          intermittent states occur of disagreement and trust, of
          estrangement and union, indeed of quarreling and making up, thus
          of reconciliation. This is something that is known in the world;
          and also that their reconciliations are effected by shows of
          apparent friendship.

          There are also reconciliations effected after periods of
          separation which are not so sporadic and transitory.

      • (19) If favor does not cease on the wife’s
        part when ability ceases in the man, a friendship resembling a
        marital one may develop as they grow older.

        • 290. [Friendship in old age]
          290. (19) If favor does not cease on the wife’s part when
          ability ceases in the man, a friendship resembling a marital one
          may develop as they grow older. Of the reasons between married
          partners for a separation of their spirits, a primary one is a
          dwindling of favor on the part of the wife as ability ceases in
          the man, so that they no longer make love. For just as states of
          warmth communicate with each other, so do states of coldness. It
          then comes to pass that, with the waning of lovemaking on the part
          of each, their friendship ceases, and if they do not fear the
          ruination of their private life in the home, also any feeling of
          favor. That this happens is plain from both reason and experience.

          If therefore to avoid this the man quietly attributes the cause
          to himself, and the wife still perseveres in a chaste attitude of
          favor toward him, a new friendship may develop on that account,
          which, being between married partners, appears as something
          resembling married love.

          That a friendship resembling one of married love is possible
          between older married partners is attested by experience, from
          their tranquil, secure, and amiable associations, interactions and
          relations with each other, full of mutual courtesy.

      • (20) Various types of apparent love and
        friendship are possible between partners in cases where one has been
        subjugated and is thus subservient to the other.

        • 291. [Power and submission]
          291. (20) Various types of apparent love and friendship are
          possible between partners in cases where one has been subjugated
          and is thus subservient to the other. After a married couple has
          passed through the initial stages of marriage, contests arise
          between them over who has what right and who has what power. The
          dispute over who has what right turns about the fact that
          according to the terms of their compact and covenant they have
          equality, and yet each has his own standing in duties connected
          with his role. The dispute over who has what power then arises
          from the fact that men insist on having superiority in all matters
          affecting the household just because they are men, leaving women
          in a position of inferiority just because they are women. That
          this is what happens is something people are aware of in today’s
          world.

          Such familiar contests at the present day spring from no other
          circumstance than people’s ignorance of true married love and
          their lack of any perception or sensation of the blessings of that
          love. In the absence of an awareness and perception or sensation
          of these things, instead of true married love comes a desire to
          possess which masquerades as that love. With genuine love removed,
          from this desire wells a striving for power, an endeavor which in
          some cases is a matter of delight arising from a love of ruling,
          which in some cases is a tactic instilled by shrewd women before
          the wedding, and which in some cases is provoked.

          [2] When men have this as their endeavor and after a succession
          of struggles obtain the mastery, they then reduce their wives to
          the condition of being either a possession at their disposal, or
          toadies obedient to their will, or indentured servants, depending
          on the degree of their will to prevail and the capability they
          have inherent or latent in them. On the other hand, if wives have
          this as their endeavor and after a succession of struggles obtain
          the mastery, they then reduce their husbands to the condition of
          being either equal to them in privilege, or toadies obedient to
          their will, or indentured servants. However, in the case of wives,
          after they have obtained the scepter of command, their desire to
          possess that masquerades as married love remains, being held in
          check by law and the fear of legitimate separation if they extend
          their power beyond just limits; and since it remains, they
          therefore lead a companionable life with their husbands.

          [3] But what sort of love and friendship exists between a
          domineering wife and a subservient husband, or between a
          domineering husband and a subservient wife, cannot be described in
          a few words. Even if their different types were condensed into
          classes and these classes were listed, several pages would not
          suffice; for they vary in character and kind. They vary in
          character in the case of men according to the nature of their will
          to prevail; so likewise in the case of wives. And their
          diversities in men differ in kind from those which are
          identifiable with women. They differ in kind, because men of this
          sort feel no friendship of love other than a foolish one, whereas
          wives feel the friendship of an illusory love stemming from their
          desire to possess.

          By what art wives acquire for themselves power over men shall
          now be told under the following heading.

      • (21) There are hellish marriages in the
        world in which the partners are inwardly bitter enemies and yet
        outwardly seem like the closest of friends.

        • 292. [Hellish marriages]
          292. (21) There are hellish marriages in the world in which the
          partners are inwardly bitter enemies and yet outwardly seem like
          the closest of friends. Actually, I am forbidden by wives of this
          sort in the spiritual world to bring the existence of such
          marriages to public notice; for they are afraid that their art of
          acquiring power over men will be exposed at the same time, which
          they for their part are extremely eager to keep concealed.
          However, being spurred by men in the same world to make known the
          reasons for their internal hatred and virtual rage, injected into
          their hearts against their wives in consequence of those secret
          arts of theirs, I would like simply to present here the following
          reports.

          According to the men, they unconsciously contracted a terrific
          fear of their wives. As a result they could not help but slavishly
          obey their wives’ wishes and do their bidding more submissively
          than the humblest of servants, so that they became practically
          spiritless weaklings. Moreover, they said, those who became such
          in relation to their wives included not only men without any
          standing or position, but also men in high standing and great
          position, even strong and distinguished leaders. They said, too,
          that after contracting this terror they could not work up any
          courage to speak with their wives in other than a friendly way, or
          to do for them anything but what met their fancy, even though they
          harbored a deadly hatred towards their wives in their hearts. And
          yet their wives continued to speak and behave with them in
          courteous fashion, they said, and to listen dutifully to some of
          their requests.

          [2] Now because these men wondered themselves why there arose
          in them such animosity inwardly and such apparent amiability
          outwardly, they sought the reasons from women who knew the secret
          art that caused it; and from what those women told them, they
          said, they learned that women deeply conceal a knowledge within
          them by which they know how to skillfully tame men, if they wish,
          and make them subject to their command. They learned further that,
          on the part of ill-bred wives, this is accomplished by scoldings
          and periodic commendations; in some cases by continually hard and
          unpleasant looks, and in similar cases by other tactics. On the
          part of well-bred wives, however, it is accomplished by persistent
          and incessant pressings of requests, and by stubbornly resisting
          and opposing their husbands if they suffer hardships on their
          account, insisting on their right of equality by law and making
          themselves brazenly obstinate because of it. Even if they were to
          be expelled from the house, they say, they would return at will
          and continue to pursue the same demands. For they know that the
          nature of men makes it altogether impossible for them to withstand
          the persistent efforts of their wives, and that once men have
          yielded they then submit themselves to their wives’ wishes. At
          that point, said the men, once the wives have them under their
          control, they then show their husbands courteous and amiable
          treatment.

          (The real reason wives are able to gain control by such guile
          is that a man acts in accord with his intellect and a woman in
          accord with her will; and the will can be stubborn, but not the
          intellect. I have been told that the worst of this lot are
          inwardly consumed with a desire to rule and can doggedly stick to
          their persistent endeavors even to the last breath of life.)

          [3] I have also heard justifications from the aforementioned
          women in the spiritual world as to why they entered into the
          practice of this art. They said they would not have entered into
          it except that they foresaw the supreme contempt, future rejection
          and thus utter ruin that lay ahead for them if they were to be
          beaten down by their husbands. Thus, they said, out of necessity
          they had taken up these weapons of theirs. To this they added the
          following warning for men, to leave to their wives their rights,
          and when they experience periodic states of coldness, not to
          regard their wives as inferior and treat them worse than they
          would servants. They said as well that many of their sex are not
          prepared to practice this art owing to an innate timidity (though
          I put in, owing to an innate modesty.)

          This now is sufficient to make known what we mean by hellish
          marriages in the world, in which the partners are inwardly bitter
          enemies and yet outwardly seem like the closest of friends.


      • Seven wives sitting in a rose garden, who
        made various comments on the subject of married love (no. 293).

        • 293. [Seven wives sitting in a rose garden]
          293. To this I will append two narrative accounts. Here is the
          first:

          I once looked out my window toward the east and saw seven women
          sitting next to a rose garden by a spring drinking water. I
          strained my eyes intently to see what they were doing, and the
          intensity of my gaze caught their attention. With a motion of the
          head one of them therefore invited me over. Accordingly I left the
          house and hurried in their direction. And when I arrived, I
          politely asked them where they were from.

          They then said, “We are wives. We are talking here about
          the delights of married love, and we have concluded from a good
          deal of evidence that these delights are also delights of wisdom.”

          This response so delighted my heart that I seemed to be more
          interiorly in the spirit and to have on that account a more
          enlightened perception than ever before. So I said to them,
          “Permit me an opportunity to ask you some questions about
          those pleasant delights.” And they nodded their assent.

          So I asked, “How do you wives know that the delights of
          married love are at the same time delights of wisdom?”

          [2] They then replied, “We know it from the correspondence
          that exists between wisdom in our husbands and the delights of
          married love in us. For the delights of this love in us heighten
          or diminish and take on altogether different qualities according
          to the wisdom in our husbands.”

          On hearing this I inquired further, saying, “I know you
          are affected by gentle words from your husbands and cheerful
          states of mind on their part, and that you take delight on account
          of these with all your heart. But I wonder at your saying that it
          is in response to their wisdom. However, tell me what wisdom is
          and what sort of wisdom you mean.”

          [3] To this the wives replied with annoyance, “You think
          we do not know what wisdom is and what sort of wisdom we mean,
          even though we continually reflect on it in our husbands and daily
          learn it from their mouths. Indeed, we wives think about the state
          of our husbands from morning to evening, with scarcely any time
          intervening in a day when this is interrupted or in which our
          instinctive thought is entirely withdrawn or gone from them. Our
          husbands in contrast spend very little time in the course of a day
          thinking about our state. As a result we know what sort of wisdom
          in them finds delight in us. Our husbands call this wisdom a
          spiritual-rational wisdom and a spiritual-moral one.
          Spiritual-rational wisdom, they say, is a matter of the intellect
          and its intellectual concepts, while spiritual-moral wisdom is a
          matter of the will and its mode of life. Yet they join the two
          together and regard them as one; and they maintain that the
          pleasant delights of this wisdom are transposed from their minds
          into delights in our hearts, and from our hearts back to their
          hearts, so that these return to the wisdom from which they
          originated.”

          [4] I then asked whether they knew anything more about this
          wisdom in their husbands – “wisdom,” I said, “which
          finds delight in you.”

          “We do,” they said. “It is a spiritual wisdom,
          and from that a rational and moral one. Spiritual wisdom is to
          acknowledge the Lord our Savior as God of heaven and earth, and
          through the Word and discourses from it to acquire from Him truths
          connected with the Church, from which comes a spiritual
          rationality; and in addition to live from Him according to those
          truths, from which comes a spiritual morality. Our husbands call
          these two the wisdom which in general works to produce true
          married love. We have also heard from them the reason, namely,
          that this wisdom opens the inner faculties of their mind and thus
          of their body, providing free passage from the firsts to the last
          of these for the stream of love, on whose flow, sufficiency and
          strength married love depends for its existence and life.

          “As regards marriage in particular, the spiritual-rational
          and spiritual-moral wisdom of our husbands has as its end and goal
          to love only their wives and to rid themselves of all desire for
          other women. Moreover, to the extent they achieve this, to that
          extent that love is heightened in degree and perfected in quality,
          and the more clearly and keenly do we then feel matching delights
          in us corresponding to the contented pleasures of our husbands’
          affections and the pleasant exaltations of their thoughts.”

          [5] I asked them next whether they knew how the communication
          took place.

          They said, “All conjunction by love requires action,
          reception, and reaction. The state of our love and its delights is
          the agent or that which acts. The state of our husbands’ wisdom is
          the recipient or that which receives. And this same wisdom is also
          the reagent or that which reacts in accordance with their
          reception. This reaction is then perceived by us with feelings of
          delight in our hearts according to our state and the measure in
          which it is continually open and ready to receive those elements
          which in some way are connected with and so emanate from virtue in
          our husbands, thus which in some way are connected with and so
          emanate from the final state of love in us.”

          At that point they also inserted, “Take care you do not
          interpret the delights we have mentioned to mean the end delights
          of married love. We never talk about these, but only about the
          delights of our hearts which constantly correspond to the state of
          wisdom in our husbands.”

          [6] After that there appeared in the distance what looked like
          a dove in flight with a leaf from a tree in its mouth; but as it
          drew near, instead of a dove we saw a little boy with a piece of
          paper in his hand. Coming over to us then, he held it out to me
          and said, “Read it in the presence of these maidens of the
          spring.”

          So I read the following:

          Tell the inhabitants of the earth among whom you live that
          there is such a thing as true married love, offering a million
          delights scarcely any of which are yet known to the world. But
          they will be discovered when the church betroths itself to her
          Lord and becomes His bride and wife.

          Then I asked the wives, “Why did the boy call you “maidens
          of the spring”?”

          “We are called maidens when we sit by this spring,”
          they replied, “because we are forms of affection for the
          truths of our husbands’ wisdom; and an affection for truth in form
          is termed a maiden. The spring likewise symbolizes the truth of
          wisdom, and the rose garden we are sitting next to its delights.”

          [7] One of the seven wives then wove a garland of roses; and
          sprinkling it with water from the spring, she placed it over the
          cap the boy had on, fitting it around his little head and saying,
          “Receive the delights of intelligence. Your cap, you see,
          symbolizes intelligence, and the garland from this rose garden its
          delights.”

          Thus adorned the boy then departed, and in the distance he
          looked once more like a dove in flight, but this time with a
          little crown on its head.

      • The same wives on the prudence of women (no.
        294).

        • 294. [The prudence of women]
          294. The second account:

          Several days later I again saw the same seven wives in a rose
          garden, but in a different one from the one previously. It was a
          magnificent garden, the like of which I had never seen before. It
          was laid out almost in a circle, and the roses in it formed a kind
          of rainbow-like arc. Purple-colored roses or flowers formed its
          outmost ring; golden-yellow ones the next ring in; dark-blue ones
          the ring inside that; and bluish-green or bright-green ones the
          inmost ring. And enclosed within that rainbow-like rose garden was
          a little pool of clear water.

          Those seven wives, previously called maidens of the spring,
          were sitting there, and seeing me at my window they again called
          me over. Then, when I arrived, they said, “Have you ever seen
          anything more beautiful on earth?”

          “Never,” I said.

          So they said, “A marvel like this is created by the Lord
          in instant, and it represents a new development on earth, for
          everything created by the Lord represents something. But divine if
          you can what that is. We are guessing that it is the delights of
          married love.”

          [2] On hearing this I said, “What are the delights of
          married love, of which you spoke with so much wisdom and also so
          much eloquence last time? After I left you, I related what you
          said to wives living in our world, and I told them, “Having
          now been instructed, I know that you feel delights in your hearts
          arising from your married love, which you are able to communicate
          to your husbands in accordance with their wisdom. I also know that
          from morning to evening you therefore continually contemplate your
          husbands with the eyes of your spirit and consider how to turn and
          guide their hearts to becoming wise, in order that you may realize
          those delights.” I further reported what you meant by wisdom,
          saying that it is a spiritual-rational and spiritual-moral wisdom,
          and that as regards marriage it is to love only one’s wife and to
          rid oneself of all desire for other women.

          “But to this the wives in our world responded with
          laughter, saying, “What are you talking about? What you have
          said is preposterous. We do not know what married love is. If our
          husbands experience anything of it, still we do not. How then do
          its delights originate with us? Indeed, when it comes to the
          delights which you call the end delights, we sometimes resist
          vehemently, for to us they are repugnant, in almost the same way
          as acts of rape. In fact, if you look, you will not see one sign
          of any such love in our faces. Therefore you are either talking
          nonsense or joking if, like those seven wives of yours, you too
          say that we think about our husbands from morning to evening and
          continually give attention to their wishes and pleasures, in order
          that we may gain from them delights such as those!”

          “I have retained from the responses of those wives these
          declarations, to report them to you, since they call into dispute
          and even more entirely contradict the discourse I heard from you
          by the spring, which I listened to so eagerly and also believed.”

          [3] To this the wives sitting in the rose garden replied, “Dear
          friend, you do not know the wisdom and prudence of wives, because
          they hide it altogether from men and keep it hidden precisely in
          order to be loved by them. For every man who is not spiritually
          rational and moral but only naturally so possesses a coldness
          towards his wife, such a coldness being inherent in him in his
          inmost elements. This coldness a wise and prudent wife acutely and
          keenly notices, and she then conceals her married love,
          withdrawing into her heart so much of it and hiding it there so
          deeply that not the least bit of it appears in her face, her tone
          of voice, or gesture. She does this, because to the extent her
          love appears, to that extent a man’s coldness with respect to
          marriage pours forth from the inmost elements of his mind where it
          resides and descends into its outmost expressions, producing a
          total frigidity in the body and an urge to separate himself
          therefore from the bed and bedroom.”

          [4] I asked them then, “What causes such coldness, which
          you call coldness with respect to marriage.”

          “It comes from a lack of rationality on their part in
          matters of the spirit. Every man who is irrational in matters of
          the spirit is inmostly cold to his wife and inmostly warm toward
          harlots. And because married love and licentious love are opposed
          to each other, it follows that married love becomes cold whenever
          licentious love is warm. Then, when coldness reigns in a man, he
          cannot endure any feeling of love or even therefore any whisper of
          it from his wife. That is why a wife so wisely and prudently
          conceals it; and to the extent she does this by denying and
          resisting, to that extent a wanton atmosphere flows in which
          revives and restores the man’s interest. As a result the wife of a
          man like that does not experience any delights of the heart such
          as we do, but only physical gratifications, which on the man’s
          part have to be termed pleasures of insanity, because they are the
          pleasures of a licentious love.

          [5] “Every chaste wife loves her husband, even a husband
          who is unchaste; but because wisdom is the only quality that
          receives her love, therefore a wife spends every effort to turn
          his insanity into wisdom, at least to the point that he does not
          desire any other women but her. This she accomplishes in a
          thousand ways, taking especial care that none of these ways be
          detected by her husband; for she well knows that love cannot be
          compelled, but is subtly infused in a state of freedom. For that
          reason it is granted to women to discern from sight, hearing and
          touch their husbands’ every state of mind, while it is not granted
          to men conversely to discern any of their wives’ states of mind.

          [6] “A chaste wife can look at her husband with a stern
          expression, speak to him in a sharp voice, and even be angry at
          him and fight with him, and yet at the same time in her heart
          cherish a gentle and tender love for him. The object, however, of
          these expressions of anger and concealments of love is wisdom and
          a consequent reception of love on the part of her husband, as is
          clearly apparent from how quickly she can be placated. Wives
          furthermore have such ways of concealing the love implanted in
          their heart and marrows in order by these means to keep a man’s
          coldness with respect to marriage from breaking out in him and
          extinguishing even the fire of his licentious heat, the result of
          which would be to turn him from green wood into a dry stick.”

          [7] After those seven wives made these statements and a number
          of others like them, their husbands came with clusters of grapes
          in their hands, some of which had a delicious flavor and some an
          offensive one. So the wives said, “Why did you bring bad or
          wild grapes, too?”

          “Because,” replied their husbands, “your souls
          being united with ours, we perceived in our souls that you were
          speaking with this man here about true married love, saying that
          its delights are delights of wisdom, and also about licentious
          love, saying that its delights are pleasures of insanity. The
          grapes with the delicious flavor are the first kind of delights,
          while the offensive-tasting or wild grapes are the second kind.”

          The husbands then confirmed what their wives had said, adding
          that the pleasures of insanity appear in outward respects similar
          to the delights of wisdom, but not in their inner qualities –
          “just like the good and bad grapes that we brought,”
          they said. “For both chaste and unchaste men are capable of a
          similar wisdom in outward respects, but in its inner qualities
          their wisdom is entirely different.”

          [8] After that the little boy came again with a piece of paper
          in his hand, and he held it out to me, saying, “Read.”

          So I read as follows:

          Be advised, all who read this, that the delights of married
          love ascend up to the highest heaven, and on the way and in that
          heaven they join with the delights of all heavenly loves, and so
          enter into their felicity, which lasts to eternity. That is
          because the delights of that love are also delights of wisdom.

          Be advised, too, that the pleasures of licentious love descend
          down to the lowest hell, and on the way and in that hell they join
          with the pleasures of all hellish loves, and so enter into their
          misery, which consists in a frustration of all the heart’s
          delights. That is because the pleasures of that love are also
          pleasures of insanity.

          The husbands subsequently departed with their wives, and
          accompanying the little boy as far as the path he took to ascend
          to heaven, they discovered that the society he had been sent from
          was a society of the New Heaven, the heaven with which the New
          Church on earth will be affiliated.

    • 295. BETROTHALS AND WEDDINGS
        • 295. [BETROTHALS AND WEDDINGS]
          We take up betrothals and weddings here, and also the
          formalities surrounding them, treating them primarily from the
          perspective of the intellect and its reason. We treat them from
          that perspective because the matters written in this book have as
          their object to enable the reader to see truths in the light of his
          rationality and so give assent; for thus his spirit is convinced,
          and matters of which the spirit is convinced are accorded a
          standing above those which enter without the reason’s being
          consulted, as a result of someone else’s say-so and faith in his
          authority. Indeed, the latter do not penetrate the head any deeper
          than the memory, and there they become mingled together with
          misconceptions and falsities, so as to have a standing below
          rational matters which are matters of the understanding. Everyone
          can speak in consequence of these as though in accordance with
          reason, but in a backwards fashion; for he then thinks as a crab
          walks, with the sight following the tail. It is the other way
          around if he thinks in consequence of his understanding. Whenever
          he thinks in consequence of this, his rational sight selects
          appropriate matters from his memory and by them confirms in himself
          truth already seen.

          [2] For that reason we consider in the present chapter a number
          of practices which are accepted customs. For example, that choosing
          whom to court is a prerogative of men; that parents should be
          consulted; that gifts should be given as pledges; that a marriage
          covenant should be established before the wedding; that this
          covenant should be sanctified by a priest; that a wedding should be
          celebrated; and so on. These and more are considered in order to
          enable a person to see in the light of his rationality that such
          practices are engraved on married love as its prerequisites, which
          promote it and bring it to fulfillment.

          [3] The sections into which this discussion is divided are, in
          order, the following:

          (1) Choosing whom to court is a prerogative of the man, and not
          of the woman.

          (2) The man ought to court the woman and ask her to marry him,
          and not the other way around.

          (3) The woman ought to consult her parents or guardians and then
          deliberate in herself before giving consent.

          (4) After she declares her consent, gifts should be given as
          pledges.

          (5) Their agreement to marry should be affirmed and established
          by a formal betrothal.

          (6) By betrothal each is made ready for married love.

          (7) By betrothal the mind of one is joined to the mind of the
          other, so that a marriage of the spirit takes place before a
          marriage of the body.

          (8) This happens in the case of people who think chastely in
          regard to marriage, not so in the case of those who think
          unchastely in regard to it.

          (9) During the time of their betrothal it is not lawful for them
          to be joined physically.

          (10) After the period of their betrothal has been completed, the
          wedding should take place.

          (11) Before the celebration of the wedding, a marriage covenant
          should be established in the presence of witnesses.

          (12) The marriage should be solemnized by a priest.

          (13) The wedding should be celebrated with festivity.

          (14) After the wedding the marriage of the spirit becomes also
          one of the body and thus complete.

          (15) This is the order and its steps by which married love
          develops, from its first warmth to its first fire.

          (16) If married love is hastened prematurely without an orderly
          development and its proper steps, it burns out the marrows and
          dies.

          (17) States of mind progress in a sequential development, and in
          each partner these progressive states flow into the state of their
          marriage – though with one progression in the case of spiritual
          people and another in the case of people who are natural.

          (18) For everywhere one finds a sequential order and a
          concurrent order, and the concurrent order evolves from the
          sequential order and in accordance with it.

          Explanation of these statements now follows.

      • (1) Choosing whom to court is a prerogative
        of the man, and not of the woman.

        • 296. [The man chooses]
          296. (1) Choosing whom to court is a prerogative of the man,
          and not of the woman. This is because the man was born to be a
          form of the intellect, whereas the woman was born to be a form of
          love. Moreover, it is inherent in men commonly to love the
          opposite sex in general, whereas it is inherent in women to love
          one of the opposite sex. And further, it is not unbecoming for men
          to speak of love and to declare it, while it is unbecoming for
          women to do so. Nevertheless, women still have the option of
          choosing one of a number of suitors.

          As regards the first reason, that choosing whom to court is a
          prerogative of men because they were born to be forms of the
          intellect – the reason is that the intellect can discern
          congruities and incongruities and distinguish between them, and
          with judgment make a suitable choice. It is different in the case
          of women. Because they were born to be forms of love, they do not
          have the same clarity of sight, and decisions to marry would in
          their case be based only on inclinations of their love. Even if
          they have from men the knowledge to distinguish between men, their
          love is still swayed by appearances.

          [2] As regards the second reason why choosing whom to court is
          a prerogative of men and not women – the reason is that it is
          inherent in men commonly to love the opposite sex in general and
          in women to love one of the opposite sex, and those who love the
          opposite sex in general are able to freely look about and also
          make a free decision. It is not the same for women, who have
          implanted in them to love one of the opposite sex. To confirm
          this, ask, if you like, the men among the people you meet about
          monogamous marriage and polygamous marriage, and you will seldom
          find any man who will not answer in favor of polygamous marriage,
          which also means a love for the opposite sex in general. On the
          other hand, ask women about these two kinds of marriage, and
          almost all, other than prostitutes, will reject polygamous
          marriages, which is why we say that it is in women to love one of
          the opposite sex, thus to feel married love.

          [3] As for the third reason, it is evident in itself that it is
          not unbecoming for men to speak of love and to declare it, while
          it is unbecoming for women to do so. It follows for this reason as
          well that it is for men to declare themselves, and if to declare
          themselves, so also to choose whom to court.

          We say that women have the option of choosing one of a number
          of suitors, which is something everyone knows. But this kind of
          choice is a restricted and limited one, while that of men is broad
          and not limited.

      • (2) The man ought to court the woman and ask
        her to marry him, and not the other way around.

        • 297. [The man courts]
          297. (2) The man ought to court the woman and ask her to marry
          him, and not the other way around. This is a consequence following
          his choosing whom to court. Moreover, it is also honorable and
          seemly for men to court women and ask them to marry them, whereas
          it would not be seemly for women to do so in reverse. If women
          were to do the courting and asking, they would not only be
          censured, but after several times of asking they would also be
          regarded as contemptible, or after marriage as slaves to lust,
          with whom it would be impossible to have any domestic relations
          other than cold and disgusting ones. Marriages would be thus
          changed into tragic scenes. Wives on that account even turn it to
          their credit that they yielded to their men’s pressing the
          question, as though in surrender to them. Who does not envision
          that if women were to court men, they would rarely be accepted,
          but would be either shamefully rejected or seduced into wanton
          acts, in addition to prostituting their modesty?

          Furthermore, men do not have any innate love for the opposite
          sex, as evidenced earlier,[*1] and without that love, they lack an
          inner enjoyment of life. Consequently, to enhance their life by
          that love, it is incumbent on men to make appeals to women, by
          politely, respectfully and humbly courting them and asking them to
          grant that sweet addition to their lives. The beauty of that sex
          in face, form and manners, surpassing that of men, also adds
          itself as an obligation of the vow.

          [*1] See no. 161:2.

      • (3) The woman ought to consult her parents
        or guardians and then deliberate in herself before giving consent.

          • 298. [The woman should consult her parents]
            298. (3) The woman ought to consult her parents or guardians
            and then deliberate in herself before giving consent. A woman
            should consult her parents, because their deliberations and
            counsels are guided by judgment, knowledge and love. By judgment,
            because they are older, and their more advanced age is better able
            to judge and see similarities and disparities. By knowledge,
            because they know both the suitor and their daughter, learning
            what they can about the suitor and being already acquainted with
            their daughter, so that they draw conclusions about the two
            together from having a joint sight of them. By love, because to
            consider a daughter’s prospects and look ahead to her having her
            own home is also in their daughter’s interest and a matter of
            concern to them.

        • 299. [She should deliberate in herself]
          299. An altogether different situation eventuates if a daughter
          consents to a petitioning suitor on her own without consulting her
          parents or guardians. For she cannot weigh in the balance such a
          matter that affects her future welfare and be guided by judgment,
          knowledge and love. Not by judgment, because her judgment is still
          in ignorance in regard to married life and in no position to
          balance considerations for and against or to perceive the ways of
          men from their native character. Not by knowledge or observation,
          because she observes little beyond the domestic relations in her
          parents’ home and in the homes of some companions, and she is not
          equipped to investigate such matters as are private and personal
          to her suitor. Neither by love, because when daughters first reach
          a marriageable age, and also the age that follows, their love is
          governed by infatuations of the senses and not as yet by the
          desires of a mature mind.

          [2] Nevertheless, a daughter ought to deliberate on such a
          matter in herself before giving consent, and this in order not to
          be swept against her will into wedlock with a man she does not
          love. For in such a case, consent on her part is lacking, and yet
          it is consent which makes a marriage and which initiates her
          spirit into married love. Consent that is unwillingly given or
          coerced does not initiate her spirit, though it may the body, and
          in that case it turns any chastity residing in the spirit into
          lust, by which married love is corrupted at its first warmth.

      • (4) After she declares her consent, gifts
        should be given as pledges.

        • 300. [Gifts should be given]
          300. (4) After she declares her consent, gifts should be given
          as pledges. By pledges we mean gifts given after she declares her
          consent which are affirmations, testifications, first favors and
          treasures.

          These gifts are affirmations, because they are tokens of their
          mutual consent. So when an agreement is reached between two
          parties, people say, “Give me something in token of it;”
          and when two have promised themselves in marriage and affirmed
          their mutual promise by gifts, they are said to be pledged and
          thus sworn.

          [2] These gifts are testifications, because as pledges they are
          like continual witnesses visibly testifying to their love for each
          other, being therefore also reminders of it, especially if they
          are rings, lockets or pins which are worn openly to the sight. One
          sees in them a kind of representative reflection of the intentions
          of the future bridegroom and bride.

          These pledges are first favors, because married love includes a
          promise of everlasting favor, of which these gifts are the first
          fruits.

          These gifts are the treasures of love, as everyone knows, for
          the mind is gladdened at the sight of them; and because they
          reflect their love, these favors are dearer and more precious than
          any other gifts, as though they held their hearts within.

          [3] Since these pledges are given in support of married love,
          the giving of gifts following declarations of consent was an
          accepted practice among ancient peoples, and on their being
          accepted the couples were declared betrothed. It should be known,
          however, that it is a matter of individual choice whether to
          bestow these gifts before a formal betrothal or after it. If they
          are given before, they are affirmations and testifications of a
          couple’s consent to the betrothal; if given afterward, they are
          affirmations and testifications also of their consent to the
          wedding.

      • (5) Their agreement to marry should be
        affirmed and established by a formal betrothal.

        • 301. [Formal betrothal]
          301. (5) Their agreement to marry should be affirmed and
          established by a formal betrothal. Reasons for formal betrothals
          are as follows:

          1. To encourage a mutual inclination of the couple’s souls to
          each other following betrothal.

          2. To encourage a determination of a general love for the
          opposite sex to the one of the sex.

          3. To encourage a mutual recognition of each other’s inward
          affections and a conjunction of them through appeals to them in a
          state of the inner gladness of love.

          4. To encourage a marriage of the couple’s spirits and a closer
          and closer affiliation of these.

          5. To encourage in this way a proper progression of married
          love from its first warmth to its nuptial flame.

          6. Consequently, to encourage a just and orderly progression
          and development of married love from its spiritual origin.

          The state of betrothal may be likened to a state of spring
          preceding summer, and the inner enjoyments of that state to the
          flowerings of trees before their production of fruit. Since the
          beginnings and progressions of married love develop in sequence in
          order for them to flow into the fruitful love which begins with
          the wedding, therefore betrothals take place in heaven as well.

      • (6) By betrothal each is made ready for
        married love.

        • 302. [Ready for married love]
          302. (6) By betrothal each is made ready for married love. It
          follows from the arguments presented in the preceding discussion
          that by betrothal the mind or spirit of one is made ready for
          union with the mind or spirit of the other, or to say the same
          thing, the love of one with the love of the other.

          To those considerations we should add also the following, that
          by the order engraved on it true married love ascends and
          descends. It ascends from its first warmth progressively upward
          towards people’s souls in an effort to form conjunctions there,
          and this by continually more interior openings of their minds.
          There is, moreover, no love which strives for these openings more
          intensely, or which opens the interior recesses of minds more
          forcefully and adeptly, than married love; for it is the soul in
          each which impels it. On the other hand, in the very same moments
          that this love ascends toward the soul, it also descends toward
          the body and invests itself in it.

          [2] People should know, however, that married love is of the
          same character in its descent as it is in the height to which it
          ascends. If it soars aloft, it descends chaste; but if it does not
          soar aloft, it descends unchaste. That is because the lower
          elements of the mind are unchaste, while its higher elements are
          chaste; for the lower elements of the mind cling to the body,
          whereas the higher elements divorce themselves from such things.
          (But for more on this subject, see no. 305
          below.)

          From these few considerations it can be seen that the mind of
          each is prepared for married love by betrothal, although in
          various ways depending on their affections.

      • (7) By betrothal the mind of one is joined
        to the mind of the other, so that a marriage of the spirit takes
        place before a marriage of the body.

        • 303. [Marriage of the spirit]
          303. (7) By betrothal the mind of one is joined to the mind of
          the other, so that a marriage of the spirit takes place before a
          marriage of the body. Because this follows as a consequence from
          what we said above in nos. 301, 302,
          we pass it by without adding further confirmations in accordance
          with reason.

      • (8) This happens in the case of people who
        think chastely in regard to marriage, not so in the case of those
        who think unchastely in regard to it.

        • 304. [People who think chastely]
          304. (8) This happens in the case of people who think chastely
          in regard to marriage, not so in the case of those who think
          unchastely in regard to it. With chaste people – who are people
          who think of marriage in accordance with religion – a marriage of
          the spirit precedes and one of the body follows after. These are
          also people in whom love ascends toward the soul and thus descends
          from on high, as described above in no. 302.
          Their souls turn away from an unrestricted love for the opposite
          sex and devote themselves to one, looking to an everlasting and
          eternal union with him or her and the growing blessings of that
          union, which fuel in them a hope that continually refreshes their
          minds.

          [2] It is entirely different with unchaste people, however, who
          are people who do not think of marriage and its sanctity in
          accordance with religion. In their case they experience a marriage
          of the body and not one of the spirit. If during the state of
          betrothal some trace of a marriage of the spirit appears, still,
          even if this ascends through an elevation of their thoughts
          concerning it, it nevertheless falls back into lusts which arise
          from the flesh in the will of the flesh, thus casting itself
          headlong from the unchaste elements there into the body and
          polluting the outmost expressions of its love with a beguiling
          ardor. So it is that as suddenly as love blazed in the beginning,
          just as suddenly it burns out and vanishes into the coldness of
          winter, thus quickening a waning of its ability. The state of
          betrothal in their case does little more than to incite them to
          fulfill their lusts with lascivious gratifications and by these
          contaminate the marital relationship of love.

      • (9) During the time of their betrothal it is
        not lawful for them to be joined physically.

        • 305. [No sex during betrothal]
          305. (9) During the time of their betrothal it is not lawful
          for them to be joined physically. For if they are the order
          engraved on married love perishes.

          To explain this, there are in human minds three regions, the
          highest of which is called celestial, the intermediate one
          spiritual, and the lowest one natural. A person dwells by birth in
          the lowest region, but he ascends into the next higher one, called
          spiritual, by living according to truths of religion, and into the
          highest one by achieving a marriage of love and wisdom.

          All kinds of evil and lascivious lusts reside in the lowest
          region, which is called natural. In the next higher region,
          however, which is called spiritual, there are no evil and
          lascivious lusts, for this is the region into which a person is
          led by the Lord when he is born anew. And in the highest region,
          which is called celestial, one finds conjugal chastity surrounded
          by its love. A person is raised into this last region by a love of
          serving useful ends, and because marriage serves the most
          excellent ends of all, by true married love.

          [2] One can see in summary from this that, from the first
          beginnings of its warmth, married love has to be raised from the
          lowest region into a higher one in order to become chaste and to
          thus descend from a chaste origin through the intermediate and
          lowest regions into the body. When this is the case, its
          descending chastity purifies the lowest region of its unchaste
          elements. This in turn causes the outmost expression of that love
          to become also chaste.

          Now, if the sequential and orderly development of this love is
          hastened prematurely by physical conjunctions before the proper
          time, it follows that the person is acting from the lowest region
          which by birth is unchaste. It is a familiar experience that this
          occasions and gives rise to coldness toward the marriage and
          indifference combined with loathing toward the other partner.

          But still, various differences occur in the outcomes of
          premature conjunctions, likewise in the outcomes of an excessive
          prolongation as well as of an excessive shortening of the time of
          betrothal. However, because of their number and diversities, these
          differences cannot easily be enumerated.

      • (10) After the period of their betrothal has
        been completed, the wedding should take place.

        • 306. [The wedding]
          306. (10) After the period of their betrothal has been
          completed, the wedding should take place. Some ceremonies are
          simply formalities, and some are at the same time also essential.
          Among the latter are weddings. To confirm that weddings are among
          those that are essential which ought to be duly witnessed and
          formally celebrated, we cite the following reasons:

          1. A wedding marks the end of the former state inaugurated by
          betrothal, which was primarily a state of the spirit, and the
          beginning of the following state about to be inaugurated by
          marriage, which is a state simultaneously of the spirit and body;
          for the spirit then descends into the body and expresses itself
          there. Therefore on that day they put off the state and also the
          name of a couple engaged or promised, and take on the state and
          name of married partners and a couple united in the flesh.

          2. A wedding introduces and initiates them into the new state,
          the effect of which is to encourage the young woman to become a
          wife and the young man a husband, that the two may become one
          flesh. These goals are achieved when they are united by love
          through its ultimate expressions. We have already shown in
          previous discussions that marriage actually transforms a maiden
          into a wife and a youth into a husband,[*1] and also that marriage
          unites a couple into a single human form so that they are no
          longer two but one flesh.[*2]

          3. A wedding guides them to a complete separation of love for
          the opposite sex from married love, a separation that is achieved
          when through full opportunity for conjunction the love of the one
          becomes exclusively devoted to the love of the other.

          4. It seems in appearance as though weddings serve only to
          demarcate the point between the two aforementioned states, and
          thus that they are simply a formality which may be omitted. But
          there is in them also this further and essential element, and that
          is that the new state referred to must then be entered into by
          covenant, with the consent of the couple declared in the presence
          of witnesses, and that it must also be solemnized by a priest,
          among other things, which serve to firmly establish it.

          Since weddings include elements that are essential, and since a
          legitimate marriage is not formed until after them, therefore
          weddings are celebrated also in heaven, as may be seen above in
          no. 21, and after that in nos. 27-41.

          [*1] See, for example, no. 199.

          [*2] See, for example, nos. 177, 178.

      • (11) Before the celebration of the wedding,
        a marriage covenant should be established in the presence of
        witnesses.

        • 307. [A marriage covenant]
          307. (11) Before the celebration of the wedding, a marriage
          covenant should be established in the presence of witnesses. A
          marriage covenant ought to be established before the wedding is
          celebrated in order that the requirements and ordinances of true
          married love may be acknowledged and a remembrance of them be
          retained after the wedding. Such a covenant also serves as a bond,
          obligating the couple’s minds to an honorable marriage. For after
          some initial tastes of marriage their former state preceding
          betrothal recurs at times, and in that state their memory fails
          and they begin to forget the covenant they entered into. Indeed,
          attractions in the case of unchaste people to unchaste desires
          cause them to forget it altogether, and if it is then called to
          mind, they curse it. To deter such transgressions, however,
          society itself has taken under its jurisdiction to protect that
          covenant, and has set penalties for those who break it.

          In sum, a prenuptial covenant makes plain the requirements of
          true married love, establishes these, and binds libertines to
          complying with them.

          In addition, such a covenant establishes the legitimacy of any
          children they produce, and legally secures for the children a
          right to inherit their parents’ possessions.

      • (12) The marriage should be solemnized by a
        priest.

        • 308. [A priest]
          308. (12) The marriage should be solemnized by a priest. That
          is because marriages regarded in themselves are spiritual and thus
          sacred; for they descend from the heavenly marriage between good
          and truth, and the various elements involved in marriage
          correspond to the Divine marriage of the Lord and the church.
          Marriages descend therefore from the Lord Himself, and are formed
          according to the state of the church in the contracting parties.

          Now, because the ordained clergy on earth administers matters
          which reflect the priesthood lodged in the Lord, that is, which
          reflect His love, thus also matters which require His blessing, it
          follows that marriages ought to be solemnized by His ministers.
          And because His ministers are also then the chief witnesses, a
          couple’s consent to the covenant ought to be heard, approved,
          ratified and thus firmly established by them as well.

      • (13) The wedding should be celebrated with
        festivity.

        • 309. [Celebration]
          309. (13) The wedding should be celebrated with festivity. The
          reason is that the love which the bride and bridegroom felt before
          the wedding then descends into their hearts and radiates from
          there throughout their whole bodies, so that they begin to feel
          the delights of being married. As a result, their minds are filled
          with festive thoughts, and as far as is permissible and
          respectable, they also let themselves go in festive behavior. In
          support of this, it is useful for the festive feelings of their
          minds to be shared by others, and for them to be introduced into
          the joys of married love in this way.

      • (14) After the wedding the marriage of the
        spirit becomes also one of the body and thus complete.

        • 310. [Marriage of the body]
          310. (14) After the wedding the marriage of the spirit becomes
          also one of the body and thus complete. Everything that a person
          does in the body flows in from his spirit. For as we know, the
          mouth does not speak of itself, but the thought of the mind by
          means of it. Neither do the hands act or the feet move of
          themselves, but the will of the mind by means of them.
          Consequently we see that it is the mind that speaks in the body by
          means of its organ of speech, and the mind that acts in the body
          by means of its organs of action. It is apparent therefore that as
          the mind is, such are the utterances of the mouth and actions of
          the body.

          It follows as a conclusion from this that the mind continually
          flows into the body and directs the body toward activities in
          harmony with it and its development. Accordingly, viewed in
          themselves, human bodies are simply replicas of minds outwardly
          organized to carry out the bidding of the soul.

          This much is said by way of introduction to make perceptible
          why it is that a couple’s minds or spirits should be united to
          each other and as though married first, before they are united
          also in respect to the body; namely, that the marriage may be a
          marriage of the spirit when it becomes one of the body;
          consequently, that the partners may love each other because of the
          spirit and in body as a result of that.

          [2] From this perspective let us now consider marriage. When
          married love joins a couple’s minds and molds them into a
          marriage, it also then joins and molds their bodies for it; for as
          said, the form of the mind is also, inwardly, the form of the
          body, with the single difference, that the form of the body is
          outwardly organized to carry out the ends to which its interior
          form is directed by the mind. When the mind has been molded by
          married love, moreover, not only is it inwardly present in the
          whole body so as to radiate throughout, but it is inwardly present
          further in the organs dedicated to reproduction, which are
          situated in their own area below the other areas of the body. In
          people who are united by married love, their cast of mind finds
          final expression there. Consequently the affections and thoughts
          of their minds are channeled to them. In this the operations of
          their minds differ from those arising from other loves, loves
          which do not extend to those organs.

          It follows in conclusion from this that as married love is in a
          couple’s minds or spirits, such is it inwardly in the organs
          belonging to it.

          Besides, it is evident in itself that a marriage of the spirit
          after the wedding becomes also one of the body, thus complete.
          Consequently, that if the marriage is chaste in spirit and draws
          its quality from its sanctity in the spirit, it is of the same
          character when it comes into its complete expression in the body;
          and of the opposite character if the marriage in spirit is
          unchaste.

      • (15) This is the order and its steps by
        which married love develops, from its first warmth to its first
        fire.

        • 311. [The progression of love]
          311. (15) Such is the order and its steps by which married love
          develops, from its first warmth to its first fire. We say, from
          its first warmth to its first fire, because the warmth of life is
          love, and married warmth or love grows gradually until at last it
          bursts into flame or fire. We say, to its first fire, because we
          are referring to the first state following the wedding when this
          love is set ablaze. But what it is like after that fire, during
          the marriage itself, has already been described in previous
          chapters; and in this section of the discussion we have just laid
          out the course it follows from the initial starting point to this
          its first terminus.

          [2] Every progression develops from initial elements to
          concluding ones; and the last elements become the first in some
          succeeding progression. So also, all the elements in an
          intermediate progression are the concluding elements of a prior
          progression and the first elements of a subsequent one; and thus
          do ends continually proceed through causes to effects. This can be
          demonstrated and illustrated satisfactorily to the sight of reason
          from phenomena recognized and visible in the world. But because we
          are dealing here with the proper order in which love progresses
          from its first point to its realization, we pass these
          considerations by and say on the subject only that as the
          development of this love is from its first warmth to its first
          fire, such is for the most part the development of it and the way
          it progresses afterwards. For in that progression what the first
          warmth was like within unveils itself. And if it was chaste, its
          chastity becomes stronger in its progressions. But if it was
          unchaste, its lack of chastity increases as it progresses, until
          it is stripped of any chastity it had adopted outwardly from the
          time of betrothal and failed to have within.

      • (16) If married love is hastened prematurely
        without an orderly development and its proper steps, it burns out
        the marrows and dies.

        • 312. [Haste kills love]
          312. (16) If married love is hastened prematurely without an
          orderly development and its proper steps, it burns out the marrows
          and dies. So I am told by some angels in heaven; and by marrows
          they mean the inner elements of the mind and body. These are
          burned out, which is to say, destroyed, if married love is
          hastened prematurely, because that love then commences from a fire
          that consumes and destroys those inmost recesses in which, as in
          the places it begins, married love must have its seat and from
          which it must originate. This is what happens if a man and woman
          rush a marriage prematurely without an orderly development, not
          looking to the Lord, not taking the counsel of reason, spurning
          betrothal, and hearkening only to the flesh. If the heat of that
          is the ardor from which love commences, it becomes an external
          love and not an internal one, thus not married love; and this may
          be termed the shell of love without its kernel, or a fleshly one
          that is wasted and dry, because it is devoid of its genuine
          essence.

          (For more on this subject see no. 305
          above.)

      • (17) States of mind progress in a sequential
        development, and in each partner these progressive states flow into
        the state of their marriage – though with one progression in the
        case of spiritual people and another in the case of people who are
        natural.

        • 313. [State in betrothal influence the
          marriage]

          313. (17) States of mind progress in a sequential development,
          and in each partner these progressive states flow into the state
          of their marriage – though with one progression in the case of
          spiritual people and another in the case of people who are
          natural. The concluding state in any progression has the character
          of the sequential development by which it is formed and brought
          into existence. This is a principle which ought to be acknowledged
          in the educated world on account of its truth; for it enables us
          to discover what influx is and how it operates. By influx we mean
          everything that goes before in a series and which forms the next
          element and then the next and through a succession of these the
          concluding one. We may cite as an example everything that goes
          before in a person and forms his wisdom. Or everything that goes
          before in a statesman and forms his prudence. Or everything that
          goes before in a theologian and forms his learning. Likewise
          everything that progressively develops from infancy and forms the
          adult. Also everything that progressively develops in succession
          from the seed and sapling and makes the tree, and which afterwards
          progressively develops from the flower and makes its fruit. In
          similar manner, everything which goes before and progressively
          develops in the case of a bride and groom and makes their
          marriage. This is what we mean by influx.

          [2] The idea that all the elements that go before in people’s
          minds form progressive series, that the series are tied together,
          one alongside another and one after another, and that these
          together form the concluding result, is something as yet unknown
          in the world. But because it is a truth communicated from heaven,
          we present it here. For it shows how influx operates and the
          nature of its concluding result, in which the elements of the
          progressively formed series as just described come together and
          coexist.

          It can be seen from this that states of mind progress in a
          sequential development, and that in married partners these
          progressive states flow into the state of their marriage. After
          they are married, however, the partners are totally unaware of the
          successive elements that have been implanted and are present in
          their spirits from preceding states. But yet it is those elements
          which shape their married love and form the state of their minds
          from which they comport themselves with each other.

          [3] It follows that one state is formed from one progression in
          the case of spiritual people, and another in the case of people
          who are natural, because spiritual people proceed in a proper and
          orderly progression, and natural people in an improper and
          disorderly one. For spiritual people look to the Lord, and the
          Lord oversees and guides an orderly progression. But natural
          people look to themselves, and so proceed in an inverted
          progression. Consequently their married state is inwardly full of
          elements that are unchaste; and the more numerous the unchaste
          elements, the more numerous their states of coldness, and the more
          numerous their states of coldness, the more numerous the
          obstructions to their intimacy of life, which block up its passage
          and dry up its source.

      • (18) For everywhere one finds a sequential
        order and a concurrent order, and the concurrent order evolves from
        the sequential order and in accordance with it.

        • 314. [Sequential and concurrent order]
          314. (18) For everywhere one finds a sequential order and a
          concurrent order, and the concurrent order evolves from the
          sequential order and in accordance with it. We cite this in
          explanation and corroboration of the preceding discussion.

          People know the difference between a sequential arrangement and
          a concurrent one, but they do not know that any instance of
          concurrent order evolves from a sequential one and in accordance
          with it. It is at the same time very difficult to present to human
          perception how sequential elements project themselves into
          concurrent ones, and the kind of order they form there, since the
          learned do not have among them as yet any theory serving to
          explain the concept. So, because an initial idea of this secret
          cannot be conveyed in a few words, and to interject one at length
          here would distract people’s minds from a more uncluttered view of
          married love, the following may suffice to illustrate the matter.
          These brief observations concerning the two kinds of order,
          sequential and concurrent, and the influx of the first into the
          second, were presented in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem
          Regarding the Sacred Scripture, which we repeat from there:[*1]

          [2] Everywhere in heaven and in the world we find a sequential
          order and a concurrent order. In sequential order one
          thing…follows after another from the highest elements to the
          lowest. In concurrent order, however, one thing exists alongside
          another from the inmost elements to the outmost. Sequential order
          is like a column with descending levels from top to bottom, while
          concurrent order is like a continuous piece of work…from center
          to surface….

          …sequential order becomes concurrent in its concluding
          element…in the following way. The highest elements in the
          sequential order become the inmost elements of the concurrent
          order; and the lowest elements in the sequential order become the
          outmost elements of the concurrent order. It may be likened to a
          column with descending levels sinking down to become a continuous
          mass on the same plane.

          That is how a concurrent arrangement is formed from sequential
          elements; and this in each and every thing of the spiritual world,
          and in each and every thing of the natural world.

          See in that work nos. 38, 65;
          and still more on the same subject in Angelic Wisdom Regarding
          Divine Love and Wisdom, nos. 205-229.

          [3] It is similar with the sequential progression leading to
          marriage, and the concurrent set of elements in marriage; namely,
          that the latter results from the former and in accordance with it.

          (One who is acquainted with the way sequential order flows into
          a concurrent one can understand why it is that angels are able to
          see all the thoughts and intentions of a person’s mind in his
          hand.[*2] And also that wives sense their husband’s affections
          from the touch of the husbands’ hands upon their breasts – a
          phenomenon that has been mentioned several times in the narrative
          accounts.[*3] The reason is that the hands are a person’s terminal
          parts, into which the deliberations and resolutions of his mind
          are directed and where they form a concomitant presence. That too
          is why we find it said in the Word that this or that was written
          on the hands.[*4])

          [*1] I.e., from no. 38.

          [*2] Cf. no. 261:3 at the end.

          [*3] See no. 155[r]:4. Other mentions
          of wives’ sensing from the touch of the hands refer to a wife’s
          doing so by touching her husband with her hand.

          [*4] See Exodus 13:9,16; Deuteronomy 6:8, 11:18; Isaiah 49:16;
          Revelation 13:16, 14:9, 20:4; also Job 31:7. Cf. Psalms 7:3, 24:4;
          also Job 11:14.

      • A discussion of what the soul is and the
        nature of it (no. 315).

        • 315. [What the soul is]
          315. To this I will append two narrative accounts. Here is the
          first:

          I once saw, not far from me, an atmospheric wonder. I saw a
          cloud break up into smaller clouds, some of them light blue, and
          some dark; and as I watched they seemed to be colliding into each
          other. Rays of light began to flash in streaks between them,
          appearing now as sharp as rapiers, now blunted like swords broken.
          One moment these streaks would race out to strike, the next moment
          retreat back, altogether like boxers. These different colored
          little clouds thus looked as though they were fighting with each
          other, but in sport.

          Now because this phenomenon appeared not far from me, I raised
          my eyes and looked more intently; and I saw boys, young men and
          older men going into a house, which was built out of marble with a
          foundation of porphyry. It was over this house that that
          phenomenon was occurring.

          I then spoke to one of the people going in and asked what was
          happening there.

          To that he replied, “It is a school where young men are
          introduced into various matters having to do with wisdom.”

          [2] Hearing this, and being in the spirit, that is, in a state
          like that of people in the spiritual world, who are called spirits
          and angels, I went in with them. And behold, in that school I saw
          up front a ceremonial chair; in the central part a number of
          benches; around the sides some more seats; and over the entrance a
          balcony. The ceremonial chair was for the young men when it became
          their turn to respond to the question that would then be put to
          them. The benches were for those who were there to listen. The
          seats along the sides were for those who had already answered
          wisely on previous occasions. And the balcony was for the older
          men who would be the referees and judges. In the middle of the
          balcony stood a dais, where a wise man sat whom they called
          Headmaster; it was he who posed the questions for the young men to
          respond to from the ceremonial chair.

          So then, after all were assembled, the man rose from his dais
          and said, “Please give your reply now to the following
          question and explain it if you can: What is the soul, and what is
          the nature of it?”

          [3] On hearing this they were all stunned and began to murmur.
          And some in the throng on the benches cried out, “What
          person, from the age of Saturn to our present time, has been able,
          by any deliberation of reason, to see and lay hold of what the
          soul is, not to mention what the nature of it is. Is this not
          beyond the realm of anyone’s understanding?”

          However, to that the men in the balcony replied, “It is
          not beyond human understanding, but within its scope and ability
          to see. Just respond to the question.”

          So the young men chosen to ascend the chair that day and
          respond to the question stood up. There were five of them, whom
          the older men had examined and found proficient in intelligence,
          and who were then sitting on long, cushioned seats to the sides of
          the ceremonial chair. Moreover, these afterwards ascended the
          chair in the order in which they were seated; and as each one
          ascended it, he would put on a tunic of opal-colored silk, and
          over that a gown of soft wool inwoven with flowers, and in
          addition a cap whose peak bore a rosette surrounded by little
          sapphires.

          [4] Accordingly I saw the first one thus dressed ascend the
          chair. And he said, “What the soul is and what the nature of
          it is has not been revealed to anyone from the time of creation,
          being a secret locked away in repositories belonging to God alone.
          Only this much has been disclosed, that the soul dwells in a
          person like a queen. But where her court is, this a number of
          learned seers have guessed at. Some have supposed that it is
          located in the little protuberance between the cerebrum and
          cerebellum called the pineal gland. They have imagined the seat of
          the soul to be there on the ground that a person is governed in
          his entirety by the cerebrum and cerebellum, which in turn are
          directed by that gland; consequently that that which directs those
          two parts of the brain to its bidding also directs the entire
          person from head to heel.”

          But he said, “Although this appeared as true or likely to
          many in the world, in a later age it was rejected as a fiction.”

          [5] After he had spoken, he took off the gown, tunic and cap,
          and the second of the young men selected put them on and placed
          himself in the chair. His statement concerning the soul was as
          follows:

          “No one, in all of heaven and in all the world, knows what
          the soul is and what the nature of it is. We know only that it
          exists, and that it exists in a person; but where is a matter of
          conjecture. This much is certain, that it exists in the head,
          since that is where the intellect thinks and where the will wills,
          and it is there in the face in the forepart of the head that a
          person’s five senses are located. Nothing else gives life to these
          but the soul which is seated somewhere inside the head. But where
          exactly its court is there I would not venture to say, though I
          have agreed at different times with those who assign it a seat in
          the three ventricles of the brain, with those put it in the
          corpora striata there, with those who put it in the medullary
          substance of the cerebrum and cerebellum, with those who put it in
          the cortical substance, and at times with those who put it in the
          dura mater; for arguments have not been lacking to prompt
          affirmative votes, so to speak, in support of each of these as the
          seat.

          [6] “Some people have voted in favor of the three
          ventricles of the brain on the ground that they are receptacles of
          all the brain’s animating essences and fluids. Some have voted in
          favor of the corpora striata on the ground that they form the
          medulla through which the nerves exit and through which the
          cerebrum and cerebellum are continued into the spine, from which
          medulla and spine issue the fibers of which the whole body is
          woven. Some have voted in favor of the medullary substance of the
          cerebrum and cerebellum on the ground that it is a conglomeration
          and mass of all the fibers which constitute the initial elements
          of the entire person. Some have voted in favor of the cortical
          substance on the ground that this is where the first and last
          terminations of a person are, from which come the beginnings of
          all the fibers and thus of all sensations and movements. Still
          others have voted in favor of the dura mater on the ground that it
          is the overall covering of the entire brain, and extends from
          there by a kind of continuation around the heart and other
          internal organs of the body.

          “For my part, I do not think any more of one theory than
          another. I leave it to you to please judge for yourselves and pick
          which is better.”

          [7] So saying he descended from the chair and handed the tunic,
          gown and cap to the third one in line; and mounting the chair the
          third young man made the following response:

          “What business do I have at my young age with so lofty a
          subject? I appeal to the learned gentlemen sitting here at the
          sides. I appeal to you wiser men in the balcony. Indeed, I appeal
          to the angels of the highest heaven. Can anyone, by any rational
          light of his own, gain for himself any idea of the soul?

          “As for its seat in a person, however, concerning this I
          can, like the others, offer a speculation. And I speculate that it
          is in the heart and from that in the blood. I come to this
          speculation because the heart by its blood governs both body and
          head; for it sends out the great artery called the aorta to the
          whole of the body, and the arteries called the carotids to the
          whole of the head. It is universally agreed therefore that it is
          from the heart by means of the blood that the soul sustains,
          nourishes and animates the entire organic system of both body and
          head.

          “Adding to the plausibility of this assertion is the fact
          that the Holy Scripture so often mentions the soul and heart – as
          for example that you should love God with all your soul and with
          all your heart, and that God creates in man a new soul and new
          heart (Deuteronomy 6:5, 10:12, 11:13, 26:16; Jeremiah 32:41;
          Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:30,33; Luke 10:27; and elsewhere[*1]); and
          saying straight out that the blood is the soul of the flesh
          (Leviticus 17:11,14).”

          When they heard this, some of them lifted up their voice,
          saying, “Masterful! Masterful!” – they being members of
          the clergy.

          [8] After that the fourth in line took from him the vestments
          and put them on, and having placed himself in the chair, said:

          “I, too, suspect that no one is possessed of such fine and
          polished genius that he can discern what the soul is and what the
          nature of it is. I judge accordingly that anyone who tries to
          investigate it only wastes the cleverness of his intellect in vain
          endeavors. Nevertheless, from childhood I have maintained a belief
          in an opinion held by the ancients, that a person’s soul dwells in
          his whole being and in every part of it, thus that it dwells both
          in the head and its individual parts and in the body and its
          individual parts; and that it was a conceit invented by modern
          thinkers to assign it a seat here or there and not everywhere. The
          soul is furthermore a spiritual essence, to which is ascribed
          neither dimension nor location but indwelling and repleteness.
          Who, too, does not mean life when he refers to the soul? And does
          life not exist in the whole and in every part?”

          At these words, many in the hall expressed approval.

          [9] After him the fifth speaker arose, and outfitted in the
          same regalia, he presented from the chair the following statement:

          “I do not take the time to say where the soul is – whether
          it resides in any one part or everywhere in the whole; but from my
          fund and store of knowledge I will declare my mind on the question
          of what the soul is and what the nature of it is. No one thinks of
          the soul except as a pure entity which may be likened to ether,
          air or wind, in which the vital force is from the rationality
          which human beings have over animals. I base this opinion on the
          fact that when a person expires or breathes his last, he is said
          to give up the ghost or soul. For this reason the soul that lives
          after death is also believed to be such an exhalation, in which is
          the cognitive life which we call the soul. What else can the soul
          be?

          “However, because I heard you men in the balcony say that
          the question of the soul – what it is and what the nature of it is
          – is not beyond human understanding but within its scope and
          ability to see, I ask and implore you to lay open this eternal
          mystery yourselves.”

          [10] At that the older men in the balcony looked at the
          headmaster who had posed the question. And understanding from the
          motions of their heads that they wished him to go down and
          explain, he immediately descended from his dais, crossed the hall
          and placed himself in the chair. Then stretching out his hand
          there he said:

          “Pay attention, please. Who does not believe the soul to
          be the inmost and finest essence of a person? And what is an
          essence without a form other than a figment of the imagination?
          The soul therefore is a form; but what the nature of the form is
          remains to be told. It is a form embracing all elements of love
          and all elements of wisdom. We call all the elements of love
          affections; and we call all the elements of wisdom perceptions.
          These perceptions, flowing from the affections and thus together
          with them, constitute a single form, which contains an endless
          number of constituent elements in such an order, series and
          connection that they may be said to be one and indivisible. They
          may be said to be one and indivisible because nothing can be taken
          from the whole or added to it without changing its character. What
          else is the human soul but such a form? Are not all the elements
          of love and all the elements of wisdom in a person the essential
          constituents of that form, these being in the soul, and in the
          head and body from the soul?

          [11] “You are called spirits and angels, and in the world
          you believed that spirits and angels were like bits of wind or
          ether and so were disembodied minds and hearts. But now you
          clearly see that you are truly, really and actually whole people –
          people who in the world lived and thought in a material body, and
          who knew then that the material body does not live and think, but
          the spiritual essence in that body, which you called the soul
          whose form you did not know. And yet now you have seen it and do
          see it. You are all souls, whose immortality you have heard,
          thought, spoken and written so much about. And it is because you
          are forms of love and wisdom from God that you can never hereafter
          die.

          “So then, the soul is a human form, from which nothing can
          be taken away, and to which nothing can be added, and it is the
          inmost form in all the forms of the entire person. Moreover,
          because the forms which exist outwardly take both their essence
          and their form from the inmost one, therefore you, as you appear
          to yourselves and to us, are souls.

          “The soul, in short, is the person himself, because it is
          the innermost person. Consequently its form is a fully and
          perfectly human form. Yet it is not life, but the most immediate
          recipient vessel of life from God and thus the dwelling place of
          God.”

          [12] At this many in the hall applauded; but some said, “We
          will have to think about it.”

          I then departed for home; and lo, over that school, in place of
          the earlier phenomenon, I saw a white cloud without the rays or
          streaks of light combating with each other. Then, penetrating
          through the roof, the cloud entered the hall and lighted up the
          walls; and I heard that they saw inscriptions, and included among
          them also this one:

          Jehovah God breathed into the man’s nostrils the breath of
          life,[*2] and the man became a living soul. (Genesis 2:7)

          [*1] E.g. Deuteronomy 30:6; Psalms 51:10; Ezekiel 11:19.

          [*2] Literally, soul of life. Hebrew: breath, spirit.

      • A garden where a discourse occurred on the
        subject of Divine providence in relation to marriages (no. 316).

        • 316. [Divine providence in marriages]
          316. The second account:

          Walking once with tranquil heart in a pleasantly peaceful state
          of mind, I saw in the distance a wood, which had in the midst of
          it an enclosed path leading to a little palace; and I saw young
          women and men and husbands and wives going in. I, too, in the
          spirit went over there, and I asked one of the keepers standing at
          the entrance of the path whether I might go in as well. He stared
          at me; and so I asked, “Why are you staring at me?”

          “I am examining you,” he replied, “to see
          whether the pleasant state of peace reflected in your face draws
          any of its character from a pleasant delight in married love.
          After this path there is a little garden, and in the middle of it
          a house with a newly married couple in it. Their friends are
          coming here today to wish them happiness and joy. I do not know
          the people I am allowing to enter, but I was told I would
          recognize them from their faces. If I saw in them a delight in
          married love, I was to let them in, and no one else.”

          Every angel can see from others’ faces what the delights of
          their heart are; and because I was thinking about married love, it
          was a delight in that love that he saw in my face. This
          contemplation of mine shone from my eyes and lent an inner glow to
          my face, so that he told me I might go in.

          [2] The enclosed path through which I went was lined with fruit
          trees joined together by interlocking branches, thus forming an
          unbroken wall of trees on either side. Through this pathway I
          entered the little garden, which exhaled a pleasant fragrance from
          its bushes and flowers. The bushes and flowers grew in pairs; and
          I learned that gardens of this sort appear around houses where
          weddings are being or have been celebrated, on which account they
          are called wedding gardens.

          After that I went into the house, and there I saw the married
          couple holding each other by the hand and speaking to each other
          out of true married love. Moreover, from their faces I was given
          to see then an image of married love, and from their conversation,
          its vibrancy.

          Later, when I among many others had expressed my prayers for
          them and wished them happiness and joy, I went out into the
          wedding garden; and I saw on the right side of it a group of young
          men, to which all who left the house went hurrying over. They all
          hurried over there because they were having a conversation about
          married love, and this conversation drew the hearts of all with a
          kind of hidden force to it. I listened then to a wise person in
          the group speaking about that love, and what I heard was in
          summary the following:

          [3] “The Lord’s Divine providence is most specific and
          therefore most universal in connection with marriages and in its
          operation in marriages in heaven, because all blessings of heaven
          flow from the delights of married love, like sweet waters from a
          sweetly gushing spring. It is therefore provided by the Lord that
          marital pairs be born, and they are raised and continually
          prepared for their marriages, neither the boy nor the girl being
          aware of the fact. Then, after a period of time, the girl – now a
          marriageable young woman – and the boy – now a young man able to
          marry – meet somewhere, as though by fate, and notice each other.
          And they immediately recognize, as if by a kind of instinct, that
          they are a match, thinking to themselves from a kind of inner
          dictate, the young man, “she is mine,” and the young
          woman, “he is mine.” Later, after this thought has for
          some time become settled in the minds of each, they deliberately
          talk about it together and pledge themselves to each other in
          marriage.

          “We say as though by fate and as if by instinct, when we
          mean by Divine providence, because when one is unaware that it is
          Divine providence, that is how it appears.”

          With respect to his statement that marital pairs are born,
          raised and prepared for their marriages without their knowing, the
          speaker supported it by the marital similarity visible in the
          faces of a couple, also by the innermost and eternal union of
          their hearts and minds, neither of which would be possible the way
          they are in heaven unless foreseen and provided by the Lord.

          [4] Having said this – to which the group responded with
          applause – the wise person speaking went on to say that there is a
          conjugal element in the smallest particulars in every person, both
          male and female; only that the conjugal element in the male and
          the conjugal element in the female are not the same, but the
          conjugal element of the male possesses a capacity for conjunction
          with the conjugal element of the female, and vice versa, even in
          the least particulars.

          This he showed by the marriage of will and understanding in
          every individual, the two of which operate together in the least
          constituents of the mind and in the least constituents of the
          body; from which it can be seen that there is a conjugal element
          in each component, even the least. “This is also made
          evident,” he said, “from the composite organs of the
          body which are formed from its elemental constituents. We find,
          for example, two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, two cheeks, two
          lips, two arms and hands, two legs, two feet; and inside the body,
          two hemispheres of the brain, two ventricles of the heart, two
          lungs, two kidneys, two testicles. Even when an organ is not
          paired, still it exhibits a division into two parts. The reason
          there are these sets of two is that one is connected with the will
          and the other with the intellect, which operate in conjunction
          with each other so marvelously that they give the appearance of
          being one. Thus the two eyes produce one power of sight, the two
          ears one power of hearing, the two nostrils one sense of smell,
          the two lips one speech, the two hands one labor, the two feet one
          gait, the two hemispheres of the brain one habitation of the mind,
          the two chambers of the heart one life of the body through the
          blood, the two lungs one respiration, and so on. Only that in the
          case of a married couple, the masculine element and feminine
          element united by true married love produce one life that is fully
          human.”

          [5] As he was saying this, a shaft of lightning appeared in the
          sky to our right having a red color, and another shaft of
          lightning to our left that was white, neither of them very
          intense. These entered through our eyes into our minds and
          illumined them as well. Then, following these, we heard the sound
          of thunder – in actuality a low murmur coming from the angelic
          heaven and growing louder in its descent.

          Hearing it, and having seen the lightning, the wise person
          speaking said, “These are meant for me as a signal and
          admonition to add to my discussion something further, that in the
          twinned pairs of organs I have mentioned, the one on the right
          symbolizes the good connected with the two, and the one on the
          left the truth connected with them; and that this is owing to the
          marriage of good and truth engraved on each person in his whole
          being and in his every least part, good having relation to the
          will and truth to the understanding, and the two together to a
          union of these. For this reason, in heaven “the right eye”
          means the good connected with sight, and “the left eye”
          the truth connected with it. So, too, “the right ear”
          means the good connected with hearing, and “the left ear”
          the truth connected with it. Similarly, “the right hand”
          means the good connected with a person’s strength, and “the
          left hand” the truth connected with it. And so on with the
          rest of these twinned pairs.

          “Moreover, because “right” and “left”
          have these symbolic associations, the Lord said:

          If your right eye causes you to slip, pluck it out…. And if
          your right hand causes you to slip, cut it off….[*1]

          “He meant by this that if something good is turned to
          evil, it should be cast away.

          “For the same reason He also told His disciples to cast
          their net on the right side of the boat, and when they did so,
          they caught a great number of fish.[*2] And by this He meant they
          should teach the good of charity, and by doing so would gather in
          people.”

          [6] Following these remarks, the two shafts of lightning
          appeared again, still less intense than before. And we saw then
          that the lightning on the left drew the whiteness of its light
          from the reddish fire of the lightning on the right.

          Seeing this, the speaker said, “It is a sign from heaven
          confirming what I have said, because something fiery in heaven
          means something good, and something white there means something
          true. As for our having seen that the lightning on the left drew
          the whiteness of its light from the reddish fire of the lightning
          on the right, this is visible evidence that the whiteness of light
          or light itself is nothing other than the luminance of fire.”

          At the end of this discourse, all in the group were fired with
          a joyful state of goodness and truth inspired by the shafts of
          lightning and what they had been told concerning them, and in this
          state they departed for home.

          [*1] Matthew 5:29,30.

          [*2] John 21:6.

    • 317. SECOND MARRIAGES
        • 317. [SECOND MARRIAGES]
          It may possibly come into consideration whether married love,
          which is a love between one man and one wife, can, after the death
          of a partner, be severed, or transferred, or overlaid with another.
          Also, whether second marriages share any common characteristic with
          polygamy, and thus whether they may be termed a serial form of
          polygamy. And many other questions besides, which in the minds of
          reasoners tend regularly to intervene with one moral scruple after
          another. Therefore, to inform masters of casuistry who reason in
          darkness about such marriages and to enable them to see some light,
          I thought it would be useful to present to their judgment the
          following points on the subject, which are:

          (1) Whether to marry again after the death of a partner depends
          on the married love had previously.

          (2) It depends also on the status of the marriage in which they
          had been living.

          (3) In the case of people who did not have true married love,
          nothing hinders or prevents them from marrying again.

          (4) People who before had lived with their partners in a state
          of true married love do not wish to marry again, except for reasons
          dissociated from married love.

          (5) The marriage of an inexperienced man with a virgin differs
          in state from the marriage of an inexperienced man with a widow.

          (6) The marriage of a widower with a virgin likewise differs in
          state from the marriage of a widower with a widow.

          (7) The various and diverse natures of these marriages in
          respect to the love in them and its character are altogether beyond
          number.

          (8) The state of a widow is harder than the state of a widower.

          Explanation of these statements now follows.

      • (1) Whether to marry again after the death
        of a partner depends on the married love had previously.

        • 318. [Whether to marry again depends on the
          previous love]

          318. (1) Whether to marry again after the death of a partner
          depends on the married love had previously. True married love is
          the balance, so to speak, against which inclinations to remarry
          are weighed. The nearer the married love had previously is to true
          married love, the more removed is an inclination to marry again;
          whereas the more removed the previous love is from true married
          love, the more present usually is an inclination towards
          remarriage.

          The reason is clear to see, because married love is in the same
          measure a conjunction of minds, and the conjunction remains during
          the bodily life of the one after the passing of the other. This
          conjunction holds any inclination to remarry in balance as though
          in a scale, and tips the scale its way to the degree that true
          love has been embraced. (Though because rarely does anyone today
          progress more than a few steps towards such a love, therefore the
          tongue of the balance for the most part rises to the point of
          equilibrium, and wavering there, goes over to the other side, that
          is, to the side of remarriage.)

          [2] The converse is the case with people whose love before in
          the previous marriage departed from true married love. That is
          because a departure from it is in the same measure a disjunction
          of minds, and the disjunction likewise remains during the bodily
          life of the one after the passing of the other. This disjunction
          enters a will estranged from the will of the other and engenders
          an inclination towards a new union. Thought then in that
          direction, prompted by an inclination of the will, introduces hope
          of a more united and thus more congenial cohabitation.

          [3] It is common knowledge that inclinations to marry again
          arise in accordance with the state of the love had before; and
          this reason also sees. For inherent in true married love is a fear
          of its being lost, and following its loss, grief – a fear and
          grief which occupy the innermost recesses of people’s minds.
          Consequently, to the degree these emotions are present as a result
          of that love, to the same degree the soul, in both thought and
          will, and so in intention, inclines to remain with the person with
          whom and in whom it was. It follows from this that the mind is
          held counterbalanced against a second marriage according to the
          degree of the love which it had before. So it is that the same
          partners are reunited after death and love each other again as in
          the world.

          However, as indicated above, such a love today is rare, and
          there are few who touch it with even a finger. People who do not
          attain it, and still more those who depart far from it – according
          as they wished for separation in their married life before (which
          was cold), so after the death of the partner they wish for union
          with another.

          But we will say more about these two classes of people in what
          follows.

      • (2) It depends also on the status of the
        marriage in which they had been living.

        • 319. [External circumstances]
          319. (2) Whether to marry again after the death of a partner
          depends also on the status of the marriage in which they had been
          living. By the status of the marriage we do not mean the state of
          the love which we took up under the preceding heading, because the
          state of the love engenders an inclination for or against
          remarriage that is internal. By the status of the marriage we mean
          rather its circumstances which occasion an external inclination
          for or against. Such circumstances together with their resulting
          inclinations are manifold. For example:

          1. If there are little children in the house and a new mother
          must be found for them.

          2. If there is an earnest desire for still more children.

          3. If the house is large and equipped with servants of both
          sexes.

          4. If constant responsibilities outside the house divert the
          mind from domestic concerns at home, and trouble and misfortune
          are feared on that account without a new mistress.

          5. If there is need for joint assistance and shared duties, as
          is the case in a variety of businesses and trades.

          6. It depends, moreover, on the nature of the partner who is
          left, whether after the first marriage he or she can or cannot
          live alone or without a mate.

          7. The previous marriage also imparts either a fear of married
          life or a preference for it.

          8. I have been told that polygamous love and sexual desire,
          including a lust to deflower and a lust for variety, have led the
          hearts of some to a desire to remarry. Also that fear of the law
          and fear for their reputation if they were to go awhoring have led
          the hearts of others to it.

          There are in addition many other circumstances which induce
          external inclinations towards remarriage.

      • (3) In the case of people who did not have
        true married love, nothing hinders or prevents them from marrying
        again.

        • 320. [If there was no real love, they can
          remarry]

          320. (3) In the case of people who did not have true married
          love, nothing hinders or prevents them from marrying again. In
          people who did not have married love there is no spiritual or
          inner bond, but only a natural or outer one; and if an inner bond
          does not hold the outer one in its order and course, it does not
          last. It is like a sash with its fastening undone, which slips
          away with a toss of the shoulders or gust of wind. That is because
          the natural bond takes its origin from a spiritual one, and in its
          development is nothing else than an assemblage compiled of
          spiritual elements. If therefore the natural bond is separated
          from its spiritual one, which produced it and so to speak gave
          birth to it, it is no longer held together inwardly but only
          outwardly, by a spiritual bond which surrounds it and binds it in
          general, but does not secure it and keep it secured in particular.
          Consequently, a natural bond separated from a spiritual one
          between two married partners does not bring about any conjunction
          of their minds, and so neither of their wills, but only a
          conjunction of some external affections which are connected with
          their physical senses.

          [2] In such cases nothing hinders or prevents the partners from
          being able to marry again, because the essential ties of marriage
          are missing in them, and so neither are any present in them after
          they are separated by death. Therefore they are then at complete
          liberty to be bound as to their sensual affections with another –
          if a widower, with any woman, and if a widow, with any man, as
          they please and as is lawful. They themselves do not think of
          marriage in anything but natural terms, and in terms of its
          advantages for the sake of various external necessities and
          benefits, which after the death of one may be restored again by
          another person in place of the former. Moreover, if by chance
          their inner thoughts were to be seen (as they are in the spiritual
          world), they would be found to make no distinction between marital
          unions and liaisons entered into apart from marriage.

          [3] People of this sort may marry again and again, for the
          reason just given, because merely natural conjunctions after death
          are dissolved of themselves and fade away. For in death external
          affections follow the body and are buried with it, and only those
          remain which are connected with internal ones.

          It must be known, however, that interiorly conjunctive
          marriages can be entered into with difficulty on earth, because
          choices based on internal similarities cannot be provided by the
          Lord there as they are in heaven. For choices on earth are limited
          in many ways, such as to people one’s equals in station and
          condition, in the area, city or town where one lives; and it is
          largely external qualities that draw them together there, and thus
          not internal ones. Internal qualities come out only after a period
          of marriage, and are known only as they inject themselves into
          external ones.

      • (4) People who before had lived with their
        partners in a state of true married love do not wish to marry again,
        except for reasons dissociated from married love.

        • 321. [If there was true love, they don’t want
          to marry another]

          321. (4) People who before had lived with their partners in a
          state of true married love do not wish to marry again, except for
          reasons dissociated from married love. People who before had lived
          in a state of true married love do not wish to marry again after
          the death of their partner for the following reasons:

          1. Because they have been united in respect to their souls and
          so in respect to their minds; and this union, being a spiritual
          one, is an actual coupling of the soul and mind of one to the soul
          and mind of the other, which cannot in any way be dissolved. (That
          this is the nature of spiritual union we have already shown here
          and there previously.)

          [2] 2. Because they have been united also in respect to their
          bodies, by the wife’s reception of the propagations of the
          husband’s soul, and thus by an implantation of his life in hers,
          by which a maiden becomes a wife; and conversely by the husband’s
          reception of the wife’s married love, which disposes the inner
          faculties of his mind and at the same time the inner and outer
          faculties of his body into a state capable of receiving love and
          perceiving wisdom, a state which turns him from a youth into a
          husband (on which subject, see nos. 198, 199
          above).

          [3] 3. Because an atmosphere of her love continues to emanate
          from the wife, and an atmosphere of his intellect from the
          husband; and this perfects the bonds between them, and with its
          pleasant ambience surrounds them and unites them (again, see
          above, no. 223).

          [4] 4. Because married partners so united think of and yearn
          for eternity in their marriage, and eternal happiness for them is
          founded on that idea (see no. 216).

          [5] 5. Because in consequence of the foregoing they are no
          longer two but one person, that is, one flesh.

          [6] 6. Because such a oneness cannot be sundered by the death
          of the other partner – a fact manifestly evident to visual sight
          in the spirit.

          [7] To these reasons we will add this new one:

          7. Because the two are not actually separated by the death of
          one; for the spirit of the deceased continues to dwell with the
          spirit of the one not yet deceased, and this until the death of
          the other, at which time they come together again and are
          reunited, loving each other even more tenderly than before,
          because they are in the spiritual world.

          From these circumstances comes the following inevitable result,
          that people who before had lived in a state of true married love
          do not wish to marry again.

          If they nevertheless do afterwards enter into something like a
          marriage, it is for reasons dissociated from married love; and
          these reasons are all external ones. As for example: If there are
          little children in the house and there is need to provide for
          their care. If the house is a large one, equipped with servants of
          both sexes. If responsibilities outside the house divert the mind
          from domestic concerns at home. If there is need for joint
          assistance and shared duties. And other like reasons.

      • (5) The marriage of an inexperienced man
        with a virgin differs in state from the marriage of an inexperienced
        man with a widow.

        • 322. [The true beginning to the genuine
          marriage]

          322. (5) The marriage of an inexperienced man with a virgin
          differs in state from the marriage of an inexperienced man with a
          widow. By states of marriage we mean the states of each partner’s
          life, of the husband and wife, after the wedding, thus in their
          marriage such as their life together is then, whether it is an
          internal one involving their souls and minds (which is the
          principal idea in what it is to share a life), or whether it is
          only an external one connected with their dispositions, senses and
          body.

          The state in the marriage of an inexperienced man with a virgin
          is the true beginning state to a genuine marriage; for advancing
          from first warmth to first fire, and then from first seed on the
          part of the inexperienced husband and first bloom on the part of
          the virgin wife, married love is able to proceed between them in
          its proper progression, and thus sprout, grow and come to fruition
          and introduce them into its states together. Otherwise the
          inexperienced man was not an inexperienced man, nor the virgin a
          virgin, except in outward appearance.

          Between an inexperienced man and a widow, however, there is not
          the same initiation from first beginnings to marriage, nor the
          same progression in marriage, since a widow is more her own
          mistress and more independent than a single woman. An
          inexperienced man accordingly pays court to a widowed wife with a
          different regard than he would a virgin wife. Such marriages,
          however, exhibit much variety and diversity, and therefore we
          mention only this common characteristic.

      • (6) The marriage of a widower with a virgin
        likewise differs in state from the marriage of a widower with a
        widow.

        • 323. [Mutual introduction]
          323. (6) The marriage of a widower with a virgin likewise
          differs in state from the marriage of a widower with a widow. The
          reason is that the widower has been introduced into married life
          already, while the virgin still needs to be introduced; and yet
          married love perceives and feels its pleasure and delight in a
          mutual introduction. An inexperienced husband and inexperienced
          wife perceive and feel always something new in the states that
          befall them, on which account they encounter a kind of continual
          introduction and consequent lovely progression. The state is
          different in the marriage of a widower with a virgin. The virgin
          wife feels an inner yearning, which in the man has passed. But in
          marriages of this sort there is much variety and diversity,
          likewise in the marriage between a widower and widow; and
          therefore we cannot add anything more specific beyond this general
          observation.

      • (7) The various and diverse natures of these
        marriages in respect to the love in them and its character are
        altogether beyond number.

        • 324. [Countless varieties]
          324. (7) The various and diverse natures of these marriages in
          respect to the love in them and its character are altogether
          beyond number. In all things we find an infinite variety and also
          an infinite diversity. By variety here we mean variations among
          things which are of the same kind or same type, also variations in
          kinds and types, whereas by diversity here were mean disparities
          between things which are in contrast to each other. We can
          illustrate our concept of the difference between variety and
          diversity by the following example:

          The angelic heaven hangs together as a unified whole, yet it
          exhibits an infinite variety, in that no two people there are ever
          entirely alike – not in their souls and minds, nor in their
          affections, perceptions and consequent thoughts, nor in their
          inclinations and consequent intentions, nor in the sounds of their
          voices, facial features, physical characteristics, gestures or
          manner of walk. But still, even though there are millions of them,
          they have been organized and are continually being organized by
          the Lord into a single body, in which there is complete unanimity
          and harmony. This would not be possible except for the fact that
          all those various sorts of people are led, universally and
          individually, by the same one God. That is what we mean here by
          variety.

          [2] By diversity, on the other hand, we mean the differences in
          contrast to those varieties which exist in hell. For the people
          there are collectively and individually diametrically opposite to
          those who are in heaven, and the hell formed of them is held
          together as a unified whole by variations among them completely
          contrary to the variations in heaven, thus by their perpetual
          disparities.

          This shows what is implied by infinite variety and infinite
          diversity. It is the same with marriages, in that there are
          infinite variations among partners who are in a state of married
          love, and infinite variations among those who are in a state of
          licentious love; and consequently infinite disparities between the
          former and the latter.

          It follows as a conclusion from this that variations and
          disparities in marriages of whatever kind and type – whether they
          be marriages of an inexperienced man and a virgin, of an
          inexperienced man with a widow, of a widower with a virgin, or of
          a widower with a widow – are altogether beyond number. Who can
          divide infinity into finite numbers?

      • (8) The state of a widow is harder than the
        state of a widower.

        • 325. [The state of a widow is harder]
          325. (8) The state of a widow is harder than the state of a
          widower. The reasons are external and internal. The external
          reasons are plain for anyone to see; as for instance:

          1. A widow cannot provide the necessities of life for herself
          and her household as a man can, or having acquired them, manage
          them as she did formerly with her husband’s help and in
          partnership with him.

          2. Nor can she properly protect herself and her household; for
          in their married life her husband was her protection and so to
          speak her good right arm; and even when she had to protect
          herself, still she relied on her husband.

          3. By herself she is without counsel in such matters as require
          an inner wisdom and its consequent judgment.

          4. A widow has no one receiving the love she has as a woman;
          thus she is in a state alien to the state innate in her and
          entered into by marriage.

          [2] These external circumstances are natural ones, but they
          take their origin from internal causes as well that are spiritual,
          as does everything else in the world and the body (of which above,
          no. 220). An understanding of the external,
          natural circumstances is gained from the internal, spiritual
          causes, which come from the marriage between good and truth, and
          principally from these characteristics of it: that good cannot
          provide or manage anything accept by means of truth; that good
          cannot protect itself either except by means of truth, accordingly
          that truth is the protection and so to speak the good right arm of
          good; and that good without truth is without counsel, because it
          has its counsel, wisdom and judgment by means of truth.

          [3] Now because a man from creation is a form of truth, and a
          wife from creation a form of its accompanying good, or to say the
          same thing, because a man from creation is a form of
          understanding, and a wife from creation a form of its accompanying
          love, it is apparent that the external or natural circumstances
          which make the widowhood of a woman harder take their origin from
          internal or spiritual circumstances.

          These spiritual circumstances are, together with the natural
          ones, meant in the Word by what it says in regard to widows in a
          number of places (as may be seen in The Apocalypse Revealed, no.
          764).


      • The difference between the spiritual and the
        natural (nos. 326-329).

          • 326. [Appearing and disappearing]
            326. To this I will append two narrative accounts. Here is the
            first:

            After the question concerning the soul had been discussed in
            the school and answered,[*1] I saw the people going out in order,
            the headmaster in front, after him the older men, with the five
            young men who had responded to the question in the midst of them,
            and after them the rest. As they left the building, they went
            around to the sides, where there were walkways surrounded by
            bushes. And gathering there, they broke up into small groups, all
            of them circles of young men conversing on matters of wisdom, with
            one of the wiser men from the balcony in each.

            Seeing them from my place of lodging, I entered a state of the
            spirit and in the spirit went out to them. And there I went over
            to the headmaster, who a little before had posed the question
            concerning the soul.

            When he saw me he said, “Who are you? As I watched you
            approaching on the way here, I was astonished to see that one
            minute you would pop into view, the next minute drop out of sight,
            so that one moment I would see you and suddenly then not. Surely
            you are not in the same life-state as our people.”

            Gently laughing at this I replied, “I am not a marionette,
            nor a chameleon, but I am one who alternates, being sometimes in
            your light and sometimes not, so that I am an alien and at the
            same time a native.”

            [2] At this the headmaster looked at me and said, “These
            are strange and extraordinary things you are saying. Tell me who
            you are.”

            So I said, “I live in the world in which you once lived
            and from which you have departed, which is called the natural
            world; and I live as well in the world into which you have come
            and in which you are now living, which is called the spiritual
            world. I am as a result in a natural state and at the same time a
            spiritual one – in a natural state when I am with people on earth,
            and in a spiritual state when I am with you. Moreover, when I am
            in a natural state, I am not visible to you; but when I am in a
            spiritual state, I am. To be as I am is something I have been
            given by the Lord.

            “Being an enlightened man, you know that an inhabitant of
            the natural world does not see an inhabitant of the spiritual
            world, or vice versa. Therefore when I conveyed my spirit into my
            body, you did not see me; but when I conveyed it out of my body,
            you did.

            “You also taught in your school exercise that you are
            souls, and that souls see souls because they are human forms. But
            you know that you did not see yourselves or your souls within your
            bodies when you were in the natural world. This fact is due to the
            difference that exists between something spiritual and something
            natural.”

            [3] When he heard me mention a difference between something
            spiritual and something natural, he said, “What is the
            difference? It is not like the difference between something more
            pure and something less so? So what is something spiritual but a
            purer form of something natural.”

            But I replied, “That is not what the difference is, but it
            is as the difference between something prior and something
            subsequent, between which there is no finite relationship. For the
            prior is in the subsequent, as a cause in its effect, and the
            subsequent exists from the prior, as an effect from its cause.
            That is why the one is not visible to the other.”

            To this the headmaster said, “I have reflected and
            ruminated on the difference, but so far in vain. I would like to
            have some concept of it.”

            [4] So I said, “You shall not only have a concept of the
            difference between something spiritual and something natural, but
            you will even witness the difference.” Whereupon I spoke to
            him as follows:

            “You are in a spiritual state when you are with your own
            people, but in a natural state with me; for you speak with your
            associates in spiritual language, the common language of every
            spirit and angel, whereas with me you speak in my native tongue.
            Indeed, every spirit or angel in speaking with a mortal person
            uses the person’s customary language, thus speaking French with a
            Frenchman, English with an Englishman, Greek with a Greek, Arabic
            with an Arab, and so on.

            “So then, to learn the difference between something
            spiritual and something natural in terms of languages, do the
            following: Go over to your associates, say something there and
            remember the words. Then with these memorized, come back and
            repeat them to me.”

            So he did as I said, and returned to me with the words in his
            mouth, but when he uttered them he did not know what any of them
            meant. The words were altogether strange and unfamiliar, being
            words not found in any language of the natural world.

            After he repeated this experiment several times, it became
            clearly apparent to him that people in the spiritual world all
            speak a spiritual language which has nothing in common with any
            language of the natural world, and that every person comes
            automatically into use of that language after death. At the same
            time he also then discovered that the very intonation of spiritual
            language is so different from the intonation of natural language
            that the intonation of spiritual language, even when loud, is not
            at all audible to a natural person, nor the intonation of natural
            language to a spiritual person.

            [5] After that I asked the headmaster and some others standing
            by to go over to their associates and write down some thought on a
            piece of paper, and with that piece of paper come back to me and
            read it. They did as I said, and they returned with the piece of
            paper in hand; but when they went to read it, they were unable to
            make out what any of it meant, since the writing consisted only of
            some alphabetic letters with curly lines over them, each of which
            carried some meaning connected with the subject. (Because every
            letter of the alphabet carries some meaning there, it is apparent
            from what origin the Lord is called the Alpha and the Omega.)[*2]
            As they again and again withdrew, wrote and returned, they
            discovered that their writing included and contained a countless
            number of elements which no natural writing could ever express.
            But they were told that this is because a spiritual person thinks
            thoughts incomprehensible and inexpressible to a natural person,
            and these cannot descend or be put into any other form of writing
            or language.

            [6] Then, because the others standing by were unwilling to
            believe that spiritual thought so far surpasses natural thought as
            to be inexpressible in comparison, I said to them, “Try an
            experiment. Go over into your spiritual association, think on some
            subject, and holding the thought come back and express it to me.”

            So they went, thought, held the thought, and came back; but
            when they went to express what they had thought, they could not.
            For they did not find any natural mental concept equivalent to any
            spiritual concept. So neither did they find any word to express
            their thoughts, since ideas of 7the mind take form as words in
            speech. At that they then began to withdraw and return, to prove
            to themselves that spiritual ideas were higher than natural ones,
            being inexpressible, ineffable and incomprehensible to the natural
            ma